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Psilio rubio

¿Qué es?

Psilio rubio (Plantago ovata) es una hierba. Su cáscara de semilla se utiliza como laxante y ablandador de heces y para ayudar a reducir el colesterol.

Las cáscaras de semillas de psilio rubio absorben agua en el estómago y forman una gran masa. Esta masa estimula el intestino en personas con estreñimiento. En personas con diarrea, puede ralentizar la evacuación intestinal y reducir las deposiciones. Esta masa también puede reducir la cantidad de colesterol que se absorbe en el cuerpo.

El psilio rubio se usa comúnmente como ablandador de heces en personas con estreñimiento y hemorroides. También se utiliza para la diarrea, el síndrome del intestino irritable (SII), el colesterol alto, las enfermedades cardíacas y la diabetes. Se usa para muchas otras condiciones, pero no existe una buena evidencia científica que respalde la mayoría de estos otros usos.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Eficaz para...

  • Estreñimiento. La ingesta de psilio rubio, solo o en combinación, puede aliviar el estreñimiento y mejorar la consistencia de las heces.

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • Enfermedad del corazón. El psilio rubio es una fibra soluble. Consumir alimentos con alto contenido de fibra soluble como parte de una dieta baja en grasas y colesterol puede ayudar a prevenir enfermedades cardíacas. Debe comer al menos 7 gramos de cáscara de psilio rubio al día para reducir el riesgo de enfermedad cardíaca.
  • Niveles altos de colesterol u otras grasas (lípidos) en la sangre (hiperlipidemia). La ingesta de psilio rubio reduce el colesterol de lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL o "malo") en personas con colesterol alto de leve a moderado. Pero parece ser menos eficaz en personas mayores.

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Diabetes. La ingesta de psilio rubio puede mejorar el control del azúcar en sangre en personas con diabetes. Pero no está claro si ayuda a prevenir la diabetes.
  • Diarrea. La ingesta de psilio rubio parece reducir los síntomas de la diarrea.
  • Hemorroides. La ingesta de psilio rubio parece aliviar el sangrado y el dolor en personas con hemorroides.
  • Un trastorno a largo plazo del intestino grueso que causa dolor de estómago (síndrome del intestino irritable o SII). La ingesta de psilio rubio puede aliviar el estreñimiento y mejorar el dolor de estómago, la diarrea y el bienestar general de las personas con SII. Puede tomar hasta cuatro semanas para que ayude.
  • Tratar los efectos secundarios de un medicamento llamado Orlistat (Xenical, Alli). La ingesta de psilio rubio con cada dosis de orlistat parece aliviar los efectos secundarios del orlistat, como gases, ruidos estomacales, calambres estomacales y manchas grasas.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • Crecimientos no cancerosos en el intestino grueso y el recto (adenoma colorrectal). La ingesta de psilio rubio no parece reducir el riesgo de adenoma colorrectal.
Existe interés en usar psilio rubio para otros propósitos, pero no hay suficiente información confiable para decir si podría ser útil.

¿Es seguro?

Cuando se toma por vía oral: Es probable que el psilio rubio sea seguro para la mayoría de las personas cuando se toma con muchos líquidos. Beba al menos 8 onzas de líquidos por cada 3-5 gramos de cáscara o 7 gramos de semilla. Puede causar gases, dolor de estómago, diarrea, estreñimiento y náuseas. Comience con una dosis más baja y aumente la dosis lentamente para reducir el riesgo de efectos secundarios.

Es probable que el psilio rubio no sea seguro cuando se toma sin suficientes líquidos. Podría causar asfixia o bloquear el tracto gastrointestinal (GI).

Cuando se aplica en el ojo: El mucílago de psilio rubio en gotas para los ojos es posiblemente seguro para la mayoría de las personas.

Cuando se aplica a la piel: No hay suficiente información confiable para saber si el psilio rubio es seguro o cuáles podrían ser los efectos secundarios.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: Es probable que el psilio rubio sea seguro cuando se ingiere adecuadamente durante el embarazo o la lactancia.

Crecimientos en el intestino grueso y el recto (adenoma colorrectal): El psilio rubio podría aumentar el riesgo de nuevos crecimientos en personas con antecedentes de adenoma colorrectal. Las personas que han tenido esta condición deben evitar el psilio rubio.

Trastornos gastrointestinales (GI): No use psilio rubio si tiende a desarrollar heces duras en el recto debido al estrechamiento, obstrucción o condiciones del tracto gastrointestinal que pueden provocar obstrucción, como intestino espástico.

