URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/488.html


What is it?

Papaya is a plant. The leaves and fruit are used to make medicine.

Papaya is taken by mouth to prevent cancer, treat diabetes, and prevent recurrence of a viral infection called human papilloma virus (HPV). But there is little scientific evidence to support these uses.

Papaya contains a chemical called papain, which is commonly used as a meat tenderizer.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for PAPAYA are as follows:

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Cancer. Population research has found that eating papaya might prevent gallbladder and colorectal cancers in some people.
  • Diabetes. Early research suggests that consuming fermented papaya fruit can reduce blood sugar levels before and after meals in people with type 2 diabetes.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Population research has found that eating papaya fruit at least once per week might reduce the chance of getting a persistent HPV infection compared to never eating papaya fruit.
  • Gum disease. Early research shows that applying a gel containing fermented papaya into spaces around teeth called periodontal pockets can reduce gum bleeding, plaque, and gum inflammation in people with gum disease.
  • Wound healing. Early research shows that applying a dressing containing papaya fruit to the edges of a reopened surgical wound reduces healing time and length of hospitalization compared to treating the reopened wound with a hydrogen peroxide dressing.
  • Stomach and intestine problems.
  • Parasite infections.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of papaya for these uses.

How does it work?

Papaya contains a chemical called papain. Papain breaks down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. That’s why it works as a meat tenderizer. However, papain is changed by digestive juices, so there is some question about whether it could be effective as a medicine when taken by mouth.

Papaya also contains a chemical called carpain. Carpain seems to be able to kill certain parasites, and it might affect the central nervous system.

Papaya also seems to have antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-stimulating effects.

Are there safety concerns?

Papaya is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in amounts commonly found in foods.

Papaya is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as medicine.

Papaya is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in large amounts or when applied to the skin as papaya latex. Papaya latex contains papain. Taking large amounts of papain by mouth may damage the esophagus, which is the food tube in the throat. Applying papaya latex to the skin can cause severe irritation and allergic reactions in some people.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Papaya is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth during pregnancy. Do not take papaya by mouth in medicinal amounts if you are pregnant. There is some evidence that unprocessed papain, one of the chemicals found in papaya, might poison the fetus or cause birth defects. Not enough is known about the safety of papaya during breast-feeding. It is best to avoid taking it in amounts higher than normal food amounts.

Diabetes: Papaya that has been fermented can lower blood sugar. People with diabetes who are taking medications to lower their blood sugar should pay close attention to their blood sugar as adjustments to medications might be needed.

Low blood sugar: Papaya that has been fermented can lower blood sugar. Taking this form of papaya might make blood sugar too low in people who already have low blood sugar.

Underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism): There is concern that eating large amounts of papaya might make this condition worse.

Latex allergy: If you are allergic to latex, there is a good chance you are also be allergic to papaya. If you have a latex allergy, avoid eating papaya or taking products that contain papaya.

Papain allergy: Papaya contains papain. If you are allergic to papain, avoid eating papaya or taking products that contain papaya.

Surgery: Papaya that has been fermented can lower blood sugar. In theory, this form of papaya might affect blood sugary during and after surgery. If you are taking papaya, you should stop 2 weeks before surgery.

Are there interactions with medications?

Be cautious with this combination.
Amiodarone (Cordarone, Nexterone, Pacerone)
Taking multiple doses of papaya extract by mouth along with amiodarone (Cordarone, Nexterone, Pacerone) might increase the amount of amiodarone to which the body is exposed. This might increase the effects and adverse effects of amiodarone. However, taking a single dose of papaya extract along with amiodarone does not seem to have an effect.

Levothyroxine (Synthroid, Levothroid, Levoxyl, and others)
Levothyroxine is used for low thyroid function. Eating large amounts of papaya seems to decrease the thyroid. Excessive use of papaya along with levothyroxine might decrease the effects of levothyroxine.

Some brands that contain levothyroxine include Armour Thyroid, Eltroxin, Estre, Euthyrox, Levo-T, Levothroid, Levoxyl, Synthroid, Unithroid, and others.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
Papaya that has been fermented might decrease blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking fermented papaya along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Papaya might increase the effects of warfarin (Coumadin) and increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar
Papaya that has been fermented might lower blood sugar. Using fermented papaya along with other herbs and supplements that have the same effect might cause blood sugar to drop too low in some people. Some of these products include devil's claw, fenugreek, guar gum, Panax ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and others.
Papaya contains papain. Using papain (in meat tenderizer, for example) along with papaya might increase your chance of experiencing unwanted side effects of papain.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

The appropriate dose of papaya for use as treatment depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for papaya. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Other names

