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ATP1A3 gene

ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 3
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Normal Function

The ATP1A3 gene provides instructions for making one part (the alpha-3 subunit) of a protein known as Na+/K+ ATPase or the sodium pump. This protein uses energy from a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to transport charged atoms (ions) into and out of cells. Specifically, it pumps sodium ions (Na+) out of cells and potassium ions (K+) into cells.

Na+/K+ ATPases that include the alpha-3 subunit are primarily found in nerve cells (neurons) in the brain and are critical for their normal function. The movement of sodium and potassium ions helps regulate the electrical activity of these cells and plays an important role in the signaling process that controls muscle movement. The activity of Na+/K+ ATPase also helps regulate cell size (volume).

Additionally, Na+/K+ ATPase helps regulate a process called neurotransmitter reuptake. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit signals from one neuron to another. After a neurotransmitter has had its effect, it must be removed quickly from the space between the neurons. The reuptake of neurotransmitters is carefully controlled to ensure that signals are sent and received accurately throughout the nervous system.

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood

Mutations in the ATP1A3 gene are the primary cause of a neurological condition called alternating hemiplegia of childhood; at least 25 ATP1A3 gene mutations have been found in affected individuals. This condition is characterized by recurrent episodes of temporary paralysis, often affecting one side of the body (hemiplegia). During some episodes, the paralysis alternates from one side to the other or affects both sides of the body at the same time.

Most ATP1A3 gene mutations associated with alternating hemiplegia of childhood change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the alpha-3 subunit of Na+/K+ ATPase. These genetic changes appear to impair the pump's ability to transport ions, although it is unclear how the mutations lead to the specific features of alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

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Rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism

At least nine mutations in the ATP1A3 gene have been identified in individuals and families with rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. Most of these mutations change single amino acids in the alpha-3 subunit of Na+/K+ ATPase. Changes in the protein's structure can reduce its activity or make it unstable. Studies suggest that the defective Na+/K+ ATPase is unable to transport sodium ions normally, which disrupts the electrical activity of neurons in the brain. However, it is unclear how a malfunctioning Na+/K+ ATPase causes the movement abnormalities characteristic of rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism.

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Other Names for This Gene

  • AT1A3_HUMAN
  • ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 3 polypeptide
  • DYT12
  • MGC13276
  • Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha 3 subunit
  • Na+/K+ ATPase 3
  • RDP
  • sodium pump 3
  • sodium-potassium-ATPase, alpha 3 polypeptide
  • sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase alpha-3 chain

Additional Information & Resources

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Research Resources

References

  • Blanco-Arias P, Einholm AP, Mamsa H, Concheiro C, Gutiérrez-de-Terán H, Romero J, Toustrup-Jensen MS, Carracedo A, Jen JC, Vilsen B, Sobrido MJ. A C-terminal mutation of ATP1A3 underscores the crucial role of sodium affinity in the pathophysiology of rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. Hum Mol Genet. 2009 Jul 1;18(13):2370-7. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddp170. Epub 2009 Apr 7. Citation on PubMed
  • Brashear A, Dobyns WB, de Carvalho Aguiar P, Borg M, Frijns CJ, Gollamudi S, Green A, Guimaraes J, Haake BC, Klein C, Linazasoro G, Münchau A, Raymond D, Riley D, Saunders-Pullman R, Tijssen MA, Webb D, Zaremba J, Bressman SB, Ozelius LJ. The phenotypic spectrum of rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) and mutations in the ATP1A3 gene. Brain. 2007 Mar;130(Pt 3):828-35. Epub 2007 Feb 4. Citation on PubMed
  • Brashear A, Sweadner KJ, Cook JF, Swoboda KJ, Ozelius L. ATP1A3-Related Neurologic Disorders. 2008 Feb 7 [updated 2018 Feb 22]. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJH, Stephens K, Amemiya A, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2020. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1115/ Citation on PubMed
  • de Carvalho Aguiar P, Sweadner KJ, Penniston JT, Zaremba J, Liu L, Caton M, Linazasoro G, Borg M, Tijssen MA, Bressman SB, Dobyns WB, Brashear A, Ozelius LJ. Mutations in the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha3 gene ATP1A3 are associated with rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. Neuron. 2004 Jul 22;43(2):169-75. Citation on PubMed
  • Heinzen EL, Swoboda KJ, Hitomi Y, Gurrieri F, Nicole S, de Vries B, Tiziano FD, Fontaine B, Walley NM, Heavin S, Panagiotakaki E; European Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC) Genetics Consortium; Biobanca e Registro Clinico per l'Emiplegia Alternante (I.B.AHC) Consortium; European Network for Research on Alternating Hemiplegia (ENRAH) for Small and Medium-sized Enterpriese (SMEs) Consortium, Fiori S, Abiusi E, Di Pietro L, Sweney MT, Newcomb TM, Viollet L, Huff C, Jorde LB, Reyna SP, Murphy KJ, Shianna KV, Gumbs CE, Little L, Silver K, Ptáček LJ, Haan J, Ferrari MD, Bye AM, Herkes GK, Whitelaw CM, Webb D, Lynch BJ, Uldall P, King MD, Scheffer IE, Neri G, Arzimanoglou A, van den Maagdenberg AM, Sisodiya SM, Mikati MA, Goldstein DB. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 cause alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Nat Genet. 2012 Sep;44(9):1030-4. doi: 10.1038/ng.2358. Epub 2012 Jul 29. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Kamm C, Fogel W, Wächter T, Schweitzer K, Berg D, Kruger R, Freudenstein D, Gasser T. Novel ATP1A3 mutation in a sporadic RDP patient with minimal benefit from deep brain stimulation. Neurology. 2008 Apr 15;70(16 Pt 2):1501-3. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000310431.41036.e0. Citation on PubMed
  • Rodacker V, Toustrup-Jensen M, Vilsen B. Mutations Phe785Leu and Thr618Met in Na+,K+-ATPase, associated with familial rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, interfere with Na+ interaction by distinct mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 7;281(27):18539-48. Epub 2006 Apr 21. Citation on PubMed
  • Rosewich H, Thiele H, Ohlenbusch A, Maschke U, Altmüller J, Frommolt P, Zirn B, Ebinger F, Siemes H, Nürnberg P, Brockmann K, Gärtner J. Heterozygous de-novo mutations in ATP1A3 in patients with alternating hemiplegia of childhood: a whole-exome sequencing gene-identification study. Lancet Neurol. 2012 Sep;11(9):764-73. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70182-5. Epub 2012 Jul 30. Citation on PubMed
  • Zanotti-Fregonara P, Vidailhet M, Kas A, Ozelius LJ, Clot F, Hindié E, Ravasi L, Devaux JY, Roze E. [123I]-FP-CIT and [99mTc]-HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography in a new sporadic case of rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. J Neurol Sci. 2008 Oct 15;273(1-2):148-51. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2008.06.033. Epub 2008 Aug 3. Citation on PubMed
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