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PGAM2 gene

phosphoglycerate mutase 2

Normal Function

The PGAM2 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called phosphoglycerate mutase. The version of phosphoglycerate mutase produced from this gene is found predominantly in skeletal muscle cells. (Skeletal muscles are the muscles used for movement.) Another version of this enzyme, which is produced from a different gene, is found in many other cells and tissues.

Phosphoglycerate mutase is involved in a critical energy-producing process known as glycolysis. During glycolysis, the simple sugar glucose is broken down to produce energy. Phosphoglycerate mutase helps carry out a chemical reaction that converts a molecule called 3-phosphoglycerate, which is produced during the breakdown of glucose, to another molecule called 2-phosphoglycerate.

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

Phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency

At least five mutations in the PGAM2 gene have been found to cause phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency. The most common of these mutations, written as Trp78Ter or W78X, replaces the protein building block (amino acid) tryptophan with a premature stop signal in the instructions for making phosphoglycerate mutase. This mutation results in the production of an abnormally short, nonfunctional version of the enzyme. Other mutations change single amino acids in phosphoglycerate mutase.

Mutations in the PGAM2 gene greatly reduce the activity of phosphoglycerate mutase, which disrupts energy production in skeletal muscle cells. This defect underlies the muscle cramping, muscle breakdown, and related signs and symptoms that occur following strenuous exercise in affected individuals.

More About This Health Condition

Other Names for This Gene

  • BPG-dependent PGAM 2
  • GSD10
  • MGC88743
  • muscle-specific phosphoglycerate mutase
  • PGAM-M
  • phosphoglycerate mutase 2 (muscle)
  • phosphoglycerate mutase isozyme M

Additional Information & Resources

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Gene and Variant Databases


  • DiMauro S, Miranda AF, Khan S, Gitlin K, Friedman R. Human muscle phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency: newly discovered metabolic myopathy. Science. 1981 Jun 12;212(4500):1277-9. doi: 10.1126/science.6262916. Citation on PubMed
  • Edwards YH, Sakoda S, Schon E, Povey S. The gene for human muscle-specific phosphoglycerate mutase, PGAM2, mapped to chromosome 7 by polymerase chain reaction. Genomics. 1989 Nov;5(4):948-51. doi: 10.1016/0888-7543(89)90140-7. Citation on PubMed
  • Naini A, Toscano A, Musumeci O, Vissing J, Akman HO, DiMauro S. Muscle phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency revisited. Arch Neurol. 2009 Mar;66(3):394-8. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2008.584. Citation on PubMed
  • Tsujino S, Shanske S, Sakoda S, Fenichel G, DiMauro S. The molecular genetic basis of muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 1993 Mar;52(3):472-7. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Tsujino S, Shanske S, Sakoda S, Toscano A, DiMauro S. Molecular genetic studies in muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM-M) deficiency. Muscle Nerve Suppl. 1995;3:S50-3. doi: 10.1002/mus.880181412. Citation on PubMed

The information on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Contact a health care provider if you have questions about your health.