Dirección de esta página: https://medlineplus.gov/spanish/druginfo/natural/795.html

Melón Amargo

¿Qué es?

El melón amargo (Momordica charantia) es una vid originaria de la India y otros países asiáticos. Se ha utilizado tradicionalmente para tratar la diabetes. El melón amargo contiene una sustancia química que actúa como la insulina para ayudar a reducir los niveles de azúcar en sangre.

Las personas comúnmente usan melón amargo para la diabetes, la osteoartritis, el rendimiento deportivo y muchas otras condiciones, pero no existe una buena evidencia científica que respalde estos usos.

El melón amargo a veces se llama calabaza amarga. No confunda esto con la calabaza Ivy, que es una planta diferente.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Existe interés en usar melón amargo para varios propósitos, pero no hay suficiente información confiable para decir si podría ser útil.

¿Es seguro?

Cuando se toma por vía oral: El melón amargo es posiblemente seguro cuando se usa hasta por 4 meses. El melón amargo puede causar malestar estomacal en algunas personas. No hay suficiente información confiable para saber si el melón amargo es seguro para usar a largo plazo.

Cuando se aplica a la piel: No hay suficiente información confiable para saber si el melón amargo es seguro. Podría causar sarpullido.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo: Es posible que el melón amargo no sea seguro cuando se ingiere durante el embarazo. Ciertos productos químicos en el melón amargo pueden dañar el embarazo.

Lactancia: No hay suficiente información confiable para saber si el melón amargo es seguro de usar durante la lactancia. Manténgase en el lado seguro y evite su uso.

Deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa (G6PD): Las semillas de melón amargo pueden causar anemia grave en personas que tienen deficiencia de G6PD. Hasta que se sepa más, evite las semillas de melón amargo si tiene deficiencia de G6PD.

Cirugía: El melón amargo puede interferir con el control del azúcar en sangre durante y después de la cirugía. Deje de usar melón amargo al menos 2 semanas antes de una cirugía programada.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Medicamentos movidos por bombas en las células (sustratos de glicoproteína P)
Algunos medicamentos entran y salen de las células mediante bombas. El melón amargo podría cambiar la forma en que funcionan estas bombas y cambiar la cantidad de medicamento que permanece en el cuerpo. En algunos casos, esto puede cambiar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de un medicamento.
Medicamentos para la diabetes (medicamentos antidiabéticos)
El melón amargo podría reducir los niveles de azúcar en sangre. La ingesta de melón amargo junto con medicamentos para la diabetes puede hacer que el azúcar en sangre baje demasiado. Controle de cerca su nivel de azúcar en sangre.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Hierbas y suplementos que pueden reducir el azúcar en sangre
El melón amargo podría reducir el azúcar en sangre. Tomarlo con otros suplementos con efectos similares podría reducir demasiado el azúcar en sangre. Ejemplos de suplementos con este efecto incluyen aloe, casia canela, cromo y nopal.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Como se usa normalmente?

El melón amargo ha sido utilizado con mayor frecuencia por adultos en dosis de 0,5 a 12 gramos por vía oral al día durante hasta 16 semanas. Hable con un proveedor de atención médica para averiguar qué dosis podría ser la mejor para una condición específica.

Otros nombres

African Cucumber, Ampalaya, Balsam Pear, Balsam-Apple, Balsambirne, Balsamine, Balsamo, Bitter Apple, Bitter Cucumber, Bitter Gourd, Bittergurke, Carilla Fruit, Carilla Gourd, Cerasee, Chinli-Chih, Concombre Africain, Courge Amère, Cundeamor, Fructus Mormordicae Grosvenori, Karavella, Karela, Kareli, Kathilla, Kerala, Korolla, Kugua, Kuguazi, K'u-Kua, Lai Margose, Margose, Melón Amargo, Melon Amer, Momordica, Momordica charantia, Momordica murcata, Momordique, Paroka, Pepino Montero, Poire Balsamique, Pomme de Merveille, P'u-T'ao, Sorosi, Sushavi, Ucche, Vegetable insulin, Wild Cucumber.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

