Skip navigation

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

URL of this page:

SLC39A14 gene

solute carrier family 39 member 14

Normal Function

The SLC39A14 gene provides instructions for making a protein that transports the element manganese across cell membranes. Manganese is important for many cellular functions, but large amounts are toxic, particularly to brain cells. The SLC39A14 protein is found in the membranes surrounding several types of cells, as well as in the membranes of structures within these cells. The protein is thought to transport excess manganese from the blood into liver cells so that it can be removed from the body through bile. Bile is a substance produced by the liver that is important for digestion and the removal of waste products.

The SLC39A14 protein may also transport other elements, including zinc, iron, and cadmium, across cell membranes. The importance of this transport in the body is not well understood.

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

Hypermanganesemia with dystonia

At least five SLC39A14 gene mutations have been found to cause hypermanganesemia with dystonia 2, a condition that begins in early childhood and is characterized by high levels of manganese in the blood and brain (hypermanganesemia), involuntary tensing of the muscles (dystonia), and other movement problems. These mutations impair the transport of manganese into liver cells. As a result, the element cannot be removed from the body through bile. The excess manganese builds up in the blood and subsequently in brain cells, particularly cells in a region of the brain that helps control movement. High levels of manganese damage these cells, causing neurological problems that make controlling movement difficult.

More About This Health Condition

Other Names for This Gene

  • cig19
  • KIAA0062
  • LIV-1 subfamily of ZIP zinc transporter 4
  • LZT-Hs4
  • NET34
  • solute carrier family 39 (metal ion transporter), member 14
  • solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 14
  • ZIP14
  • zrt- and Irt-like protein 14
  • Zrt-, Irt-like protein 14

Additional Information & Resources

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Gene and Variant Databases


  • Aydemir TB, Kim MH, Kim J, Colon-Perez LM, Banan G, Mareci TH, Febo M, Cousins RJ. Metal Transporter Zip14 (Slc39a14) Deletion in Mice Increases Manganese Deposition and Produces Neurotoxic Signatures and Diminished Motor Activity. J Neurosci. 2017 Jun 21;37(25):5996-6006. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0285-17.2017. Epub 2017 May 23. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Chen P, Chakraborty S, Mukhopadhyay S, Lee E, Paoliello MM, Bowman AB, Aschner M. Manganese homeostasis in the nervous system. J Neurochem. 2015 Aug;134(4):601-10. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13170. Epub 2015 Jun 16. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Liuzzi JP, Aydemir F, Nam H, Knutson MD, Cousins RJ. Zip14 (Slc39a14) mediates non-transferrin-bound iron uptake into cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Sep 12;103(37):13612-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0606424103. Epub 2006 Sep 1. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Mukhopadhyay S. Familial manganese-induced neurotoxicity due to mutations in SLC30A10 or SLC39A14. Neurotoxicology. 2018 Jan;64:278-283. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2017.07.030. Epub 2017 Aug 5. Citation on PubMed
  • Taylor KM, Morgan HE, Johnson A, Nicholson RI. Structure-function analysis of a novel member of the LIV-1 subfamily of zinc transporters, ZIP14. FEBS Lett. 2005 Jan 17;579(2):427-32. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2004.12.006. Citation on PubMed
  • Tuschl K, Meyer E, Valdivia LE, Zhao N, Dadswell C, Abdul-Sada A, Hung CY, Simpson MA, Chong WK, Jacques TS, Woltjer RL, Eaton S, Gregory A, Sanford L, Kara E, Houlden H, Cuno SM, Prokisch H, Valletta L, Tiranti V, Younis R, Maher ER, Spencer J, Straatman-Iwanowska A, Gissen P, Selim LA, Pintos-Morell G, Coroleu-Lletget W, Mohammad SS, Yoganathan S, Dale RC, Thomas M, Rihel J, Bodamer OA, Enns CA, Hayflick SJ, Clayton PT, Mills PB, Kurian MA, Wilson SW. Mutations in SLC39A14 disrupt manganese homeostasis and cause childhood-onset parkinsonism-dystonia. Nat Commun. 2016 May 27;7:11601. doi: 10.1038/ncomms11601. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Xin Y, Gao H, Wang J, Qiang Y, Imam MU, Li Y, Wang J, Zhang R, Zhang H, Yu Y, Wang H, Luo H, Shi C, Xu Y, Hojyo S, Fukada T, Min J, Wang F. Manganese transporter Slc39a14 deficiency revealed its key role in maintaining manganese homeostasis in mice. Cell Discov. 2017 Jul 18;3:17025. doi: 10.1038/celldisc.2017.25. eCollection 2017. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central

The information on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Contact a health care provider if you have questions about your health.