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Resveratrol

¿Qué es?

El resveratrol es una sustancia química que se encuentra presente en el vino tinto, la piel de la uva roja, el jugo de uva morada, las moras y en una menor cantidad en los cacahuetes. Se usa como un medicamento.

La gente usa el resveratrol para el "endurecimiento de las arterias" (arterioesclerosis), para bajar los niveles del colesterol "malo" (LDL), para aumentar los niveles del colesterol "Bueno" (HDL) y para prevenir el cáncer y las cardiopatías. También se usa para tratar los síntomas del trastorno pulmonar llamado "enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica" y para mejorar la salud hepática en personas con daño hepático que no está causado por la ingesta de alcohol. El resveratrol se usa para mejorar los niveles de glucosa en la sangre en personas con diabetes, para reducir la rasa corporal en personas con una condición llamada síndrome metabólico, y para reducir los signos del envejecimiento de la piel.

Ciertas personas se aplican resveratrol en la piel para tratar el acné.

El resveratrol se usa como aerosol nasal para tratar los síntomas de las alergias estacionales (rinitis alérgica).

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Diabetes. La ingesta de 250-1000 mg of resveratrol por día durante un máximo de 3 meses parece ayudar a controlar los niveles de azúcar en la sangre y a mejorar el funcionamiento d ela insulina en personas con diabetes tipo 2. Una dosis más baja de 5 mg dos veces por día durante 4 semanas podría también mejorar el funcionamiento de la insulina. El resveratrol no parece afectar los niveles de azúcar en la sangre o el funcionamiento de la insulina en personas con diabetes.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • Cardiopatia. Las personas que consumen grandes cantidades de resveratrol no parecen tener un menor riso de sufrir cardiopatías en comparación con las personas que consumen cantidades más pequeñas Además, la ingesta de resveratrol no parece mejorar los niveles de colesterol o grasas en la sangre llamados triglicéridos en personas con niveles de triglicéridos con riesgo de sufrir cardiopatías. Un estudio preliminar muestra que la ingesta de 10 mg de resveratrol por día durante 3 meses poria mejorar los latidos cardiacos en personas con antecedentes de infarto de miocardio y evidencia de daño de los vasos sanguíneos del corazón. Sin embargo, el mejoramiento es pequeño y el resveratrol no mejora la presión arterial o la espesura de la sangre en personas con esta condición.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • Acné. La investigación preliminar muestra que la aplicación, durante 60 días, en la cara de un gel que contiene resveratrol podría disminuir la gravedad del acné.
  • Rinitis alérgica. La investigación preliminar muestra que el uso de un aerosol nasal que contiene resveratrol and betaglucano 3 veces por día durante 2 meses reduce la congestión nasal y los estornudos en niños y adolescentes con alergia al polen.
  • Cáncer. Las personas que consumen grandes cantidades de resveratrol no parecen tener un menor riso de sufrir cancer en comparación con las personas que consumen cantidades más pequeñas. No obstante, no está claro si el beneficio se debe al resveratrol o a otros ingredientes
  • Síndrome metabólico. La investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de resveratrol ayuda a reducir la grasa corporal en personas con síndrome metabólico. Sin embargo, la ingesta de resveratrol no ayuda a disminuir la presión arterial o los niveles de colesterol, o los niveles de azúcar en la sangre.
  • Enfermedad hepática grasa no relacionada con el alcohol (enfermedad hepática grasa no alcohólica; EHNA) Envejecimiento de la piel Un estudio preliminar muestra que la ingesta de 3000 mg of resveratrol por día durante 8 semanas no mejora la función hepática o reduce la acumulación de grasa en el hígado en personas con sobrepeso u obesas o en hombres obesos con EHNA. Sin embargo, la ingesta de 500 mg of resveratrol por día durante 12 semanas mientras se sigue una dieta y se realiza ejercicio físico reduce la acumulación de grasa en el hígado, y mejora la función hepática en personas con EHNA.
  • "Endurecimiento de las arterias" (arterioesclerosis).
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para poder aprobar al resveratrol para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

