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Macular degeneration, or age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is a leading cause of vision loss in Americans 60 and older. It is a disease that destroys your sharp, central vision. You need central vision to see objects clearly and to do tasks such as reading and driving.
AMD affects the macula, the part of the eye that allows you to see fine detail. It does not hurt, but it causes cells in the macula to die. There are two types: wet and dry. Wet AMD happens when abnormal blood vessels grow under the macula. These new blood vessels often leak blood and fluid. Wet AMD damages the macula quickly. Blurred vision is a common early symptom. Dry AMD happens when the light-sensitive cells in the macula slowly break down. Your gradually lose your central vision. A common early symptom is that straight lines appear crooked.
Regular comprehensive eye exams can detect macular degeneration before the disease causes vision loss. Treatment can slow vision loss. It does not restore vision.
NIH: National Eye Institute
- Age-Related Macular Degeneration (National Eye Institute)
- What Is Macular Degeneration? (American Academy of Ophthalmology) Also in Spanish
Diagnosis and Tests
- Dilating Eye Drops (American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus)
Prevention and Risk Factors
- Prevention of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (BrightFocus Foundation) Also in Spanish
Treatments and Therapies
- Age-Related Eye Disease Studies (AREDS/AREDS2) (National Eye Institute)
- Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Eye Injections (American Academy of Ophthalmology)
- Diet and Nutrition (American Academy of Ophthalmology) Also in Spanish
- Dry Macular Degeneration (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish
- Wet Macular Degeneration (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish
- Age-related macular degeneration: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine)
- Stargardt macular degeneration: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine)
Videos and Tutorials
- Macular degeneration (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish
Statistics and Research
- Eye Health Data and Statistics (National Eye Institute)
- NIH Study Provides Clarity on Supplements for Protection Against Blinding Eye Disease (National Eye Institute)
- ClinicalTrials.gov: Macular Degeneration (National Institutes of Health)
Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Effects of Astaxanthin, Lutein, and Zeaxanthin on Eye-Hand Coordination and Smooth-Pursuit...
- Article: Lifestyle Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial for Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD-Life): Study...
- Article: Evaluation of Multiple Machine Learning Models for Predicting Number of Anti-VEGF...
- Macular Degeneration -- see more articles
- How the Eyes Work (National Eye Institute) Also in Spanish
- Fluorescein angiography (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish
- Home vision tests (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish
- Intravitreal injection (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish
- Macular degeneration - age-related (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish