URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/fetalalcoholspectrumdisorders.html

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Also called: FASD


Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before you even know you are pregnant. Drinking during pregnancy can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with FASD can have a mix of problems, such as medical, behavioral, educational, and social problems. The kinds of problems they have depend on which type of FASD they have. The problems could include

  • Abnormal facial features, such as a smooth ridge between the nose and upper lip
  • Small head size
  • Shorter-than-average height
  • Low body weight
  • Poor coordination
  • Hyperactive behavior
  • Difficulty with attention and memory
  • Learning disabilities and difficulty in school
  • Speech and language delays
  • Intellectual disability or low IQ
  • Poor reasoning and judgment skills
  • Sleep and sucking problems as a baby
  • Vision or hearing problems
  • Problems with the heart, kidneys, or bones

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow eyes, growth problems and nervous system abnormalities.

Diagnosing FASD can be hard because there is no medical test for it. The health care provider will make a diagnosis by looking at the child's signs and symptoms, and will ask whether the mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.

FASDs last a lifetime. There is no cure for FASDs, but treatments can help. These include medicines to help with some symptoms, medical care for health problems, behavior and education therapy, and parent training. A good treatment plan is specific to the child's problems. It should include close monitoring, follow-ups, and changes when needed.

Certain "protective factors" can help reduce the effects of FASDs and help people who have them reach their full potential. They include

  • Diagnosis before 6 years of age
  • Loving, nurturing, and stable home environment during the school years
  • Absence of violence around them
  • Involvement in special education and social services

There is no known safe amount of alcohol during pregnancy. To prevent FASDs, you should not drink alcohol while you are pregnant, or when you might get pregnant.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Start Here

Latest News

Diagnosis and Tests

Prevention and Risk Factors

Treatments and Therapies

Living With

Related Issues



Health Check Tools

Statistics and Research

Clinical Trials


Patient Handouts