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Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia

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Description

Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia is a condition characterized by short stature, kidney disease, and a weakened immune system. In people with this condition, short stature is caused by flattened spinal bones (vertebrae), resulting in a shortened neck and trunk. Adult height is typically between 3 and 5 feet. Kidney (renal) disease often leads to life-threatening renal failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Affected individuals also have a shortage of certain immune system cells called T cells. T cells identify foreign substances and defend the body against infection. A shortage of T cells causes a person to be more susceptible to illness.

Other features frequently seen in people with this condition include an exaggerated curvature of the lower back (lordosis); darkened patches of skin (hyperpigmentation), typically on the chest and back; and a broad nasal bridge with a rounded tip of the nose.

Less common signs and symptoms of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia include an accumulation of fatty deposits and scar-like tissue in the lining of the arteries (atherosclerosis), reduced blood flow to the brain (cerebral ischemia), migraine-like headaches, an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), decreased numbers of white blood cells (lymphopenia), underdeveloped hip bones (hypoplastic pelvis), abnormally small head size (microcephaly), a lack of sperm (azoospermia) in males, and irregular menstruation in females.

In severe cases, many signs of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia can be present at birth. People with mild cases of this disorder may not develop signs or symptoms until late childhood.

Frequency

Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia is a very rare condition. The prevalence in North America is estimated to be one in 1 million to 3 million people.

Causes

Mutations in the SMARCAL1 gene increase the risk of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. The SMARCAL1 gene provides instructions for producing a protein whose specific function is unknown. The SMARCAL1 protein can attach (bind) to chromatin, which is the complex of DNA and protein that packages DNA into chromosomes. Based on the function of similar proteins, SMARCAL1 is thought to influence the activity (expression) of other genes through a process known as chromatin remodeling. The structure of chromatin can be changed (remodeled) to alter how tightly DNA is packaged. Chromatin remodeling is one way gene expression is regulated during development. When DNA is tightly packed, gene expression is lower than when DNA is loosely packed.

Mutations in the SMARCAL1 gene are thought to lead to disease by affecting protein activity, protein stability, or the protein's ability to bind to chromatin. It is not clear if mutations in the SMARCAL1 gene interfere with chromatin remodeling and the expression of other genes.

The mutations associated with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia disrupt the usual functions of the SMARCAL1 protein or prevent the production of any functional protein. People who have mutations that cause a complete lack of functional protein tend to have a more severe form of this disorder than those who have mutations that lead to an active but malfunctioning protein. However, in order for people with SMARCAL1 gene mutations to develop Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia, other currently unknown genetic or environmental factors must also be present.

Approximately half of all people with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia do not have identified mutations in the SMARCAL1 gene. In these cases, the cause of the disease is unknown.

Inheritance

Mutations in the SMARCAL1 gene are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means that an increased risk of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia results from mutations in both copies of the SMARCAL1 gene in each cell. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Other Names for This Condition

  • immunoosseous dysplasia, Schimke type
  • Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia
  • SIOD

Additional Information & Resources

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Scientific Articles on PubMed

References

  • Boerkoel CF, Takashima H, John J, Yan J, Stankiewicz P, Rosenbarker L, André JL, Bogdanovic R, Burguet A, Cockfield S, Cordeiro I, Fründ S, Illies F, Joseph M, Kaitila I, Lama G, Loirat C, McLeod DR, Milford DV, Petty EM, Rodrigo F, Saraiva JM, Schmidt B, Smith GC, Spranger J, Stein A, Thiele H, Tizard J, Weksberg R, Lupski JR, Stockton DW. Mutant chromatin remodeling protein SMARCAL1 causes Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. Nat Genet. 2002 Feb;30(2):215-20. Epub 2002 Jan 22. Citation on PubMed
  • Clewing JM, Fryssira H, Goodman D, Smithson SF, Sloan EA, Lou S, Huang Y, Choi K, Lücke T, Alpay H, André JL, Asakura Y, Biebuyck-Gouge N, Bogdanovic R, Bonneau D, Cancrini C, Cochat P, Cockfield S, Collard L, Cordeiro I, Cormier-Daire V, Cransberg K, Cutka K, Deschenes G, Ehrich JH, Fründ S, Georgaki H, Guillen-Navarro E, Hinkelmann B, Kanariou M, Kasap B, Kilic SS, Lama G, Lamfers P, Loirat C, Majore S, Milford D, Morin D, Ozdemir N, Pontz BF, Proesmans W, Psoni S, Reichenbach H, Reif S, Rusu C, Saraiva JM, Sakallioglu O, Schmidt B, Shoemaker L, Sigaudy S, Smith G, Sotsiou F, Stajic N, Stein A, Stray-Pedersen A, Taha D, Taque S, Tizard J, Tsimaratos M, Wong NA, Boerkoel CF. Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia: suggestions of genetic diversity. Hum Mutat. 2007 Mar;28(3):273-83. Citation on PubMed
  • Deguchi K, Clewing JM, Elizondo LI, Hirano R, Huang C, Choi K, Sloan EA, Lücke T, Marwedel KM, Powell RD Jr, Santa Cruz K, Willaime-Morawek S, Inoue K, Lou S, Northrop JL, Kanemura Y, van der Kooy D, Okano H, Armstrong DL, Boerkoel CF. Neurologic phenotype of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia and neurodevelopmental expression of SMARCAL1. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2008 Jun;67(6):565-77. doi: 10.1097/NEN.0b013e3181772777. Citation on PubMed
  • Elizondo LI, Cho KS, Zhang W, Yan J, Huang C, Huang Y, Choi K, Sloan EA, Deguchi K, Lou S, Baradaran-Heravi A, Takashima H, Lücke T, Quiocho FA, Boerkoel CF. Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia: SMARCAL1 loss-of-function and phenotypic correlation. J Med Genet. 2009 Jan;46(1):49-59. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2008.060095. Epub 2008 Sep 19. Citation on PubMed
  • Lou S, Lamfers P, McGuire N, Boerkoel CF. Longevity in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. J Med Genet. 2002 Dec;39(12):922-5. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Lücke T, Clewing JM, Boerkoel CF, Hartmann H, Das AM, Knauth M, Becker H, Donnerstag F. Cerebellar atrophy in Schimke-immuno-osseous dysplasia. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 Sep 1;143A(17):2040-5. Citation on PubMed
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