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ANK2 gene

ankyrin 2
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Normal Function

The ANK2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called ankyrin-B. Ankyrin-B is part of a family of ankyrin proteins, which interact with many other types of proteins in cells throughout the body. Ankyrins help organize the cell's structural framework (the cytoskeleton) and link certain proteins that span the cell membrane to this framework. Additionally, ankyrins play key roles in important functions including cell movement (migration) and cell growth and division (proliferation).

The ankyrin-B protein is active in many cell types, particularly in the brain and in heart (cardiac) muscle. This protein mainly interacts with ion channels and ion transporters, which are complexes of proteins that move charged atoms (ions) across cell membranes. In the heart, the flow of ions (such as sodium, potassium, and calcium) through ion channels and ion transporters generates the electrical signals that control the heartbeat and maintain a normal heart rhythm. Ankyrin-B ensures these channels and transporters are in their proper locations in the cell membrane so they can regulate the flow of ions into and out of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, ankyrin-B helps ensure that signaling molecules that regulate the activity of ion channels and ion transporters are in the proper location.

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

Ankyrin-B syndrome

At least ten mutations in the ANK2 gene have been found to cause ankyrin-B syndrome, a condition characterized by a variety of heart problems. Most often, mutations in the ANK2 gene lead to abnormalities of the heart's natural pacemaker (the sinoatrial node), a heart rate that is slower than normal (bradycardia), a disruption in the rhythm of the heart (arrhythmia), and an increased risk of fainting (syncope) and sudden death.

Each of the identified mutations in the ANK2 gene changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in the ankyrin-B protein. Most of these mutations alter a region of the ankyrin-B protein important for its function. At least one ANK2 gene mutation prevents ankyrin-B from getting to the cell membrane where it is needed to function. As a result of these genetic changes, the ankyrin-B protein cannot target ion channels and ion transporters to their correct locations in cardiac muscle cells. Although the channels and transporters are produced normally by the cell, they are unable to function if they are not inserted correctly into the cell membrane. This loss of functional channels and transporters in the heart disrupts the normal flow of ions, which alters the heart's normal rhythm and leads to the heart problems that can be a part of ankyrin-B syndrome.

More About This Health Condition

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Other Names for This Gene

  • ANK2_HUMAN
  • ankyrin 2, neuronal
  • ankyrin B
  • ankyrin, brain
  • ankyrin, nonerythroid
  • ankyrin-2, nonerythrocytic
  • brank-2
  • LQT4

Additional Information & Resources

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Research Resources

References

  • Alders M, Bikker H, Christiaans I. Long QT Syndrome. 2003 Feb 20 [updated 2018 Feb 8]. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJH, Stephens K, Amemiya A, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2020. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1129/ Citation on PubMed
  • Chiang CE. Congenital and acquired long QT syndrome. Current concepts and management. Cardiol Rev. 2004 Jul-Aug;12(4):222-34. Review. Citation on PubMed
  • Cunha SR, Mohler PJ. Obscurin targets ankyrin-B and protein phosphatase 2A to the cardiac M-line. J Biol Chem. 2008 Nov 14;283(46):31968-80. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M806050200. Epub 2008 Sep 9. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Mohler PJ, Bennett V. Ankyrin-based cardiac arrhythmias: a new class of channelopathies due to loss of cellular targeting. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2005 May;20(3):189-93. Review. Citation on PubMed
  • Mohler PJ, Gramolini AO, Bennett V. Ankyrins. J Cell Sci. 2002 Apr 15;115(Pt 8):1565-6. Citation on PubMed
  • Mohler PJ, Le Scouarnec S, Denjoy I, Lowe JS, Guicheney P, Caron L, Driskell IM, Schott JJ, Norris K, Leenhardt A, Kim RB, Escande D, Roden DM. Defining the cellular phenotype of "ankyrin-B syndrome" variants: human ANK2 variants associated with clinical phenotypes display a spectrum of activities in cardiomyocytes. Circulation. 2007 Jan 30;115(4):432-41. Epub 2007 Jan 22. Citation on PubMed
  • Mohler PJ, Schott JJ, Gramolini AO, Dilly KW, Guatimosim S, duBell WH, Song LS, HaurognĂ© K, Kyndt F, Ali ME, Rogers TB, Lederer WJ, Escande D, Le Marec H, Bennett V. Ankyrin-B mutation causes type 4 long-QT cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Nature. 2003 Feb 6;421(6923):634-9. Citation on PubMed
  • Mohler PJ, Splawski I, Napolitano C, Bottelli G, Sharpe L, Timothy K, Priori SG, Keating MT, Bennett V. A cardiac arrhythmia syndrome caused by loss of ankyrin-B function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jun 15;101(24):9137-42. Epub 2004 Jun 3. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Sherman J, Tester DJ, Ackerman MJ. Targeted mutational analysis of ankyrin-B in 541 consecutive, unrelated patients referred for long QT syndrome genetic testing and 200 healthy subjects. Heart Rhythm. 2005 Nov;2(11):1218-23. Citation on PubMed
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