  1. Kim SK, Jung J, Jung JH, et al. Hypoglycemic efficacy and safety of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Complement Ther Med. 2020 Aug;52:102524. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102524. View abstract.
  2. Yook JS, Kwak JJ, Jeong WM, et al. Possible adaptogenic effects of Momordica charantia on high-intensity training-induced alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2020;67:290-6. View abstract.
  3. Kwak JJ, Yook JS, Ha MS. Potential biomarkers of peripheral and central fatigue in high-intensity trained athletes at high-temperature: a pilot study with Momordica charantia (bitter melon). J Immunol Res. 2020;2020:4768390. View abstract.
  4. Cortez-Navarrete M, Martínez-Abundis E, Pérez-Rubio KG, González-Ortiz M, Méndez-Del Villar M. Momordica charantia administration improves insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Med Food. 2018;21:672-7. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2017.0114. View abstract.
  5. Peter EL, Kasali FM, Deyno S, et al. Momordica charantia L. lowers elevated glycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2019;231:311-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.10.033. View abstract.
  6. Soo May L, Sanip Z, Ahmed Shokri A, Abdul Kadir A, Md Lazin MR. The effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) supplementation in patients with primary knee osteoarthritis: A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2018;32:181-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.06.012. View abstract.
  7. Yue J, Sun Y, Xu J, et al. Cucurbitane triterpenoids from the fruit of Momordica charantia L. and their anti-hepatic fibrosis and anti-hepatoma activities. Phytochemistry. 2019;157:21-7. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.10.009. View abstract.
  8. Wen JJ, Gao H, Hu JL, et al. Polysaccharides from fermented Momordica charantia ameliorate obesity in high-fat induced obese rats. Food Funct. 2019;10:448-57. doi: 10.1039/c8fo01609g. View abstract.
  9. Konishi T, Satsu H, Hatsugai Y, et al. Inhibitory effect of a bitter melon extract on the P-glycoprotein activity in intestinal Caco-2 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;143:379-87. View abstract.
  10. Boone CH, Stout JR, Gordon JA, et al. Acute effects of a beverage containing bitter melon extract (CARELA) on postprandial glycemia among prediabetic adults. Nutr Diabetes. 2017;7:e241. View abstract.
  11. Alam MA, Uddin R, Subhan N, Rahman MM, Jain P, Reza HM. Beneficial role of bitter melon supplementation in obesity and related complications in metabolic syndrome. J Lipids. 2015;2015:496169. View abstract.
  12. Somasagara RR, Deep G, Shrotriya S, Patel M, Agarwal C, Agarwal R. Bitter melon juice targets molecular mechanisms underlying gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2015;46:1849-57. View abstract.
  13. Rahman IU, Khan RU, Rahman KU, Bashir M. Lower hypoglycemic but higher antiatherogenic effects of bitter melon than glibenclamide in type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr J. 2015;14:13. View abstract.
  14. Bhattacharya S, Muhammad N, Steele R, Peng G, Ray RB. Immunomodulatory role of bitter melon extract in inhibition of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma growth. Oncotarget. 2016;7:33202-9. View abstract.
  15. Yin RV, Lee NC, Hirpara H, Phung OJ. T. The effect of bitter melon (Mormordica charantia) in patients with diabetes mellitus: s systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Diabetes. 2014;4:e145. View abstract.
  16. Dutta PK, Chakravarty AK, CHowdhury US, and Pakrashi SC. Vicine, a favism-inducing toxin from Momordica charantia Linn. seeds. Indian J Chem 1981;20B(August):669-671.
  17. Srivastava Y. Antidiabetic and adaptogenic properties of Momordica charantia extract:An experimental and clinical evaluation. Phytother Res 1993;7:285-289.
  18. Raman A and Lau C. Anti-diabetic properties and phytochemistry of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). Phytomedicine 1996;2:349-362.
