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CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia

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Description

CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is a genetic condition characterized by bone and joint abnormalities that worsen over time. Affected individuals have short stature throughout life, with an adult height under 4 and a half feet. Joint dislocations, most often affecting the knees, hips, and elbows, are present at birth (congenital). Other bone and joint abnormalities can include an inward- and upward-turning foot (clubfoot), a limited range of motion in large joints, and abnormal curvature of the spine. The features of CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia are usually limited to the bones and joints; however, minor heart defects have been reported in a few affected individuals.

Researchers have not settled on a preferred name for this condition. It is sometimes known as autosomal recessive Larsen syndrome based on its similarity to another skeletal disorder called Larsen syndrome. Other names that have been used to describe the condition include spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Omani type; humero-spinal dysostosis; and chondrodysplasia with multiple dislocations. Recently, researchers have proposed the umbrella term CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia to refer to bone and joint abnormalities resulting from mutations in the CHST3 gene.

Frequency

The prevalence of CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is unknown. More than 30 affected individuals have been reported.

Causes

As its name suggests, CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia results from mutations in the CHST3 gene. This gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called C6ST-1, which is essential for the normal development of cartilage. Cartilage is a tough, flexible tissue that makes up much of the skeleton during early development. Most cartilage is later converted to bone, except for the cartilage that continues to cover and protect the ends of bones and is present in the nose and external ears. Mutations in the CHST3 gene reduce or eliminate the activity of the C6ST-1 enzyme. A shortage of this enzyme disrupts the normal development of cartilage and bone, resulting in the abnormalities associated with CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia.

Inheritance

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Other Names for This Condition

  • autosomal recessive Larsen syndrome
  • CDMD
  • chondrodysplasia with multiple dislocations
  • humero-spinal dysostosis
  • SED with luxations, CHST3 type
  • SED, Omani type
  • spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations
  • spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Omani type

Additional Information & Resources

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Scientific Articles on PubMed

References

  • Hermanns P, Unger S, Rossi A, Perez-Aytes A, Cortina H, Bonafé L, Boccone L, Setzu V, Dutoit M, Sangiorgi L, Pecora F, Reicherter K, Nishimura G, Spranger J, Zabel B, Superti-Furga A. Congenital joint dislocations caused by carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 deficiency in recessive Larsen syndrome and humero-spinal dysostosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2008 Jun;82(6):1368-74. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.05.006. Erratum in: Am J Hum Genet. 2008 Aug;83(2):293. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Rajab A, Kunze J, Mundlos S. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia Omani type: a new recessive type of SED with progressive spinal involvement. Am J Med Genet A. 2004 May 1;126A(4):413-9. Citation on PubMed
  • Superti-Furga A, Unger S. CHST3-Related Skeletal Dysplasia. 2011 Sep 1 [updated 2019 Jan 31]. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJH, Stephens K, Amemiya A, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2020. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK62112/ Citation on PubMed
  • Thiele H, Sakano M, Kitagawa H, Sugahara K, Rajab A, Höhne W, Ritter H, Leschik G, Nürnberg P, Mundlos S. Loss of chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase-1 function results in severe human chondrodysplasia with progressive spinal involvement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 6;101(27):10155-60. Epub 2004 Jun 23. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Tuysuz B, Mizumoto S, Sugahara K, Celebi A, Mundlos S, Turkmen S. Omani-type spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with cardiac involvement caused by a missense mutation in CHST3. Clin Genet. 2009 Apr;75(4):375-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2009.01167.x. Citation on PubMed
  • Unger S, Lausch E, Rossi A, Mégarbané A, Sillence D, Alcausin M, Aytes A, Mendoza-Londono R, Nampoothiri S, Afroze B, Hall B, Lo IF, Lam ST, Hoefele J, Rost I, Wakeling E, Mangold E, Godbole K, Vatanavicharn N, Franco LM, Chandler K, Hollander S, Velten T, Reicherter K, Spranger J, Robertson S, Bonafé L, Zabel B, Superti-Furga A. Phenotypic features of carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 (CHST3) deficiency in 24 patients: congenital dislocations and vertebral changes as principal diagnostic features. Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Oct;152A(10):2543-9. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33641. Citation on PubMed
  • van Roij MH, Mizumoto S, Yamada S, Morgan T, Tan-Sindhunata MB, Meijers-Heijboer H, Verbeke JI, Markie D, Sugahara K, Robertson SP. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Omani type: further definition of the phenotype. Am J Med Genet A. 2008 Sep 15;146A(18):2376-84. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32482. Citation on PubMed
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