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Papaya

¿Qué es?

Papaya (Carica papaya) es un árbol tropical. Su fruta madura se considera segura, pero la papaya inmadura contiene papaína y puede dañar el esófago.

La papaya verde contiene una sustancia química llamada papaína. La papaína descompone proteínas, carbohidratos y grasas. Pero la papaína se modifica en el estómago, por lo que no está claro si es eficaz como medicamento cuando se toma por vía oral. La papaya también contiene una sustancia química llamada carpaína, que parece ser capaz de matar ciertos parásitos y podría afectar el sistema nervioso central.

La gente usa la papaya para el cáncer, la diabetes, el dengue, el VPH y muchas otras condiciones, pero no existe una buena evidencia científica que respalde estos usos.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Existe interés en usar la papaya para varios propósitos, pero no hay suficiente información confiable para decir si podría ser útil.

¿Es seguro?

Cuando se toma por vía oral: La papaya es un alimento común. El extracto de hoja de papaya es posiblemente seguro cuando se toma como medicamento hasta por 5 días. Los efectos secundarios pueden incluir náuseas y vómitos.

Es posible que la papaya verde no sea segura. La papaya verde contiene látex de papaya, que contiene una enzima llamada papaína. Tomar grandes cantidades de papaína puede dañar el esófago.

Cuando se aplica sobre la piel: La papaya madura es posiblemente segura cuando se aplica sobre la piel o las encías hasta por 10 días. La aplicación de papaya verde sobre la piel posiblemente no sea segura. La papaya verde contiene látex de papaya. Esto puede causar irritación severa y reacciones alérgicas en algunas personas.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo: La papaya madura se consume comúnmente en los alimentos. Es posible que la papaya inmadura no sea segura cuando se toma por vía oral durante el embarazo. Existe alguna evidencia de que la papaína sin procesar, uno de los químicos que se encuentran en la papaya verde, podría envenenar al feto o causar defectos de nacimiento.

Lactancia: La papaya madura se consume comúnmente en los alimentos. No hay suficiente información confiable para saber si la papaya es segura para usar como medicamento durante la lactancia. Manténgase en el lado seguro y limítese a las cantidades de alimentos.

Alergia al látex: Si tiene alergia al látex, tenga cuidado con la papaya o los productos que la contengan. También puede ser alérgico a la papaya.

Alergia a la papaína: La papaya verde contiene papaína. Si es alérgico a la papaína, evite la papaya verde.

Cirugía: La papaya fermentada puede reducir el azúcar en sangre. Esta forma de papaya puede afectar el azúcar en sangre durante y después de la cirugía. Si está tomando papaya, debe dejar de tomarlo 2 semanas antes de la cirugía.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Amiodarona (Cordarone)
La ingesta de extracto de papaya junto con amiodarona podría aumentar la cantidad de amiodarona en el cuerpo. Esto podría aumentar los efectos y efectos adversos de la amiodarona.
Levotiroxina (Synthroid, otros)
Comer grandes cantidades de papaya podría reducir los efectos de la levotiroxina.
Medicamentos para la diabetes (medicamentos antidiabéticos)
La papaya puede reducir los niveles de azúcar en sangre. La ingesta de papaya junto con medicamentos para la diabetes puede hacer que el nivel de azúcar en sangre baje demasiado. Controle de cerca su nivel de azúcar en sangre.
Warfarina (Coumadin)
La warfarina se usa para retardar la coagulación de la sangre. La papaya puede aumentar los efectos de la warfarina y aumentar las posibilidades de hematomas y sangrado. Asegúrese de hacerse análisis de sangre con regularidad. Es posible que sea necesario cambiar la dosis de warfarina.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Hierbas y suplementos que pueden reducir el azúcar en sangre
La papaya podría reducir el azúcar en sangre. Tomarlo con otros suplementos con efectos similares podría reducir demasiado el azúcar en sangre. Ejemplos de suplementos con este efecto incluyen aloe, melón amargo, canela casia, cromo y nopal.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Como se usa normalmente?

La papaya madura se consume comúnmente como alimento. La hoja de papaya a veces se encuentra en suplementos, pero no hay suficiente información confiable para saber cuál podría ser una dosis adecuada de hoja de papaya. Tenga en cuenta que los productos naturales no siempre son necesariamente seguros y las dosis pueden ser importantes. Asegúrese de seguir las instrucciones pertinentes en las etiquetas del producto y consulte a un profesional de la salud antes de usarlo.

Otros nombres

Banane de Prairie, Caricae Papayae Folium, Carica papaya, Carica peltata, Carica posoposa, Chirbhita, Erandachirbhita, Erand Karkati, Green Papaya, Mamaerie, Melonenbaumblaetter, Melon Tree, Papaw, Papaya Fruit, Papayas, Papaye, Papaye Verte, Papayer, Papita, Paw Paw, Pawpaw.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Documento revisado - 10/06/2021