Alergia: Algunas personas pueden tener reacciones alérgicas graves al psilio rubio. Esto es más probable en personas que han estado expuestas al psilio rubio en el trabajo. No use psilio rubio si es sensible a él.

Fenilcetonuria: Algunas preparaciones de psilio rubio están endulzadas con aspartamo y deben evitarse en pacientes con fenilcetonuria.

Trastornos de la deglución: No utilice psilio rubio si tiene problemas para tragar. El psilio rubio podría aumentar su riesgo de asfixia.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Carbamazepina (Tegretol)
El psilio rubio contiene grandes cantidades de fibra. La fibra puede disminuir la cantidad de carbamazepina que absorbe el cuerpo. Esto podría disminuir los efectos de la carbamazepina.
Litio
El psilio rubio contiene grandes cantidades de fibra. La fibra puede disminuir la cantidad de litio que absorbe el cuerpo. Para evitar esta interacción, tome psilio rubio al menos una hora después del litio.
Metformina (glucófago)
El psilio rubio podría cambiar la cantidad de metformina que absorbe el cuerpo. Esto podría aumentar o disminuir los efectos de la metformina. Para evitar esta interacción, tome psilio rubio 30-60 minutos después de tomar metformina.
Olanzapina (Zyprexa)
El psyllium rubio contiene grandes cantidades de fibra. La fibra puede disminuir la cantidad de olanzapina que absorbe el cuerpo. Esto podría disminuir los efectos de la olanzapina.
Menores
Preste atención a esta combinación
Digoxina (lanaxina)
El psilio rubio es rico en fibra. La fibra puede disminuir la absorción y disminuir los efectos de la digoxina. Para evitar esta interacción, tome digoxina una hora antes o cuatro horas después del psilio rubio.
Etinilestradiol
El etinilestradiol es una forma de estrógeno que se encuentra en algunos productos de estrógeno y píldoras anticonceptivas. El psilio rubio podría disminuir la cantidad de etinilestradiol que absorbe el cuerpo. Pero es poco probable que esto sea una gran preocupación.
Medicamentos que se toman por vía oral (medicamentos orales)
El psilio rubio contiene grandes cantidades de fibra. La fibra puede disminuir, aumentar o no tener ningún efecto sobre la cantidad de medicamento que absorbe el cuerpo. Tomar psilio rubio junto con medicamentos por vía oral puede afectar los efectos de su medicamento. Para evitar esta interacción, tome psilio rubio 30-60 minutos después de los medicamentos que toma por vía oral.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Hierro
La ingesta de psilio rubio con suplementos de hierro puede reducir la cantidad de hierro que absorbe el cuerpo. Para evitar esta interacción, tome suplementos de hierro una hora antes o cuatro horas después del psilio rubio.
Riboflavina
El psilio rubio parece reducir ligeramente la cantidad de riboflavina que absorbe el cuerpo. Pero esto probablemente no sea una gran preocupación.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

Tomar psilio rubio puede dificultar la digestión de las grasas de la dieta. Esto puede aumentar la cantidad de grasa que se pierde en las heces. La ingesta de psilio rubio con las comidas durante un período prolongado también puede afectar la absorción de nutrientes. En algunos casos, puede ser necesario tomar suplementos de vitaminas o minerales.

¿Como se usa normalmente?

El psilio rubio ha sido utilizado con mayor frecuencia por adultos en dosis de 3 a 24 gramos por vía oral al día durante un máximo de 20 semanas. Siempre beba al menos 8 onzas de líquidos por cada 3-5 gramos de cáscara o 7 gramos de semilla.

El psilio rubio está disponible en muchos tipos diferentes de productos, incluidos cereales, panes y barras de bocadillos. Metamucil es una marca bien estudiada y de uso común de psilio rubio. Hable con un proveedor de atención médica para averiguar qué tipo de producto y dosis podrían ser los mejores para una condición específica.

Otros nombres

Balle de Psyllium, Blond Plantago, Blonde Psyllium, Che Qian Zi, Dietary Fiber, Englishman's Foot, Fibre Alimentaire, Indian Plantago, Ipágula, Isabgola, Isabgul, Ispaghul, Ispaghula, Ispagol, Pale Psyllium, Plantaginis Ovatae Semen, Plantaginis Ovatae Testa, Plantago decumbens, Plantago fastigiata, Plantago insularis, Plantago ispaghula, Plantago ovata, Psilio, Psillium Blond, Psyllium Blond, Psyllium Husk, Sand Plantain, Spogel.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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