Dirección de esta página: https://medlineplus.gov/spanish/druginfo/natural/721.html

Árnica

¿Qué es?

La árnica es una hierba que a veces se usa para dar sabor a los alimentos. Puede ser venenoso cuando se consume en grandes cantidades. La gel de árnica se puede aplicar a la piel para la osteoartritis.

Los químicos activos en la árnica pueden reducir la hinchazón, disminuir el dolor y actuar como antibióticos. Pero la árnica puede ser peligrosa cuando se toma por vía oral, a menos que se use en diluciones homeopáticas. Los productos homeopáticos contienen diluciones extremas de los productos químicos activos.

La gente suele utilizar árnica para el dolor causado por la osteoartritis. También se usa para sangrado, hematomas, hinchazón después de la cirugía y otras afecciones, pero no existe una buena evidencia científica que respalde estos usos. La árnica también se usa como ingrediente de sabor en bebidas, dulces, productos horneados y otros alimentos.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Osteoartritis. La aplicación de un gel de árnica (A. Vogel Arnica Gel, Bioforce AG) dos veces al día durante 3 semanas puede reducir el dolor y la rigidez y mejorar la función en personas con osteoartritis en la mano o la rodilla. Podría funcionar tan bien como el ibuprofeno.
Existe interés en usar árnica para otros propósitos, pero no hay suficiente información confiable para decir si podría ser útil.

¿Cómo funciona?

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

Cuando se toma por vía oral: La árnica homeopática es posiblemente segura. Los productos homeopáticos a menudo no contienen ningún ingrediente activo, por lo que los efectos secundarios son poco probables. También es posible que sea seguro tomar árnica en las cantidades que se encuentran en los alimentos. Pero el gobierno canadiense está lo suficientemente preocupado por su seguridad como para prohibir su uso en alimentos.

Es probable que no sea seguro tomar árnica en cantidades superiores a las que se encuentran en los alimentos. De hecho, la árnica se considera venenosa. Cuando se toma por vía oral, puede causar vómitos, daño cardíaco, insuficiencia orgánica, aumento del sangrado, coma y muerte.

Cuando se aplica a la piel: Árnica posiblemente sea segura cuando se aplica a la piel intacta, a corto plazo. Pero es probable que no sea seguro aplicar árnica sobre la piel lesionada porque puede ser absorbida por el cuerpo.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: No tome árnica por vía oral ni la aplique sobre la piel si está embarazada o amamantando. Se considera probablemente inseguro.

Cirugía: La árnica puede causar sangrado adicional durante y después de la cirugía. Deje de usarlo al menos 2 semanas antes de una cirugía programada.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Medicamentos que retardan la coagulación de la sangre (medicamentos anticoagulantes / antiplaquetarios)
Árnica podría retardar la coagulación de la sangre. La ingesta de árnica junto con medicamentos que también retardan la coagulación de la sangre puede aumentar el riesgo de hematomas y sangrado.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Hierbas y suplementos que pueden retardar la coagulación sanguínea
La árnica podría retardar la coagulación sanguínea y aumentar el riesgo de hemorragia. Tomarlo con otros suplementos con efectos similares podría aumentar el riesgo de hemorragia en algunas personas. Ejemplos de suplementos con este efecto incluyen ajo, jengibre, ginkgo, natokinasa y Panax ginseng.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

Árnica ha sido utilizada con mayor frecuencia por adultos en diluciones homeopáticas. Los productos típicos de árnica homeopática son diluciones 5C-30C. La "C" significa que el ingrediente activo se diluyó inicialmente 100 veces. El "5" o "30" significa que la dilución resultante se vuelve a diluir 100 veces, 5 o 30 veces más. Estas preparaciones suelen estar tan diluidas que no contienen una cantidad detectable de los productos químicos activos. Esto es muy diferente de los suplementos dietéticos de árnica, que contienen cantidades cuantificables y probablemente no sean seguros.

Árnica también se usa en geles, cremas y ungüentos. Hable con un proveedor de atención médica para averiguar qué dosis o producto podría ser mejor para una afección específica.