  19. Stepka W, Wilson KE, and Madge GE. Antifertility investigation on Momordica. Lloydia 1974;37:645.
  20. Baldwa VS, Bhandara CM, Pangaria A, and et al. Clinical trials in patients with diabetes mellitus of an insulin-like compound obtained from plant source. Upsala J Med Sci 1977;82:39-41.
  21. Takemoto, D. J., Dunford, C., and McMurray, M. M. The cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of the bitter melon (Momordica charantia) on human lymphocytes. Toxicon 1982;20:593-599. View abstract.
  22. Dixit, V. P., Khanna, P., and Bhargava, S. K. Effects of Momordica charantia L. fruit extract on the testicular function of dog. Planta Med 1978;34:280-286. View abstract.
  23. Aguwa, C. N. and Mittal, G. C. Abortifacient effects of the roots of Momordica angustisepala. J Ethnopharmacol. 1983;7:169-173. View abstract.
  24. Akhtar, M. S. Trial of Momordica charantia Linn (Karela) powder in patients with maturity-onset diabetes. J Pak.Med Assoc 1982;32:106-107. View abstract.
  25. Welihinda, J., Arvidson, G., Gylfe, E., Hellman, B., and Karlsson, E. The insulin-releasing activity of the tropical plant momordica charantia. Acta Biol Med Ger 1982;41:1229-1240. View abstract.
  26. Chan, W. Y., Tam, P. P., and Yeung, H. W. The termination of early pregnancy in the mouse by beta-momorcharin. Contraception 1984;29:91-100. View abstract.
  27. Takemoto, D. J., Jilka, C., and Kresie, R. Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor from the bitter melon Momordica charantia. Prep.Biochem 1982;12:355-375. View abstract.
  28. Wong, C. M., Yeung, H. W., and Ng, T. B. Screening of Trichosanthes kirilowii, Momordica charantia and Cucurbita maxima (family Cucurbitaceae) for compounds with antilipolytic activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 1985;13:313-321. View abstract.
  29. Ng, T. B., Wong, C. M., Li, W. W., and Yeung, H. W. Isolation and characterization of a galactose binding lectin with insulinomimetic activities. From the seeds of the bitter gourd Momordica charantia (Family Cucurbitaceae). Int J Peptide Protein Res 1986;28:163-172. View abstract.
  30. Ng, T. B., Wong, C. M., Li, W. W., and Yeung, H. W. Insulin-like molecules in Momordica charantia seeds. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;15:107-117. View abstract.
  31. Liu, H. L., Wan, X., Huang, X. F., and Kong, L. Y. Biotransformation of sinapic acid catalyzed by Momordica charantia peroxidase. J Agric Food Chem 2-7-2007;55:1003-1008. View abstract.
  32. Yasui, Y., Hosokawa, M., Kohno, H., Tanaka, T., and Miyashita, K. Troglitazone and 9cis,11trans,13trans-conjugated linolenic acid: comparison of their antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on different colon cancer cell lines. Chemotherapy 2006;52:220-225. View abstract.
  33. Nerurkar, P. V., Lee, Y. K., Linden, E. H., Lim, S., Pearson, L., Frank, J., and Nerurkar, V. R. Lipid lowering effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) in HIV-1-protease inhibitor-treated human hepatoma cells, HepG2. Br J Pharmacol 2006;148:1156-1164. View abstract.
  34. Shekelle, P. G., Hardy, M., Morton, S. C., Coulter, I., Venuturupalli, S., Favreau, J., and Hilton, L. K. Are Ayurvedic herbs for diabetes effective? J Fam.Pract. 2005;54:876-886. View abstract.
  35. Nerurkar, P. V., Pearson, L., Efird, J. T., Adeli, K., Theriault, A. G., and Nerurkar, V. R. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene expression and ApoB secretion are inhibited by bitter melon in HepG2 cells. J Nutr 2005;135:702-706. View abstract.
  36. Senanayake, G. V., Maruyama, M., Sakono, M., Fukuda, N., Morishita, T., Yukizaki, C., Kawano, M., and Ohta, H. The effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extracts on serum and liver lipid parameters in hamsters fed cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched diets. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2004;50:253-257. View abstract.