Banane de Prairie, Caricae Papayae Folium, Carica papaya, Carica peltata, Carica posoposa, Chirbhita, Erandachirbhita, Erand Karkati, Green Papaya, Mamaerie, Melonenbaumblaetter, Melon Tree, Papaw, Papaya Fruit, Papayas, Papaye, Papaye Verte, Papayer, Papita, Paw Paw, Pawpaw.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


  1. Rodrigues M, Alves G, Francisco J, Fortuna A, Falcão A. Herb-drug pharmacokinetic interaction between Carica papaya extract and amiodarone in rats. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;17:302-15. View abstract.
  2. Nguyen TT, Parat MO, Shaw PN, Hewavitharana AK, Hodson MP. Traditional aboriginal preparation alters the chemical profile of Carica papaya leaves and impacts on cytotoxicity towards human squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS One 2016;11:e0147956. View abstract.
  3. Murthy MB, Murthy BK, Bhave S. Comparison of safety and efficacy of papaya dressing with hydrogen peroxide solution on wound bed preparation in patients with wound gape. Indian J Pharmacol 2012;44:784-7. View abstract.
  4. Kharaeva ZF, Zhanimova LR, Mustafaev MSh, et al. Effects of standardised fermented papaya gel on clinical symptoms, inflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide metabolites in patients with chronic periodontitis: an open randomised clinical study. Mediators Inflamm 2016;2016:9379840. View abstract.
  5. Kana-Sop MM, Gouado I, Achu MB, et al. The influence of iron and zinc supplementation on the bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from papaya following consumption of a vitamin A-deficient diet. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2015;61:205-14. View abstract.
  6. Ismail Z, Halim SZ, Abdullah NR, et al. Safety evaluation of oral toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. leaves: a subchronic toxicity study in sprague dawley rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;2014:741470. View abstract.
  7. Deiana L, Marini S, Mariotti S. Ingestion of large amounts of papaya fruit and impaired effectiveness of levothyroxine therapy. Endocr Pract 2012;18:98-100. View abstract.
  8. de Azeredo EL, Monteiro RQ, de-Oliveira Pinto LM. Thrombocytopenia in dengue: interrelationship between virus and the imbalance between coagulation and fibrinolysis and inflammatory mediators. Mediators Inflamm 2015;2015:313842. View abstract.
  9. Aziz J, Abu Kassim NL, Abu Kasim NH, Haque N, Rahman MT. Carica papaya induces in vitro thrombopoietic cytokines secretion by mesenchymal stem cells and haematopoietic cells. BMC Complement Altern Med 2015;15:215. View abstract.
  10. Asghar N, Naqvi SA, Hussain Z, et al. Compositional difference in antioxidant and antibacterial activity of all parts of the Carica papaya using different solvents. Chem Cent J 2016;10:5. View abstract.
  11. Andersen HA, Bernatz PE, Grindlay JH. Perforation of the esophagus after use of a digestant agent: report of case and experimental study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1959;68:890-6. View abstract.
  12. Iliev, D. and Elsner, P. Generalized drug reaction due to papaya juice in throat lozenges. Dermatology 1997;194:364-366. View abstract.
  13. Lohsoonthorn, P. and Danvivat, D. Colorectal cancer risk factors: a case-control study in Bangkok. Asia Pac.J Public Health 1995;8:118-122. View abstract.
  14. Odani, S., Yokokawa, Y., Takeda, H., Abe, S., and Odani, S. The primary structure and characterization of carbohydrate chains of the extracellular glycoprotein proteinase inhibitor from latex of Carica papaya. Eur.J Biochem. 10-1-1996;241:77-82. View abstract.
  15. Potischman, N. and Brinton, L. A. Nutrition and cervical neoplasia. Cancer Causes Control 1996;7:113-126. View abstract.
  16. Giordani, R., Cardenas, M. L., Moulin-Traffort, J., and Regli, P. Fungicidal activity of latex sap from Carica papaya and antifungal effect of D(+)-glucosamine on Candida albicans growth. Mycoses 1996;39(3-4):103-110. View abstract.
  17. Osato, J. A., Korkina, L. G., Santiago, L. A., and Afanas'ev, I. B. Effects of bio-normalizer (a food supplementation) on free radical production by human blood neutrophils, erythrocytes, and rat peritoneal macrophages. Nutrition 1995;11(5 Suppl):568-572. View abstract.