Otros nombres

American Arnica, Arctic Arnica, Arnica angustifolia, Arnica chamissonis, Arnica cordifolia, Arnica des Montagnes, Arnica Flos, Arnica Flower, Arnica fulgens, Arnica latifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica sororia, Arnikablüten, Bergwohlverleih, Doronic d'Allemagne, European Arnica, Fleurs d'Arnica, Foothill Arnica, Heart-Leaf Arnica, Herbe aux Chutes, Herbe aux Prêcheurs, Hillside Arnica, Kraftwurz, Leopard's Bane, Mountain Arnica, Mountain Snuff, Mountain Tobacco, North American Meadow Arnica, Plantin des Alpes, Quinquina des Pauvres, Souci des Alpes, Tabac des Savoyards, Tabac des Vosges, Twin Arnica, Wolf's Bane, Wolfsbane, Wundkraut.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

  1. Simsek G, Sari E, Kilic R, Bayar Muluk N. Topical application of arnica and mucopolysaccharide polysulfate attenuates periorbital edema and ecchymosis in open rhinoplasty: A randomized controlled clinical study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016;137:530e-535e. View abstract.
  2. van Exsel DC, Pool SM, van Uchelen JH, Edens MA, van der Lei B, Melenhorst WB. Arnica ointment 10% does not improve upper blepharoplasty outcome: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016;138:66-73. View abstract.
  3. Kahana A, Kotlus B, Black E. Re: " Assessing the effectiveness of Arnica montana and Rhododendron tomentosum (Ledum palustre) in the reduction of ecchymosis and edema after oculofacial surgery: Preliminary results". Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017;33:74. View abstract.
  4. Kang JY, Tran KD, Seiff SR, Mack WP, Lee WW. Assessing the effectiveness of Arnica montana and Rhododendron tomentosum (Ledum palustre) in the reduction of ecchymosis and edema after oculofacial surgery: Preliminary results. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017;33:47-52. View abstract.
  5. Sorrentino L, Piraneo S, Riggio E, et al. Is there a role for homeopathy in breast cancer surgery? A first randomized clinical trial on treatment with Arnica montana to reduce post-operative seroma and bleeding in patients undergoing total mastectomy. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2017;6:1-8. View abstract.
  6. Chirumbolo S, Bjørklund G. Homeopathic arnica from boiron and post-operative bleeding in mastectomized women in Milan: Statistical flaws and bias to be addressed. J Tradit Complement Med. 2017;8:1-3. View abstract.
  7. Pumpa KL, Fallon KE, Bensoussan A, Papalia S. The effects of topical Arnica on performance, pain and muscle damage after intense eccentric exercise. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14:294-300. View abstract.
  8. Chaiet SR, Marcus BC. Perioperative Arnica montana for Reduction of Ecchymosis in Rhinoplasty Surgery. Ann Plast Surg. 2015 May 7. [Epub ahead of print] View abstract.
  9. Canders CP, Stanford SR, Chiem AT. A dangerous cup of tea. Wilderness Environ Med. 2014 Mar;25:111-2. View abstract.
  10. Bohmer D and Ambrus P. Sports injuries and natural therapy: a clinical double-blind study with a homeopathic ointment. BT 1992;10:290-300.
  11. Zicari D, Cumps P, Del Beato P, and et al. Arnica 5 CH activity on retinal function. Invest Opthalmol Visual Science 1997;38:767.
  12. Livingston, R.Homeopathy, Evergreen Medicine. Poole, England: Asher Press;1991.
  13. Pinsent RJ, Baker GP, Ives G, and et al. Does arnica reduce pain and bleeding after dental extraction? A placebo controlled pilot study conducted by the Midland Homoeopathy Research Group MHRG in 1980/81. Communications of the British Homoeopathic Research Group 1986;15:3-11.
  14. Hildebrandt G and Eltze C. Uber die wirksamkeit verschiedener potenzen von arnica beim experimentell erzeugten muskelkater. Erfahrungsheilkunde 1984;7:430-435.
  15. MacKinnon S. Arnica montana. Herbal medicine 1992;125-128.
