The CTC1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays an important role in structures known as telomeres, which are found at the ends of chromosomes. Telomeres are short, repetitive segments of DNA that help protect chromosomes from abnormally sticking together or breaking down (degrading). In most cells, telomeres become progressively shorter as the cell divides. After a certain number of cell divisions, the telomeres become so short that they trigger the cell to stop dividing or to self-destruct (undergo apoptosis).
The CTC1 protein works as part of a group of proteins known as the CST complex, which is involved in the maintenance of telomeres. This complex is part of the special machinery that some cells use to copy (replicate) telomeres so they do not become too short as cells divide. Studies suggest that the CTC1 protein may also have roles in DNA replication unrelated to telomeres, but these functions are not well understood.
Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes
Coats plus syndrome
At least 20 mutations in the CTC1 gene have been identified in people with Coats plus syndrome. This disorder is characterized by an eye condition called Coats disease plus abnormalities of the brain, bones, gastrointestinal system, and other parts of the body.
Most people with Coats plus syndrome have a mutation in one copy of the CTC1 gene in each cell that eliminates the function of the CTC1 protein and a mutation in the other copy of the gene that reduces but does not eliminate the protein's function. This combination of mutations leaves only a small amount of functional CTC1 protein available to work as part of the CST complex. The resulting impairment of this complex affects the replication of telomeres, although the effect on telomere structure and function is unclear. Some studies have found that people with CTC1 gene mutations have abnormally short telomeres, while other studies have found no change in telomere length. Researchers are working to determine how telomeres are different in people with CTC1 gene mutations and how these changes could underlie the varied signs and symptoms of Coats plus syndrome.More About This Health Condition
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Other Names for This Gene
- alpha accessory factor 132
- conserved telomere capping protein 1
- CST complex subunit CTC1
- CTS telomere maintenance complex component 1
- HBV DNAPTP1-transactivated protein B
Additional Information & Resources
Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry
Scientific Articles on PubMed
Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM
- Anderson BH, Kasher PR, Mayer J, Szynkiewicz M, Jenkinson EM, Bhaskar SS, Urquhart JE, Daly SB, Dickerson JE, O'Sullivan J, Leibundgut EO, Muter J, Abdel-Salem GM, Babul-Hirji R, Baxter P, Berger A, Bonafe L, Brunstom-Hernandez JE, Buckard JA, Chitayat D, Chong WK, Cordelli DM, Ferreira P, Fluss J, Forrest EH, Franzoni E, Garone C, Hammans SR, Houge G, Hughes I, Jacquemont S, Jeannet PY, Jefferson RJ, Kumar R, Kutschke G, Lundberg S, Lourenco CM, Mehta R, Naidu S, Nischal KK, Nunes L, Ounap K, Philippart M, Prabhakar P, Risen SR, Schiffmann R, Soh C, Stephenson JB, Stewart H, Stone J, Tolmie JL, van der Knaap MS, Vieira JP, Vilain CN, Wakeling EL, Wermenbol V, Whitney A, Lovell SC, Meyer S, Livingston JH, Baerlocher GM, Black GC, Rice GI, Crow YJ. Mutations in CTC1, encoding conserved telomere maintenance component 1, cause Coats plus. Nat Genet. 2012 Jan 22;44(3):338-42. doi: 10.1038/ng.1084. Citation on PubMed
- Chen LY, Majerska J, Lingner J. Molecular basis of telomere syndrome caused by CTC1 mutations. Genes Dev. 2013 Oct 1;27(19):2099-108. doi: 10.1101/gad.222893.113. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
- Gu P, Chang S. Functional characterization of human CTC1 mutations reveals novel mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of the telomere disease Coats plus. Aging Cell. 2013 Dec;12(6):1100-9. doi: 10.1111/acel.12139. Epub 2013 Sep 4. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
- Polvi A, Linnankivi T, Kivela T, Herva R, Keating JP, Makitie O, Pareyson D, Vainionpaa L, Lahtinen J, Hovatta I, Pihko H, Lehesjoki AE. Mutations in CTC1, encoding the CTS telomere maintenance complex component 1, cause cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Mar 9;90(3):540-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.02.002. Epub 2012 Mar 1. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
- Surovtseva YV, Churikov D, Boltz KA, Song X, Lamb JC, Warrington R, Leehy K, Heacock M, Price CM, Shippen DE. Conserved telomere maintenance component 1 interacts with STN1 and maintains chromosome ends in higher eukaryotes. Mol Cell. 2009 Oct 23;36(2):207-18. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2009.09.017. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
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