  18. Kato, S., Bowman, E. D., Harrington, A. M., Blomeke, B., and Shields, P. G. Human lung carcinogen-DNA adduct levels mediated by genetic polymorphisms in vivo. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 6-21-1995;87:902-907. View abstract.
  19. Jayarajan, P., Reddy, V., and Mohanram, M. Effect of dietary fat on absorption of beta carotene from green leafy vegetables in children. Indian J Med Res 1980;71:53-56. View abstract.
  20. Wimalawansa, S. J. Papaya in the treatment of chronic infected ulcers. Ceylon Med J 1981;26:129-132. View abstract.
  21. Costanza, D. J. Carotenemia associated with papaya ingestion. Calif.Med 1968;109:319-320. View abstract.
  22. Vallis, C. P. and Lund, M. H. Effect of treatment with Carica papaya on resolution of edema and ecchymosis following rhinoplasty. Curr.Ther.Res.Clin.Exp. 1969;11:356-359. View abstract.
  23. Ballot, D., Baynes, R. D., Bothwell, T. H., Gillooly, M., MacFarlane, B. J., MacPhail, A. P., Lyons, G., Derman, D. P., Bezwoda, W. R., Torrance, J. D., and . The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal. Br J Nutr 1987;57:331-343. View abstract.
  24. Otsuki, N., Dang, N. H., Kumagai, E., Kondo, A., Iwata, S., and Morimoto, C. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves exhibits anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory effects. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-17-2010;127:760-767. View abstract.
  25. Chota, A., Sikasunge, C. S., Phiri, A. M., Musukwa, M. N., Haazele, F., and Phiri, I. K. A comparative study of the efficacy of piperazine and Carica papaya for the control of helminth parasites in village chickens in Zambia. Trop.Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:315-318. View abstract.
  26. Owoyele, B. V., Adebukola, O. M., Funmilayo, A. A., and Soladoye, A. O. Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves. Inflammopharmacology. 2008;16:168-173. View abstract.
  27. Marotta, F., Yoshida, C., Barreto, R., Naito, Y., and Packer, L. Oxidative-inflammatory damage in cirrhosis: effect of vitamin E and a fermented papaya preparation. J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2007;22:697-703. View abstract.
  28. Miyoshi, N., Uchida, K., Osawa, T., and Nakamura, Y. Selective cytotoxicity of benzyl isothiocyanate in the proliferating fibroblastoid cells. Int J Cancer 2-1-2007;120:484-492. View abstract.
  29. Zhang, J., Mori, A., Chen, Q., and Zhao, B. Fermented papaya preparation attenuates beta-amyloid precursor protein: beta-amyloid-mediated copper neurotoxicity in beta-amyloid precursor protein and beta-amyloid precursor protein Swedish mutation overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells. Neuroscience 11-17-2006;143:63-72. View abstract.
  30. Danese, C., Esposito, D., D'Alfonso, V., Cirene, M., Ambrosino, M., and Colotto, M. Plasma glucose level decreases as collateral effect of fermented papaya preparation use. Clin Ter. 2006;157:195-198. View abstract.
  31. Aruoma, O. I., Colognato, R., Fontana, I., Gartlon, J., Migliore, L., Koike, K., Coecke, S., Lamy, E., Mersch-Sundermann, V., Laurenza, I., Benzi, L., Yoshino, F., Kobayashi, K., and Lee, M. C. Molecular effects of fermented papaya preparation on oxidative damage, MAP Kinase activation and modulation of the benzo[a]pyrene mediated genotoxicity. Biofactors 2006;26:147-159. View abstract.
  32. Nakamura, Y. and Miyoshi, N. Cell death induction by isothiocyanates and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Biofactors 2006;26:123-134. View abstract.
  33. Marotta, F., Weksler, M., Naito, Y., Yoshida, C., Yoshioka, M., and Marandola, P. Nutraceutical supplementation: effect of a fermented papaya preparation on redox status and DNA damage in healthy elderly individuals and relationship with GSTM1 genotype: a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci 2006;1067:400-407. View abstract.
  34. Marotta, F., Pavasuthipaisit, K., Yoshida, C., Albergati, F., and Marandola, P. Relationship between aging and susceptibility of erythrocytes to oxidative damage: in view of nutraceutical interventions. Rejuvenation.Res 2006;9:227-230. View abstract.
  35. Lohiya, N. K., Manivannan, B., Bhande, S. S., Panneerdoss, S., and Garg, S. Perspectives of contraceptive choices for men. Indian J Exp.Biol 2005;43:1042-1047. View abstract.