  16. Schmidt C. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial: Arnica montana applied topically to subcutaneous mechanical injuries. J of the American Institute of Homeopathy 1996;89:186-193.
  17. Savage RH and Roe PF. A further double blind trial to assess the benefit of Arnica montana in acute stroke illness. The British Homoeopathic Journal 1978;67:210-222.
  18. Savage RH and Roe PF. A double blind trial to assess the benefit of Arnica montana in acute stroke illness. Br Hom J 1977;66:207-220.
  19. Gibson J, Haslam Y, Laurneson L, and et al. Double-blind trial of arnica in acute trauma patients. Homeopathy 1991;41:54-55.
  20. Tuten C and McClung J. Reducing muscle soreness with Arnica montana: Is it effective? Alternative and Complementary Therapies 1999;5:369-372.
  21. Jawara N, Lewith GT, Vickers AJ, and et al. Homoeopathic Arnica and Rhus toxicodendron for delayed onset muscle soreness: a pilot for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. British Homoeopathic Journal 1997;86:10-15.
  22. Campbell A. Two pilot controlled trials of arnica montana. Br Homeopathic J 1976;65:154-158.
  23. Tveiten D, Bruset S, Borchgrevink CF, and et al. Effects of the homoeopathic remedy Arnica D 30 on marathon runners: a randomized, double-blind study during the 1995 Oslo marathon. Comp Ther Med 1998;6:71-74.
  24. Zicari D, Agneni F, Ricciotti F, and et al. Angioprotective action of Arnica 5 CH: preliminary data. Invest Ophthalmol Visual Science 1995;36:S479.
  25. Tetau M. Arnica and injury, double blind clinical study. Homeopath Heritage 1993;18:625-627.
  26. Albertini H and Goldberg W. Bilan de 60 observations randomisees. Hypericum-arnica contre placebo dans les nevralgies dentaires. Hom Franc 1984;71:47-49.
  27. Ernst, E. and Pittler, M. H. Efficacy of homeopathic arnica: a systematic review of placebo-controlled clinical trials. Arch.Surg. 1998;133:1187-1190. View abstract.
  28. Barnes, J., Resch, K. L., and Ernst, E. Homeopathy for postoperative ileus? A meta-analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol 1997;25:628-633. View abstract.
  29. Lokken, P., Straumsheim, P. A., Tveiten, D., Skjelbred, P., and Borchgrevink, C. F. Effect of homoeopathy on pain and other events after acute trauma: placebo controlled trial with bilateral oral surgery. BMJ 1995;310:1439-1442. View abstract.
  30. Hall, I. H., Starnes, C. O., Jr., Lee, K. H., and Waddell, T. G. Mode of action of sesquiterpene lactones as anti-inflammatory agents. J.Pharm.Sci. 1980;69:537-543. View abstract.
  31. Raak, C., Bussing, A., Gassmann, G., Boehm, K., and Ostermann, T. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) for pain conditions in dental practice. Homeopathy. 2012;101:204-210. View abstract.
  32. Colau, J. C., Vincent, S., Marijnen, P., and Allaert, F. A. Efficacy of a non-hormonal treatment, BRN-01, on menopausal hot flashes: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Drugs R.D 9-1-2012;12:107-119. View abstract.
  33. Reddy, K. K., Grossman, L., and Rogers, G. S. Common complementary and alternative therapies with potential use in dermatologic surgery: risks and benefits. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013;68:e127-e135. View abstract.
  34. Zhao, L., Lee, J. Y., and Hwang, D. H. Inhibition of pattern recognition receptor-mediated inflammation by bioactive phytochemicals. Nutr Rev. 2011;69:310-320. View abstract.
  35. Cornu, C., Joseph, P., Gaillard, S., Bauer, C., Vedrinne, C., Bissery, A., Melot, G., Bossard, N., Belon, P., and Lehot, J. J. No effect of a homoeopathic combination of Arnica montana and Bryonia alba on bleeding, inflammation, and ischaemia after aortic valve surgery. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010;69:136-142. View abstract.
  36. Kleijnen, J., Knipschild, P., and ter, Riet G. Clinical trials of homoeopathy. BMJ 2-9-1991;302:316-323. View abstract.
