The CARD14 gene provides instructions for making a protein that turns on (activates) a group of interacting proteins known as nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB). The NF-κB protein complex regulates the activity of multiple genes, including genes that control the body's immune responses and inflammatory reactions. Inflammation is a normal immune system response to injury and foreign invaders (such as bacteria). The NF-κB protein complex also protects cells from certain signals that would otherwise cause them to self-destruct (undergo apoptosis).
The CARD14 protein is found in many of the body's tissues, but it is particularly abundant in the skin. NF-κB signaling appears to play important roles in regulating inflammatory reactions in the skin and in promoting the survival of skin cells.
Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes
Generalized pustular psoriasis
At least three CARD14 gene mutations have been found in people with generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), a rare and severe form of an inflammatory skin disorder called psoriasis. Individuals with GPP have repeated episodes in which large areas of skin become red and inflamed and develop small pus-filled blisters (pustules). The skin problems can be accompanied by fever and other signs of inflammation throughout the body (systemic inflammation). The episodes are thought to be triggered by infections, certain medications, pregnancy, or other stresses on the body. Most people with CARD14-associated GPP also have symptoms of the most common form of psoriasis called psoriasis vulgaris (PV), which is characterized by red, scaly patches of skin (plaques).
The CARD14 gene mutations associated with GPP (including GPP with PV) lead to production of an altered CARD14 protein that more readily turns on NF-κB. Overactive NF-κB signaling increases the activity of genes involved in the body's inflammatory response. The resulting abnormal inflammation contributes to the skin problems characteristic of GPP and PV.
CARD14 gene mutations increase the risk of developing GPP. Not everyone with a mutation in this gene has the characteristic problems with inflammation. This complex condition is thought to arise from a combination of genetic and environmental factors.More About This Health Condition
Familial pityriasis rubra pilaris
At least three mutations in the CARD14 gene have been identified in people with familial pityriasis rubra pilaris, a rare hereditary skin condition characterized by a patchy, salmon-colored skin rash covered in fine scales. These mutations lead to overactivation of NF-κB signaling, which triggers an abnormal inflammatory response in the skin. Researchers are working to determine how these changes lead to the specific features of familial pityriasis rubra pilaris.More About This Health Condition
MedlinePlus Genetics provides information about Psoriatic arthritisMore About This Health Condition
Changes in the CARD14 gene may also contribute to other forms of psoriasis. At least two mutations have been identified in families with psoriasis. Several other rare variants of the CARD14 gene have been associated with an increased risk of psoriasis in people without a family history of the disorder. Studies suggest that these genetic changes enhance activation of NF-κB, resulting in abnormal inflammation, which is a characteristic feature of psoriasis. However, CARD14 gene mutations appear to be an uncommon risk factor for this condition. Additional factors in combination with the particular CARD14 gene mutation may help determine which form of skin inflammation develops.
Other Names for This Gene
- bcl10-interacting maguk protein 2
- CARD-containing MAGUK protein 2
- card-maguk protein 2
- carma 2
- caspase recruitment domain family, member 14
- caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 14
Additional Information & Resources
Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry
Scientific Articles on PubMed
Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM
- Berki DM, Liu L, Choon SE, David Burden A, Griffiths CEM, Navarini AA, Tan ES, Irvine AD, Ranki A, Ogo T, Petrof G, Mahil SK, Duckworth M, Allen MH, Vito P, Trembath RC, McGrath J, Smith CH, Capon F, Barker JN. Activating CARD14 Mutations Are Associated with Generalized Pustular Psoriasis but Rarely Account for Familial Recurrence in Psoriasis Vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Dec;135(12):2964-2970. doi: 10.1038/jid.2015.288. Epub 2015 Jul 23. Citation on PubMed
- Bertin J, Wang L, Guo Y, Jacobson MD, Poyet JL, Srinivasula SM, Merriam S, DiStefano PS, Alnemri ES. CARD11 and CARD14 are novel caspase recruitment domain (CARD)/membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family members that interact with BCL10 and activate NF-kappa B. J Biol Chem. 2001 Apr 13;276(15):11877-82. Epub 2001 Jan 12. Citation on PubMed
- Fuchs-Telem D, Sarig O, van Steensel MA, Isakov O, Israeli S, Nousbeck J, Richard K, Winnepenninckx V, Vernooij M, Shomron N, Uitto J, Fleckman P, Richard G, Sprecher E. Familial pityriasis rubra pilaris is caused by mutations in CARD14. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Jul 13;91(1):163-70. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.05.010. Epub 2012 Jun 14. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
- Howes A, O'Sullivan PA, Breyer F, Ghose A, Cao L, Krappmann D, Bowcock AM, Ley SC. Psoriasis mutations disrupt CARD14 autoinhibition promoting BCL10-MALT1-dependent NF-κB activation. Biochem J. 2016 Jun 15;473(12):1759-68. doi: 10.1042/BCJ20160270. Epub 2016 Apr 12. Citation on PubMed
- Jordan CT, Cao L, Roberson ED, Duan S, Helms CA, Nair RP, Duffin KC, Stuart PE, Goldgar D, Hayashi G, Olfson EH, Feng BJ, Pullinger CR, Kane JP, Wise CA, Goldbach-Mansky R, Lowes MA, Peddle L, Chandran V, Liao W, Rahman P, Krueger GG, Gladman D, Elder JT, Menter A, Bowcock AM. Rare and common variants in CARD14, encoding an epidermal regulator of NF-kappaB, in psoriasis. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 May 4;90(5):796-808. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.03.013. Epub 2012 Apr 19. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
- Jordan CT, Cao L, Roberson ED, Pierson KC, Yang CF, Joyce CE, Ryan C, Duan S, Helms CA, Liu Y, Chen Y, McBride AA, Hwu WL, Wu JY, Chen YT, Menter A, Goldbach-Mansky R, Lowes MA, Bowcock AM. PSORS2 is due to mutations in CARD14. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 May 4;90(5):784-95. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.03.012. Epub 2012 Apr 19. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
- Scudiero I, Zotti T, Ferravante A, Vessichelli M, Vito P, Stilo R. Alternative splicing of CARMA2/CARD14 transcripts generates protein variants with differential effect on NF-κB activation and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death. J Cell Physiol. 2011 Dec;226(12):3121-31. doi: 10.1002/jcp.22667. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central