  36. Mourvaki, E., Gizzi, S., Rossi, R., and Rufini, S. Passionflower fruit-a "new" source of lycopene? J Med Food 2005;8:104-106. View abstract.
  37. Menon, V., Ram, M., Dorn, J., Armstrong, D., Muti, P., Freudenheim, J. L., Browne, R., Schunemann, H., and Trevisan, M. Oxidative stress and glucose levels in a population-based sample. Diabet.Med 2004;21:1346-1352. View abstract.
  38. Marotta, F., Barreto, R., Tajiri, H., Bertuccelli, J., Safran, P., Yoshida, C., and Fesce, E. The aging/precancerous gastric mucosa: a pilot nutraceutical trial. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci 2004;1019:195-199. View abstract.
  39. Datla, K. P., Bennett, R. D., Zbarsky, V., Ke, B., Liang, Y. F., Higa, T., Bahorun, T., Aruoma, O. I., and Dexter, D. T. The antioxidant drink effective microorganism-X (EM-X) pre-treatment attenuates the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease. J Pharm Pharmacol 2004;56:649-654. View abstract.
  40. Dawkins, G., Hewitt, H., Wint, Y., Obiefuna, P. C., and Wint, B. Antibacterial effects of Carica papaya fruit on common wound organisms. West Indian Med J 2003;52:290-292. View abstract.
  41. Mojica-Henshaw, M. P., Francisco, A. D., De, Guzman F., and Tigno, X. T. Possible immunomodulatory actions of Carica papaya seed extract. Clin Hemorheol.Microcirc. 2003;29(3-4):219-229. View abstract.
  42. Giuliano, A. R., Siegel, E. M., Roe, D. J., Ferreira, S., Baggio, M. L., Galan, L., Duarte-Franco, E., Villa, L. L., Rohan, T. E., Marshall, J. R., and Franco, E. L. Dietary intake and risk of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: the Ludwig-McGill HPV Natural History Study. J Infect.Dis. 11-15-2003;188:1508-1516. View abstract.
  43. Alam, M. G., Snow, E. T., and Tanaka, A. Arsenic and heavy metal contamination of vegetables grown in Samta village, Bangladesh. Sci Total Environ 6-1-2003;308(1-3):83-96. View abstract.
  44. Rimbach, G., Park, Y. C., Guo, Q., Moini, H., Qureshi, N., Saliou, C., Takayama, K., Virgili, F., and Packer, L. Nitric oxide synthesis and TNF-alpha secretion in RAW 264.7 macrophages: mode of action of a fermented papaya preparation. Life Sci 6-30-2000;67:679-694. View abstract.
  45. Fruitful meeting between the Pope and Montagnier. Nature 9-12-2002;419:104. View abstract.
  46. Deiana, M., Dessi, M. A., Ke, B., Liang, Y. F., Higa, T., Gilmour, P. S., Jen, L. S., Rahman, I., and Aruoma, O. I. The antioxidant cocktail effective microorganism X (EM-X) inhibits oxidant-induced interleukin-8 release and the peroxidation of phospholipids in vitro. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 9-6-2002;296:1148-1151. View abstract.
  47. Pandey, M. and Shukla, V. K. Diet and gallbladder cancer: a case-control study. Eur.J Cancer Prev 2002;11:365-368. View abstract.
  48. Oderinde, O., Noronha, C., Oremosu, A., Kusemiju, T., and Okanlawon, O. A. Abortifacient properties of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds on female Sprague-Dawley rats. Niger.Postgrad.Med J 2002;9:95-98. View abstract.
  49. Sachs, M., von Eichel, J., and Asskali, F. [Wound management with coconut oil in Indonesian folk medicine]. Chirurg 2002;73:387-392. View abstract.
  50. Wilson, R. K., Kwan, T. K., Kwan, C. Y., and Sorger, G. J. Effects of papaya seed extract and benzyl isothiocyanate on vascular contraction. Life Sci 6-21-2002;71:497-507. View abstract.
  51. Bhat, G. P. and Surolia, N. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of three plants used in the traditional medicine of India. Am.J.Trop.Med.Hyg. 2001;65:304-308. View abstract.
  52. Marotta, F., Safran, P., Tajiri, H., Princess, G., Anzulovic, H., Ideo, G. M., Rouge, A., Seal, M. G., and Ideo, G. Improvement of hemorheological abnormalities in alcoholics by an oral antioxidant. Hepatogastroenterology 2001;48:511-517. View abstract.
  53. Ncube, T. N., Greiner, T., Malaba, L. C., and Gebre-Medhin, M. Supplementing lactating women with puréed papaya and grated carrots improved vitamin A status in a placebo-controlled trial. J Nutr 2001;131:1497-1502. View abstract.
  54. Lohiya, N. K., Kothari, L. K., Manivannan, B., Mishra, P. K., and Pathak, N. Human sperm immobilization effect of Carica papaya seed extracts: an in vitro study. Asian J Androl 2000;2:103-109. View abstract.
