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TGM5 gene

transglutaminase 5

Normal Function

The TGM5 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called transglutaminase 5. This enzyme is found in many of the body's tissues, although it seems to play a key role in the outer layer of skin (the epidermis). In the epidermis, transglutaminase 5 is involved in the formation of a structure called the cornified cell envelope, which surrounds epidermal cells and helps the skin form a protective barrier between the body and its environment. Specifically, transglutaminase 5 forms strong bonds, called cross-links, between the structural proteins that make up the cornified cell envelope. This cross-linking provides strength and stability to the epidermis.

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

Peeling skin syndrome 2

Several variants (also called mutations) in the TGM5 gene have been found to cause peeling skin syndrome 2. This condition is characterized by painless peeling of the top layer of skin. The peeling is most apparent on the hands and feet, but it can also affect the arms and legs. 

Most of the variants that cause the condition change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in transglutaminase 5. The most common variant in people of European ancestry, written as Gly113Cys or G113C, replaces the amino acid glycine with the amino acid cysteine at a certain position in the enzyme. This and other TGM5 gene variants reduce the activity of transglutaminase 5 or prevent cells from making any of this enzyme. A shortage of transglutaminase 5 function impairs protein cross-linking, which weakens the cornified cell envelope and allows the outermost cells of the epidermis to separate easily from the underlying skin and peel off. The peeling may be most noticeable on the hands and feet because those areas are more often exposed to moisture and friction.

More About This Health Condition

Other Names for This Gene

  • protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 5
  • protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 5 isoform 1
  • protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 5 isoform 2
  • TG(X)
  • TGase X
  • TGase-5
  • TGASE5
  • TGM6
  • TGMX
  • TGX
  • transglutaminase V
  • transglutaminase X
  • transglutaminase-5

Additional Information & Resources

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Gene and Variant Databases


  • Candi E, Oddi S, Paradisi A, Terrinoni A, Ranalli M, Teofoli P, Citro G, Scarpato S, Puddu P, Melino G. Expression of transglutaminase 5 in normal and pathologic human epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2002 Sep;119(3):670-7. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1747.2002.01853.x. Citation on PubMed
  • Candi E, Oddi S, Terrinoni A, Paradisi A, Ranalli M, Finazzi-Agro A, Melino G. Transglutaminase 5 cross-links loricrin, involucrin, and small proline-rich proteins in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 14;276(37):35014-23. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M010157200. Epub 2001 Jul 6. Citation on PubMed
  • Cassidy AJ, van Steensel MA, Steijlen PM, van Geel M, van der Velden J, Morley SM, Terrinoni A, Melino G, Candi E, McLean WH. A homozygous missense mutation in TGM5 abolishes epidermal transglutaminase 5 activity and causes acral peeling skin syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Dec;77(6):909-17. doi: 10.1086/497707. Epub 2005 Oct 11. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Kiritsi D, Cosgarea I, Franzke CW, Schumann H, Oji V, Kohlhase J, Bruckner-Tuderman L, Has C. Acral peeling skin syndrome with TGM5 gene mutations may resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex in young individuals. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Jun;130(6):1741-6. doi: 10.1038/jid.2010.23. Epub 2010 Feb 18. No abstract available. Citation on PubMed
  • Pigors M, Kiritsi D, Cobzaru C, Schwieger-Briel A, Suarez J, Faletra F, Aho H, Makela L, Kern JS, Bruckner-Tuderman L, Has C. TGM5 mutations impact epidermal differentiation in acral peeling skin syndrome. J Invest Dermatol. 2012 Oct;132(10):2422-2429. doi: 10.1038/jid.2012.166. Epub 2012 May 24. Citation on PubMed
  • Szczecinska W, Nesteruk D, Wertheim-Tysarowska K, Greenblatt DT, Baty D, Browne F, Liu L, Ozoemena L, Terron-Kwiatkowski A, McGrath JA, Mellerio JE, Morton J, Wozniak K, Kowalewski C, Has C, Moss C. Under-recognition of acral peeling skin syndrome: 59 new cases with 15 novel mutations. Br J Dermatol. 2014 Nov;171(5):1206-10. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12964. Epub 2014 Oct 20. Citation on PubMed
  • van der Velden JJ, Jonkman MF, McLean WH, Hamm H, Steijlen PM, van Steensel MA, van Geel M. A recurrent mutation in the TGM5 gene in European patients with acral peeling skin syndrome. J Dermatol Sci. 2012 Jan;65(1):74-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2011.10.002. Epub 2011 Oct 13. No abstract available. Citation on PubMed

The information on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Contact a health care provider if you have questions about your health.