  37. Paris, A., Gonnet, N., Chaussard, C., Belon, P., Rocourt, F., Saragaglia, D., and Cracowski, J. L. Effect of homeopathy on analgesic intake following knee ligament reconstruction: a phase III monocentre randomized placebo controlled study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008;65:180-187. View abstract.
  38. Baumann, L. S. Less-known botanical cosmeceuticals. Dermatol Ther 2007;20:330-342. View abstract.
  39. Tveiten, D., Bruseth, S., Borchgrevink, C. F., and Lohne, K. [Effect of Arnica D 30 during hard physical exertion. A double-blind randomized trial during the Oslo Marathon 1990]. Tidsskr.Nor Laegeforen. 12-10-1991;111:3630-3631. View abstract.
  40. Schmidt, T. J., Stausberg, S., Raison, J. V., Berner, M., and Willuhn, G. Lignans from Arnica species. Nat Prod Res 5-10-2006;20:443-453. View abstract.
  41. Spitaler, R., Schlorhaufer, P. D., Ellmerer, E. P., Merfort, I., Bortenschlager, S., Stuppner, H., and Zidorn, C. Altitudinal variation of secondary metabolite profiles in flowering heads of Arnica montana cv. ARBO. Phytochemistry 2006;67:409-417. View abstract.
  42. Kos, O., Lindenmeyer, M. T., Tubaro, A., Sosa, S., and Merfort, I. New sesquiterpene lactones from Arnica tincture prepared from fresh flowerheads of Arnica montana. Planta Med 2005;71:1044-1052. View abstract.
  43. Oberbaum, M., Galoyan, N., Lerner-Geva, L., Singer, S. R., Grisaru, S., Shashar, D., and Samueloff, A. The effect of the homeopathic remedies Arnica montana and Bellis perennis on mild postpartum bleeding--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study--preliminary results. Complement Ther Med 2005;13:87-90. View abstract.
  44. Macedo, S. B., Ferreira, L. R., Perazzo, F. F., and Carvalho, J. C. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals. Homeopathy. 2004;93:84-87. View abstract.
  45. Douglas, J. A., Smallfield, B. M., Burgess, E. J., Perry, N. B., Anderson, R. E., Douglas, M. H., and Glennie, V. L. Sesquiterpene lactones in Arnica montana: a rapid analytical method and the effects of flower maturity and simulated mechanical harvesting on quality and yield. Planta Med 2004;70:166-170. View abstract.
  46. Passreiter CM, Florack M, Willuhn G. . [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by Asteraceae. Identification of an 8,9-epoxythymol-diester as the contact allergen of Arnica sachalinensis]. Derm.Beruf.Umwelt. 1988;36:79-82. View abstract.
  47. Hausen BM. The sensitizing capacity of Compositae plants. III. Test results and cross-reactions in Compositae-sensitive patients. Dermatologica 1979;159:1-11. View abstract.
  48. Hausen BM. Identification of the allergens of Arnica montana L. Contact Dermatitis 1978;4:308. View abstract.
  49. Hausen BM, Herrmann HD, and Willuhn G. The sensitizing capacity of Compositae plants. I. Occupational contact dermatitis from Arnica longifolia Eaton. Contact Dermatitis 1978;4:3-10. View abstract.
  50. Cuzzolin L, Zaffani S, and Benoni G. Safety implications regarding use of phytomedicines. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;62:37-42. View abstract.
  51. Spettoli E, Silvani S, Lucente P. Contact dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactones. Am J Contact Dermat. 1998;9:49-50. View abstract.
  52. Rudzki E, and Grzywa Z. Dermatitis from Arnica montana. Contact Dermatitis 1977;3:281-82. View abstract.
  53. Pirker C, Moslinger T, Koller DY, et al. Cross-reactivity with Tagetes in Arnica contact eczema. Contact Dermatitis 1992;26:217-219. View abstract.
  54. Machet L, Vaillant L, Callens A, et al. Allergic contact dermatitis from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) with cross-sensitivity to arnica. Contact Dermatitis 1993;28:184-85. View abstract.
  55. Delmonte S, Brusati C, Parodi A, et al. Leukemia-related Sweet's syndrome elicited by pathergy to Arnica. Dermatology 1998;197:195-96. View abstract.
  56. Aberer W. Contact allergy and medicinal herbs. J Dtsch.Dermatol Ges. 2008;6:15-24. View abstract.
  57. Schwarzkopf S, Bigliardi PL, and Panizzon RG. [Allergic contact dermatitis from Arnica]. Rev Med Suisse 12-13-2006;2:2884-885. View abstract.
