These vascular cushions can become swollen and inflamed, usually due to increased intra-abdominal pressure, such as during straining when constipated or during pregnancy. Such swelling can cause pain, bleeding, and itching. Hemorrhoid removal may be recommended when non-surgical treatment (fiber rich diet, laxatives, stool softener, suppositories, medications, warm baths) has not provided adequate relief from:
- persistent itching
- anal bleeding
- blood clots (thrombosis of the hemorrhoids)
Review Date 4/5/2015
Updated by: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, General Surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.