  37. Kohno, H., Yasui, Y., Suzuki, R., Hosokawa, M., Miyashita, K., and Tanaka, T. Dietary seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid from bitter melon inhibits azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis through elevation of colonic PPARgamma expression and alteration of lipid composition. Int J Cancer 7-20-2004;110:896-901. View abstract.
  38. Senanayake, G. V., Maruyama, M., Shibuya, K., Sakono, M., Fukuda, N., Morishita, T., Yukizaki, C., Kawano, M., and Ohta, H. The effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) on serum and liver triglyceride levels in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;91(2-3):257-262. View abstract.
  39. Pongnikorn, S., Fongmoon, D., Kasinrerk, W., and Limtrakul, P. N. Effect of bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) on level and function of natural killer cells in cervical cancer patients with radiotherapy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003;86:61-68. View abstract.
  40. Rebultan, S. P. Bitter melon therapy: an experimental treatment of HIV infection. AIDS Asia 1995;2:6-7. View abstract.
  41. Lee-Huang, S., Huang, P. L., Sun, Y., Chen, H. C., Kung, H. F., Huang, P. L., and Murphy, W. J. Inhibition of MDA-MB-231 human breast tumor xenografts and HER2 expression by anti-tumor agents GAP31 and MAP30. Anticancer Res 2000;20(2A):653-659. View abstract.
  42. Wang, Y. X., Jacob, J., Wingfield, P. T., Palmer, I., Stahl, S. J., Kaufman, J. D., Huang, P. L., Huang, P. L., Lee-Huang, S., and Torchia, D. A. Anti-HIV and anti-tumor protein MAP30, a 30 kDa single-strand type-I RIP, shares similar secondary structure and beta-sheet topology with the A chain of ricin, a type-II RIP. Protein Sci. 2000;9:138-144. View abstract.
  43. Wang, Y. X., Neamati, N., Jacob, J., Palmer, I., Stahl, S. J., Kaufman, J. D., Huang, P. L., Huang, P. L., Winslow, H. E., Pommier, Y., Wingfield, P. T., Lee-Huang, S., Bax, A., and Torchia, D. A. Solution structure of anti-HIV-1 and anti-tumor protein MAP30: structural insights into its multiple functions. Cell 11-12-1999;99:433-442. View abstract.
  44. Basch E, Gabardi S, Ulbricht C. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): a review of efficacy and safety. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2003;60:356-9. View abstract.
  45. Dans AM, Villarruz MV, Jimeno CA, et al. The effect of Momordica charantia capsule preparation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus needs further studies. J Clin Epidemiol 2007;60:554-9. View abstract.
  46. Shibib BA, Khan LA, Rahman R. Hypoglycaemic activity of Coccinia indica and Momordica charantia in diabetic rats: depression of the hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and elevation of both liver and red-cell shunt enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Biochem J 1993;292:267-70. View abstract.
  47. Ahmad N, Hassan MR, Halder H, Bennoor KS. Effect of Momordica charantia (Karolla) extracts on fasting and postprandial serum glucose levels in NIDDM patients (abstract). Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 1999;25:11-3. View abstract.
  48. Aslam M, Stockley IH. Interaction between curry ingredient (karela) and drug (chlorpropamide). Lancet 1979:1:607. View abstract.
  49. Anila L, Vijayalakshmi NR. Beneficial effects of flavonoids from Sesamum indicum, Emblica officinalis and Momordica charantia. Phytother Res 2000;14:592-5. View abstract.
  50. Grover JK, Vats V, Rathi SS, Dawar R. Traditional Indian anti-diabetic plants attenuate progression of renal damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;76:233-8. View abstract.
  51. Vikrant V, Grover JK, Tandon N, et al. Treatment with extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana prevents hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in fructose fed rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;76:139-43. View abstract.
  52. Lee-Huang S, Huang PL, Nara PL, et al. MAP 30: a new inhibitor of HIV-1 infection and replication. FEBS Lett 1990;272:12-8. View abstract.