  58. Gray S and West LM. Herbal medicines--a cautionary tale. N Z Dent J 2012;108:68-72. View abstract.
  59. Tveiten D, Bruset S, Borchgrevink CF, et al. Effects of the homoeopathic remedy Arnica D 30 on marathon runners: a randomized, double-blind study during the 1995 Oslo marathon. Comp Ther Med 1998;6:71-74.
  60. da Silva AG, de Sousa CP, Koehler J, et al. Evaluation of an extract of Brazilian arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen, Asteraceae) in treating lumbago. Phytother Res 2010;24:283-87. View abstract.
  61. Tuten C and McClung J. Reducing muscle soreness with Arnica montana: Is it effective? Alternative and Complementary Therapies 1999;5:369-72.
  62. Vickers AJ, Fisher P, Smith C, and et al. Homoeopathy for delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Br J sports Med 1997;31:304-307.
  63. Jawara N, Lewith GT, Vickers AJ, and et al. Homoeopathic Arnica and Rhus toxicodendron for delayed onset muscle soreness: a pilot for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. British Homoeopathic Journal 1997;86:10-15.
  64. Vickers AJ, Fisher P, Smith C, et al. Homeopathic Arnica 30x is ineffective for muscle soreness after long-distance running: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin J Pain 1998;14:227-31. View abstract.
  65. Raschka, C and Trostel Y. [Effect of a homeopathic arnica preparation (D4) on delayed onset muscle soreness. Placebo-controlled crossover study]. MMW Fortschr Med 7-20-2006;148:35. View abstract.
  66. Savage RH and Roe PF. A double blind trial to assess the benefit of Arnica montana in acute stroke illness. Br Hom J 1977;66:207-20.
  67. Leu S, Havey J, White LE, et al. Accelerated resolution of laser-induced bruising with topical 20% arnica: a rater-blinded randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol 2010;163:557-63. View abstract.
  68. Seeley BM, Denton AB, Ahn MS, et al. Effect of homeopathic Arnica montana on bruising in face-lifts: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arch Facial.Plast.Surg 2006;8:54-59. View abstract.
  69. Alonso D, Lazarus MC, and Baumann L. Effects of topical arnica gel on post-laser treatment bruises. Dermatol.Surg. 2002;28:686-88. View abstract.
  70. Kotlus BS, Heringer DM, and Dryden RM. Evaluation of homeopathic Arnica montana for ecchymosis after upper blepharoplasty: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. Ophthal.Plast.Reconstr.Surg 2010;26:686-88. View abstract.
  71. Totonchi A, and Guyuron B. A randomized, controlled comparison between arnica and steroids in the management of postrhinoplasty ecchymosis and edema. Plast.Reconstr.Surg 2007;120:271-74. View abstract.
  72. Wolf M, Tamaschke C, Mayer W, and Heger M. [Efficacy of Arnica in varicose vein surgery: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study]. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2003;10:242-47. View abstract.
  73. Ramelet AA, Buchheim G, Lorenz P, et al. Homeopathic Arnica in postoperative haematomas: a double-blind study. Dermatology 2000;201:347-348. View abstract.
  74. Hofmeyr GJ, Piccioni V, and Blauhof P. Postpartum homeopathic Arnica montana: a potency-finding pilot study. Br.J.Clin.Pract. 1990;44:619-621. View abstract.
  75. Hart O, Mullee MA, Lewith G, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of homoeopathic arnica C30 for pain and infection after total abdominal hysterectomy. J R Soc Med 1997;90:73-8. View abstract.
  76. Jeffrey SL and Belcher HJ. Use of Arnica to relieve pain after carpal-tunnel release surgery. Altern.Ther Health Med 2002;8:66-8. View abstract.
  77. Brinkhaus B, Wilkens JM, Ludtke R, et al. Homeopathic arnica therapy in patients receiving knee surgery: results of three randomised double-blind trials. Complement Ther Med 2006;14:237-46. View abstract.
