When someone's blood flow or breathing stops, seconds count. Permanent brain damage or death can happen quickly. If you know how to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), you could save a life. CPR is an emergency procedure for a person whose heart has stopped (called sudden cardiac arrest) or who is no longer breathing. CPR can maintain the blood flow breathing until emergency medical help arrives.
Take these steps if someone is in sudden cardiac arrest:
- Call 911.
- If someone else is around, have them look for an automated external defibrillator (AED). An AED is a device that sends an electric shock to the heart to try to restore its normal rhythm. AEDs are available in many public places such as schools, businesses, and airports .
- Make sure that the person with sudden cardiac arrest is lying on their back on a firm surface.
- If you haven't had any CPR training, you can do "hands-only" CPR for a teen or adult whose heart has stopped beating ("hands-only" CPR isn't recommended for children). "Hands-only" CPR uses chest compressions to keep blood circulating. Chest compressions involve pushing hard and fast in the center of the chest.
- If you've had training, you can use chest compressions, clear the airway, and do rescue breathing. Rescue breathing helps get oxygen to the lungs for a person who has stopped breathing. To keep your skills up, repeat the CPR training every two years.
- Use the AED as soon as possible, if there is one available.
Statistics and Research
- CPR Facts and Stats (American Heart Association)
- ClinicalTrials.gov: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (National Institutes of Health)
Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: A randomized controlled simulation trial comparing video-assisted with telephone-assisted and unassisted...
- Article: Tele-Instruction Tool for Multiple Lay Responders Providing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Telehealth...
- Article: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for refractory OHCA: lessons from three randomized controlled...
- CPR -- see more articles