El resveratrol podría expandir los vasos sanguíneos y disminuir la actividad de células importantes en la coagulación sanguínea. Algunas investigaciones sugieren que el resveratrol tiene efectos como estrógeno pero estos son débiles. Puede también disminuir el dolor y la hinchazón (inflamación). El resveratrol podría reducir los niveles de azúcar (glucosa) en la sangre y ayudar al cuerpo a combatir las enfermedades. Podría también impedir la aglomeración de las proteínas en el cerebro para ayudar a prevenir las enfermedades como la enfermedad de Alzheimer.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

El resveratrol es POSIBLEMENTE SEGURO cuando se lo usa en cantidades que se encuentran en los alimentos. El resveratrol es POSIBLEMENTE SEGURO y cuando se aplica en la piel durante un máximo de 30 días o cuando se consume en dosis de hasta 1500 mg diarios durante un máximo de tres meses. Se informó la ingesta de dosis seguras altas de hasta 3000 mg durante un máximo de 8 semanas.

En niños, el resveratrol es POSIBLEMENTE SEGURO cuando se coloca en forma de aerosol en las fosas nasales durante un máximo de meses.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: El resveratrol es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURO cuando se usa en las cantidades en las que se encuentra en algunos alimentos; sin embargo, durante el embarazo y lactancia, la fuente del resveratrol es importante. El resveratrol se encuentra presente en la piel de las uvas, el jugo de uva, el vino y otras fuentes alimenticias. Durante el embarazo y la lactancia no debería consumirse vino como fuente de resveratrol.

Trastornos hemorrágicos: El resveratrol podría disminuir la coagulación de la sangre y podría aumentar el riesgo hemorragia en personas con trastornos hemorrágicos.

Trastornos sensibles a las hormonas como cáncer de mamas, cáncer uterino, cáncer de los ovarios, endometriosis o fibromas uterinos: El resveratrol podría tener un efecto como estrógeno. No tome resveratrol si tiene una enfermedad que podría empeorar con la exposición al estrógeno.

Cirugía: El resveratrol podría aumentar el riesgo de sangrado durante y después de una cirugía. Deje de tomar resveratrol por lo menos 2 semanas antes de tener un procedimiento quirúrgico.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del Citocromo P450 1A1 (CYP1A1))
Algunos medicamentos son alterados y descompuestos por el hígado. El resveratrol podría disminuir la velocidad con la que hígado descompone ciertos medicamentos. En teoría, la ingesta de resveratrol junto con algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos.

Ciertos medicamentos modificados por el hígado incluyen clorzoxazona, teofilina y bufuralol.
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del Citocromo P450 1A2 (CYP1A2))
Algunos medicamentos son alterados y descompuestos por el hígado. El resveratrol podría disminuir la velocidad con la que hígado descompone ciertos medicamentos. En teoría, la ingesta de resveratrol junto con algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos.

Algunos de los medicamentos alterados por el hígado incluyen clozapina (Clozaril), ciclobenzaprina (Flexeril), fluvoxamina (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramina (Tofranil), mexiletina (Mexitil), olanzapina (Zyprexa), pentazocina (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrina (Cognex), zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptán (Zomig) y otros.
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del Citocromo P450 1B1 (CYP1B1))
Algunos medicamentos son alterados y descompuestos por el hígado. El resveratrol podría disminuir la velocidad con la que hígado descompone ciertos medicamentos. En teoría, la ingesta de resveratrol junto con algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos.

Ciertos medicamentos modificados por el hígado incluyen clorzoxazona, teofilina y bufuralol.
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del Citocromo P450 2C19 (CYP2C19))
Algunos medicamentos son alterados y descompuestos por el hígado. El resveratrol podría disminuir la velocidad con la que hígado descompone ciertos medicamentos. En teoría, la ingesta de resveratrol junto con algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos.