  78. Robertson A, Suryanarayanan R, and Banerjee A. Homeopathic Arnica montana for post-tonsillectomy analgesia: a randomised placebo control trial. Homeopathy. 2007;96:17-21. View abstract.
  79. Ludtke R, and Hacke D. [On the effectiveness of the homeopathic remedy Arnica montana]. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2005;155:482-490. View abstract.
  80. Knuesel O, Weber M, and Suter A. Arnica montana gel in osteoarthritis of the knee: an open, multicenter clinical trial. Adv.Ther. 2002;19:209-18. View abstract.
  81. Zicari D, Cumps P, Del Beato P, and et al. Arnica 5 CH activity on retinal function. Invest Opthalmol Visual Science 1997;38:767.
  82. Zicari D, Agneni F, Ricciotti F, and et al. Angioprotective action of Arnica 5 CH: preliminary data. Invest Ophthalmol Visual Science 1995;36:S479.
  83. Widrig R, Suter A, Saller R, et al. Choosing between NSAID and arnica for topical treatment of hand osteoarthritis in a randomised, double-blind study. Rheumatol.Int 2007;27:585-591. View abstract.
  84. Stevinson C, Devaraj VS, Fountain-Barber A, et al. Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery. J R Soc Med 2003;96:60-65. View abstract.
  85. Moghadam BK, Gier R, and Thurlow T. Extensive oral mucosal ulcerations caused by misuse of a commercial mouthwash. Cutis 1999;64:131-134. View abstract.
  86. Venkatramani DV, Goel S, Ratra V, et al. Toxic optic neuropathy following ingestion of homeopathic medication Arnica-30. Cutan.Ocul.Toxicol. 2013;32:95-97. View abstract.
  87. Ciganda C, and Laborde A. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion. J Toxicol.Clin Toxicol. 2003;41:235-239. View abstract.
  88. Jalili J, Askeroglu U, Alleyne B, and Guyuron B. Herbal products that may contribute to hypertension. Plast.Reconstr.Surg 2013;131:168-173. View abstract.
  89. Karow JH, Abt HP, Frohling M, and Ackermann H. Efficacy of Arnica montana D4 for healing of wounds after Hallux valgus surgery compared to diclofenac. J Altern Complement Med 2008;14:17-25. View abstract.
  90. No authors listed. Final report on the safety assessment of Arnica montana extract and Arnica montana. Int.J.Toxicol. 2001;20:1-11. View abstract.
  91. Adkison JD, Bauer DW, Chang T. The effect of topical arnica on muscle pain. Ann Pharmacother 2010;44:1579-84. View abstract.
  92. Barrett S. Homeopathy: The ultimate fake. Quackwatch.org, 2001. Available at: http://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/homeo.html. (Accessed 29 May 2006).
  93. Kaziro GS. Metronidazole (Flagyl) and Arnica Montana in the prevention of post-surgical complications, a comparative placebo controlled clinical trial. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1984;22:42-9.. View abstract.
  94. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  95. Schroder H, Losche W, Strobach H, et al. Helenalin and 11 alpha, 13-dihydrohelenalin, two constituents from Arnica montana L., inhibit human platelet function via thiol-dependent pathways. Thromb Res 1990;57:839-45. View abstract.
  96. Baillargeon L, Drouin J, Desjardins L, et al. [The effects of Arnica montana on blood coagulation. Radomized controlled trial]. Can Fam Physician 1993;39:2362-7. View abstract.
  97. Lyss G, Schmidt TJ, Merfort I, Pahl HL, et al. Helenalin, an antiinflammatory sesquiterpene lactone from Arnica, selectively inhibits transcription factor NF-kappa B. Biol Chem 1997;378:951-61. View abstract.
  98. McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, eds. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, LLC 1997.
  99. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
  100. Wichtl MW. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Ed. N.M. Bisset. Stuttgart: Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers, 1994.
  101. Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. 3rd ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1993.
  102. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
Documento revisado - 07/21/2021