  53. Lee-Huang S, Huang PL, Huang PL, et al. Inhibition of the integrase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 by anti-HIV plant proteins MAP30 and GAP31. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995;92:8818-22. View abstract.
  54. Jiratchariyakul W, Wiwat C, Vongsakul M, et al. HIV inhibitor from Thai bitter gourd. Planta Med 2001;67:350-3. View abstract.
  55. Bourinbaiar AS, Lee-Huang S. The activity of plant-derived antiretroviral proteins MAP30 and GAP31 against herpes simplex virus in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996;219:923-9. View abstract.
  56. Schreiber CA, Wan L, Sun Y, et al. The antiviral agents, MAP30 and GAP31, are not toxic to human spermatozoa and may be useful in preventing the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Fertil Steril 1999;72:686-90. View abstract.
  57. Naseem MZ, Patil SR, Patil SR, et al. Antispermatogenic and androgenic activities of Momordica charantia (Karela) in albino rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;61:9-16. View abstract.
  58. Sarkar S, Pranava M, Marita R. Demonstration of the hypoglycemic action of Momordica charantia in a validated animal model of diabetes. Pharmacol Res 1996;33:1-4. View abstract.
  59. Cakici I, Hurmoglu C, Tunctan B, et al. Hypoglycaemic effect of Momordica charantia extracts in normoglycaemic or cyproheptadine-induced hyperglycaemic mice. J Ethnopharmacol 1994;44:117-21. View abstract.
  60. Ali L, Khan AK, Mamun MI, et al. Studies on hypoglycemic effects of fruit pulp, seed, and whole plant of Momordica charantia on normal and diabetic model rats. Planta Med 1993;59:408-12. View abstract.
  61. Day C, Cartwright T, Provost J, Bailey CJ. Hypoglycaemic effect of Momordica charantia extracts. Planta Med 1990;56:426-9. View abstract.
  62. Leung SO, Yeung HW, Leung KN. The immunosuppressive activities of two abortifacient proteins isolated from the seeds of bitter melon (Momordica charantia). Immunopharmacol 1987;13:159-71. View abstract.
  63. Jilka C, Strifler B, Fortner GW, et al. In vivo antitumor activity of the bitter melon (Momordica charantia). Cancer Res 1983;43:5151-5. View abstract.
  64. Cunnick JE, Sakamoto K, Chapes SK, et al. Induction of tumor cytotoxic immune cells using a protein from the bitter melon (Momordica charantia). Cell Immunol 1990;126:278-89. View abstract.
  65. Lee-Huang S, Huang PL, Chen HC, et al. Anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities of recombinant MAP30 from bitter melon. Gene 1995;161:151-6. View abstract.
  66. Bourinbaiar AS, Lee-Huang S. Potentiation of anti-HIV activity of anti-inflammatory drugs, dexamethasone and indomethacin, by MAP30, the antiviral agent from bitter melon. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;208:779-85. View abstract.
  67. Baldwa VS, Bhandari CM, Pangaria A, Goyal RK. Clinical trial in patients with diabetes mellitus of an insulin-like compound obtained from plant sources. Ups J Med Sci 1977;82:39-41. View abstract.
  68. Raman A, et al. Anti-diabetic properties and phytochemistry of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). Phytomedicine 1996;294.
  69. Srivastava Y, Venkatakrishna-Bhatt H, Verma Y, et al. Antidiabetic and adaptogenic properties of Momordica charantia extract: An experimental and clinical evaluation. Phytother Res 1993;7:285-9.
  70. Welihinda J, et al. Effect of Momordica charantia on the glucose tolerance in maturity onset diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 1986;17:277-82. View abstract.
  71. Leatherdale B, Panesar RK, Singh G, et al. Improvement in glucose tolerance due to Momordica charantia. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;282:1823-4. View abstract.
  72. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
  73. Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK: European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.
Documento revisado - 10/08/2021