Ciertos medicamentos modificados por el hígado incluyen amitriptilina (Elavil), carisoprodol (Soma), citalopram (Celexa), diazepam (Valium), lansoprazol (Prevacid), omeprazol (Prilosec), fenitoína (Dilantin), warfarina y otros.
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del Citocromo P450 2E1 [CYP2E1])
Algunos medicamentos son alterados y descompuestos por el hígado. El resveratrol podría disminuir la velocidad con la que hígado descompone ciertos medicamentos. En teoría, la ingesta de resveratrol junto con algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos.

Ciertos medicamentos modificados por el hígado incluyen acetaminofén, clorzoxazona (Parafon Fortea), etanol, teofilina y anestésicos tales como enfluran (Ethrane), halotano (Fluothane), isoflurane (Forane), metoxiflurano (Penthrane).
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del Citocromo P450 3A4 (CYP3A4))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el hígado. El resveratrol podría disminuir la rapidez con que el hígado descompone algunos medicamentos. En teoría, la tomar resveratrol junto con otros medicamentos que son alterados por el hígado puede aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos. Sin embargo, cierta investigación preliminar muestra resultados contradictorios.

Algunos medicamentos transportados por el hígado incluyen bloqueadores del canal de calcio (diltiazem, nicardipina, verapamilo), agentes quimioterapéuticos (etopósido, paclitaxel, vinblastina, vincristina, vindesina), antimicóticos (ketoconazol, itraconazol), glucocorticoides, alfentanil (Alfenta), cisaprida (Propulsid), alfentanil (Sublimaze), lidocaína (Xylocaine), losartán (Cozaar), fexofenadina (Allegra), midazolam (Versed) y otros.
Medicamentos que retardan la coagulación sanguínea (Anticoagulantes / fármacos Antiplaquetarios)
El resveratrol podría retardar la coagulación sanguínea. El tomar resveratrol junto con medicamentos que también retardan la coagulación podría aumentar la posibilidad de sufrir hematomas y pérdida de sangre.

Algunos medicamentos que retardan la coagulación sanguínea incluyen aspirina, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, otros), ibuprofeno (Advil, Motrin, otros), naproxeno (Anaprox, Naprosyn, otros), dalteparina (Fragmin), enoxaparina (Lovenox), heparina, warfarina (Coumadin), y otros.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Hierbas y suplementos que podrían retardar la coagulación sanguínea (Hierbas y suplementos anticoagulantes/antiplaquetarias)
El resveratrol podría retardar la coagulación sanguínea. En algunas personas el uso de resveratrol junto con hierbas y suplementos que también podrían retardar la coagulación sanguínea podría aumentar el riesgo de hemorragia o hematomas. Estas hierbas incluyen la angélica, el clavo de olor, la salvia miltiorrhiza, la matricaria, el ajo, el jengibre, el ginkgo, el ginseng Panax, el castaño de Indias, el trébol rojo, la cúrcuma y otras.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

Grasa
La ingesta de resveratrol con una comida con alto contenido de grasas reduce la cantidad de resveratrol absorbido por el cuerpo.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

Las siguientes dosis se han estudiado en investigación científica:

ADULTOS
POR BOCA:
  • Diabetes: Se ha usado 250-1000 mg por día durante 3 meses.

Otros nombres

3,5,4' TriHydroxy-Transstibene, (E)- 5-(4-hydroxystyryl)benzene-1,3-diol, 3,4',5-stilbenetriol, 3,5,4' -trihydroxystilbene, 3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene, 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene, Cis-Resveratrol, Extrait de Vin, Extrait de Vin Rouge, Kojo-Kon, Phytoalexin, Phytoalexine, Phytoestrogen, Phyto-œstrogène, Pilule de Vin, Protykin, Red Wine Extract, Resvératrol, Resveratrols, Resvératrols, RSV, RSVL, Stilbene Phytoalexin, Trans-Resveratrol, Trans-Resvératrol, Wine Extract, Wine Pill.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

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Documento revisado - 12/14/2017