The PRKRA gene provides instructions for making a protein called PACT. This protein plays a role in the cell's response to stress, such as exposure to viruses, damaging molecules called free radicals, or other toxic substances. When a cell is under stress, the PACT protein turns on (activates) another protein called PKR, which then turns off (inactivates) the eIF2 alpha (eIF2α) protein. Inactivation of eIF2α lowers protein production, which helps protect cells from damage. The signals triggered by PACT can ultimately lead to self-destruction (apoptosis) of the cell if it remains under stress.
The signals sent by the PACT protein are also important for a process in the brain called synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity is the ability of the connections between brain cells (synapses) to change and adapt over time in response to experience. This process is critical for learning and memory.
Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes
At least eight mutations in the PRKRA gene have been identified in people with dystonia 16. This condition is one of many forms of dystonia, which is a group of conditions characterized by involuntary movements, twisting (torsion) and tensing of various muscles, and unusual positioning of affected body parts.
Most of the PRKRA gene mutations that cause dystonia 16 change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the PACT protein. Studies suggest that these changes alter the timing of signals sent by the PACT protein in response to stress. The abnormal signaling increases the rate at which cell death occurs. It is likely that the excessive loss of cells in certain regions of the brain impairs the brain's ability to control muscles and movement, resulting in the features of dystonia 16. It is unclear why brain cells are particularly affected by PRKRA gene mutations.More About This Health Condition
Other Names for This Gene
- PRKRA gene
- protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase
Additional Information & Resources
Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry
Scientific Articles on PubMed
Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM
- Camargos S, Scholz S, Simón-Sánchez J, Paisán-Ruiz C, Lewis P, Hernandez D, Ding J, Gibbs JR, Cookson MR, Bras J, Guerreiro R, Oliveira CR, Lees A, Hardy J, Cardoso F, Singleton AB. DYT16, a novel young-onset dystonia-parkinsonism disorder: identification of a segregating mutation in the stress-response protein PRKRA. Lancet Neurol. 2008 Mar;7(3):207-15. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70022-X. Epub 2008 Feb 1. Citation on PubMed
- Dos Santos CO, da Silva-Júnior FP, Puga RD, Barbosa ER, Azevedo Silva SMC, Borges V, Limongi JCP, Rocha MSG, Ferraz HB, de Carvalho Aguiar P. The prevalence of PRKRA mutations in idiopathic dystonia. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2018 Mar;48:93-96. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2017.12.015. Epub 2017 Dec 13. Citation on PubMed
- Vaughn LS, Bragg DC, Sharma N, Camargos S, Cardoso F, Patel RC. Altered activation of protein kinase PKR and enhanced apoptosis in dystonia cells carrying a mutation in PKR activator protein PACT. J Biol Chem. 2015 Sep 11;290(37):22543-57. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.669408. Epub 2015 Jul 31. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
- Yong Y, Luo J, Ke ZJ. dsRNA binding protein PACT/RAX in gene silencing, development and diseases. Front Biol (Beijing). 2014 Oct;9(5):382-388. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
- Zech M, Castrop F, Schormair B, Jochim A, Wieland T, Gross N, Lichtner P, Peters A, Gieger C, Meitinger T, Strom TM, Oexle K, Haslinger B, Winkelmann J. DYT16 revisited: exome sequencing identifies PRKRA mutations in a European dystonia family. Mov Disord. 2014 Oct;29(12):1504-10. doi: 10.1002/mds.25981. Epub 2014 Aug 20. Citation on PubMed