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Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency

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Description

Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is a disorder that affects a person's ability to digest certain sugars. People with this condition cannot break down the sugars sucrose and maltose. Sucrose (a sugar found in fruits, and also known as table sugar) and maltose (the sugar found in grains) are called disaccharides because they are made of two simple sugars. Disaccharides are broken down into simple sugars during digestion. Sucrose is broken down into glucose and another simple sugar called fructose, and maltose is broken down into two glucose molecules. People with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency cannot break down the sugars sucrose and maltose, and other compounds made from these sugar molecules (carbohydrates).

Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency usually becomes apparent after an infant is weaned and starts to consume fruits, juices, and grains. After ingestion of sucrose or maltose, an affected child will typically experience stomach cramps, bloating, excess gas production, and diarrhea. These digestive problems can lead to failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive) and malnutrition. Most affected children are better able to tolerate sucrose and maltose as they get older.

Frequency

The prevalence of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is estimated to be 1 in 5,000 people of European descent. This condition is much more prevalent in the native populations of Greenland, Alaska, and Canada, where as many as 1 in 20 people may be affected.

Causes

Mutations in the SI gene cause congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency. The SI gene provides instructions for producing the enzyme sucrase-isomaltase. This enzyme is found in the small intestine and is responsible for breaking down sucrose and maltose into their simple sugar components. These simple sugars are then absorbed by the small intestine. Mutations that cause this condition alter the structure, disrupt the production, or impair the function of sucrase-isomaltase. These changes prevent the enzyme from breaking down sucrose and maltose, causing the intestinal discomfort seen in individuals with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.

Inheritance

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Other Names for This Condition

  • congenital sucrose intolerance
  • congenital sucrose-isomaltose malabsorption
  • CSID
  • disaccharide intolerance I
  • SI deficiency
  • sucrase-isomaltase deficiency

Additional Information & Resources

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Research Studies from ClinicalTrials.gov

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Scientific Articles on PubMed

References

  • Belmont JW, Reid B, Taylor W, Baker SS, Moore WH, Morriss MC, Podrebarac SM, Glass N, Schwartz ID. Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency presenting with failure to thrive, hypercalcemia, and nephrocalcinosis. BMC Pediatr. 2002 Apr 25;2:4. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Jacob R, Zimmer KP, Schmitz J, Naim HY. Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency arising from cleavage and secretion of a mutant form of the enzyme. J Clin Invest. 2000 Jul;106(2):281-7. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Keiser M, Alfalah M, Pröpsting MJ, Castelletti D, Naim HY. Altered folding, turnover, and polarized sorting act in concert to define a novel pathomechanism of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2006 May 19;281(20):14393-9. Epub 2006 Mar 16. Citation on PubMed
  • Ritz V, Alfalah M, Zimmer KP, Schmitz J, Jacob R, Naim HY. Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency because of an accumulation of the mutant enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum. Gastroenterology. 2003 Dec;125(6):1678-85. Citation on PubMed
  • Sander P, Alfalah M, Keiser M, Korponay-Szabo I, Kovács JB, Leeb T, Naim HY. Novel mutations in the human sucrase-isomaltase gene (SI) that cause congenital carbohydrate malabsorption. Hum Mutat. 2006 Jan;27(1):119. Citation on PubMed
  • Sibley E. Carbohydrate intolerance. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004 Mar;20(2):162-7. Citation on PubMed
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