The TSEN2 gene provides instructions for making one part (subunit) of an enzyme called the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex. This complex helps process several types of RNA molecules, which are chemical cousins of DNA.
The tRNA splicing endonuclease complex is particularly important for the normal processing of a form of RNA known as transfer RNA (tRNA). tRNA molecules help assemble protein building blocks called amino acids into full-length proteins. However, before they can assemble proteins, tRNAs must be processed into mature molecules. In particular, regions called introns need to be removed from some tRNAs for the molecules to be functional. The tRNA splicing endonuclease complex recognizes and then removes introns to help produce mature tRNA molecules.
Studies suggest that the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex may also be involved in processing another form of RNA known as messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA serves as a genetic blueprint for making proteins. Researchers suspect that the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex cuts (cleaves) one end of mRNA molecules so a string of adenines (one of the building blocks of RNA) can be added. This process is known as polyadenylation, and the string of adenines is known as a poly(A) tail. The poly(A) tail signals the stopping point for protein production and protects mRNA from being broken down before protein production occurs.
Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes
At least four mutations in the TSEN2 gene have been identified in people with a disorder of brain development called pontocerebellar hypoplasia. The major features of this condition include delayed development, problems with movement, and intellectual disability. TSEN2 gene mutations cause a small percentage of all cases of a form of the disorder designated pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2 (PCH2). When PCH2 results from TSEN2 gene mutations, it is sometimes categorized more specifically as PCH2B.
The TSEN2 gene mutations that cause PCH2B impair the function of the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex, which likely disrupts the processing of RNA molecules and affects the production of many types of proteins. Before birth, these changes appear to have the most severe impact on fast-growing tissues, such as those in the brain. However, it is unknown exactly how reduced function of the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex leads to abnormal brain development in people with this condition.More About This Health Condition
Other Names for This Gene
- tRNA splicing endonuclease 2 homolog (S. cerevisiae)
- tRNA-intron nuclease 2
Additional Information & Resources
Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry
Scientific Articles on PubMed
Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM
- Bailey KA, Aldinger KA. Mutations in the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Clin Genet. 2009 May;75(5):427-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2009.01186_3.x. Citation on PubMed
- Bierhals T, Korenke GC, Uyanik G, Kutsche K. Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2 and TSEN2: review of the literature and two novel mutations. Eur J Med Genet. 2013 Jun;56(6):325-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2013.03.009. Epub 2013 Apr 3. Review. Citation on PubMed
- Budde BS, Namavar Y, Barth PG, Poll-The BT, Nürnberg G, Becker C, van Ruissen F, Weterman MA, Fluiter K, te Beek ET, Aronica E, van der Knaap MS, Höhne W, Toliat MR, Crow YJ, Steinling M, Voit T, Roelenso F, Brussel W, Brockmann K, Kyllerman M, Boltshauser E, Hammersen G, Willemsen M, Basel-Vanagaite L, Krägeloh-Mann I, de Vries LS, Sztriha L, Muntoni F, Ferrie CD, Battini R, Hennekam RC, Grillo E, Beemer FA, Stoets LM, Wollnik B, Nürnberg P, Baas F. tRNA splicing endonuclease mutations cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Nat Genet. 2008 Sep;40(9):1113-8. doi: 10.1038/ng.204. Citation on PubMed
- Namavar Y, Barth PG, Kasher PR, van Ruissen F, Brockmann K, Bernert G, Writzl K, Ventura K, Cheng EY, Ferriero DM, Basel-Vanagaite L, Eggens VR, Krägeloh-Mann I, De Meirleir L, King M, Graham JM Jr, von Moers A, Knoers N, Sztriha L, Korinthenberg R; PCH Consortium, Dobyns WB, Baas F, Poll-The BT. Clinical, neuroradiological and genetic findings in pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Brain. 2011 Jan;134(Pt 1):143-56. doi: 10.1093/brain/awq287. Epub 2010 Oct 15. Citation on PubMed