  55. Rimbach, G., Guo, Q., Akiyama, T., Matsugo, S., Moini, H., Virgili, F., and Packer, L. Ferric nitrilotriacetate induced DNA and protein damage: inhibitory effect of a fermented papaya preparation. Anticancer Res 2000;20(5A):2907-2914. View abstract.
  56. Marotta, F., Tajiri, H., Barreto, R., Brasca, P., Ideo, G. M., Mondazzi, L., Safran, P., Bobadilla, J., and Ideo, G. Cyanocobalamin absorption abnormality in alcoholics is improved by oral supplementation with a fermented papaya-derived antioxidant. Hepatogastroenterology 2000;47:1189-1194. View abstract.
  57. Rakhimov, M. R. [Pharmacological study of papain from the papaya plant cultivated in Uzbekistan]. Eksp.Klin.Farmakol. 2000;63:55-57. View abstract.
  58. Hewitt, H., Whittle, S., Lopez, S., Bailey, E., and Weaver, S. Topical use of papaya in chronic skin ulcer therapy in Jamaica. West Indian Med.J. 2000;49:32-33. View abstract.
  59. Matinian, L. A., Nagapetian, KhO, Amirian, S. S., Mkrtchian, S. R., Mirzoian, V. S., and Voskanian, R. M. [Papain phonophoresis in the treatment of suppurative wounds and inflammatory processes]. Khirurgiia (Mosk) 1990;:74-76. View abstract.
  60. Starley, I. F., Mohammed, P., Schneider, G., and Bickler, S. W. The treatment of paediatric burns using topical papaya. Burns 1999;25:636-639. View abstract.
  61. Le Marchand, L., Hankin, J. H., Kolonel, L. N., and Wilkens, L. R. Vegetable and fruit consumption in relation to prostate cancer risk in Hawaii: a reevaluation of the effect of dietary beta-carotene. Am J Epidemiol. 2-1-1991;133:215-219. View abstract.
  62. Castillo, R., Delgado, J., Quiralte, J., Blanco, C., and Carrillo, T. Food hypersensitivity among adult patients: epidemiological and clinical aspects. Allergol.Immunopathol.(Madr.) 1996;24:93-97. View abstract.
  63. Hemmer, W., Focke, M., Gotz, M., and Jarisch, R. Sensitization to Ficus benjamina: relationship to natural rubber latex allergy and identification of foods implicated in the Ficus-fruit syndrome. Clin.Exp.Allergy 2004;34:1251-1258. View abstract.
  64. Izzo, A. A., Di Carlo, G., Borrelli, F., and Ernst, E. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction. Int J Cardiol. 2005;98:1-14. View abstract.
  65. Salleh, M. N., Runnie, I., Roach, P. D., Mohamed, S., and Abeywardena, M. Y. Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor in HepG2 cells by tropical plant extracts. J Agric.Food Chem. 6-19-2002;50:3693-3697. View abstract.
  66. Roychowdhury, T., Uchino, T., Tokunaga, H., and Ando, M. Survey of arsenic in food composites from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1611-1621. View abstract.
  67. Ebo, D. G., Bridts, C. H., Hagendorens, M. M., De Clerck, L. S., and Stevens, W. J. The prevalence and diagnostic value of specific IgE antibodies to inhalant, animal and plant food, and ficus allergens in patients with natural rubber latex allergy. Acta Clin Belg. 2003;58:183-189. View abstract.
  68. Brehler, R., Theissen, U., Mohr, C., and Luger, T. "Latex-fruit syndrome": frequency of cross-reacting IgE antibodies. Allergy 1997;52:404-410. View abstract.
  69. Diaz-Perales A, Collada C, Blanco C, et al. Cross-reactions in the latex-fruit syndrome: A relevant role of chitinases but not of complex asparagine-linked glycans. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104:681-7. View abstract.
  70. Blanco C, Diaz-Perales A, Collada C, et al. Class I chitinases as potential panallergens involved in the latex-fruit syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103(3 Pt 1):507-13.
  71. Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57:1221-7. View abstract.
  72. Manufacturer: Walgreens. Deerfield, IL.
  73. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  74. Dukes JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. first ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1985.
  75. Shaw D, Leon C, Kolev S, Murray V. Traditional remedies and food supplements: a 5-year toxicological study (1991-1995). Drug Saf 1997;17:342-56. View abstract.
  76. Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal, 4th ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1999.
  77. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
  78. The Review of Natural Products by Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Co., 1999.
Last reviewed - 05/17/2018