The meniscus is a c-shaped piece of cartilage in your knee joint. You have two in each knee.
- Meniscus cartilage is a tough but flexible tissue that acts as a cushion between the ends of bones in a joint.
- Meniscus tears refer to tears in this shock-absorbing cartilage of the knee.
More About Your Injury
The meniscus forms a buffer between the bones in your knee to protect the joint. The meniscus:
- Acts like a shock-absorber
- Helps lubricate your knee joint
- Can tear and limit your ability to flex and extend your knee
A meniscus tear can occur if you:
- Twist or over-flex your knee
- Quickly stop moving and change direction while running, landing from a jump, or turning
- Kneel down
- Squat down low and lift something heavy
- Get hit on your knee, such as during a football tackle
As you get older, your meniscus ages too, and it can become easier to injure.
What to Expect
You may feel a "pop" when a meniscus injury occurs. You also may have:
- Knee pain inside the joint, which gets worse with gentle pressure to the joint
- Knee swelling that occurs the next day after injury or after activities
- Knee joint pain when walking
- Locking or catching of your knee
- Difficulty squatting
If you have a meniscus tear, you may need:
- Crutches to walk until the swelling and pain get better
- A brace to support and stabilize your knee
- Physical therapy to help improve joint motion and leg strength
- Surgery to repair or remove the torn meniscus
Treatment may depend on your age, activity level, and where the tear occurs. For mild tears, you may be able to treat the injury with rest and self-care.
For other types of tears, or if you are younger in age, you may need knee arthroscopy (surgery) to repair the meniscus. In this type of surgery, small cuts are made to the knee. A small camera and small surgical tools are inserted to repair the tear.
Self-care at Home
Follow R.I.C.E. to help reduce pain and swelling:
- Rest your leg. Avoid putting weight on it.
- Ice your knee for 20 minutes at a time, 3 to 4 times a day.
- Compress the area by wrapping it with an elastic bandage or compression wrap.
- Elevate your leg by raising it above the level of your heart.
You can use ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), or naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn) to reduce pain and swelling. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) helps with pain, but not with swelling. You can buy these pain medicines at the store.
- Talk with your doctor before using these medicines if you have heart disease, high blood pressure, kidney disease, or have had stomach ulcers or internal bleeding in the past.
- DO NOT take more than the amount recommended on the bottle or by your doctor.
You should not put all of your weight on your leg if it hurts or if your doctor tells you not to. Rest and self-care may be enough to allow the tear to heal. You may need to use crutches.
Afterward, you will learn exercises to make the muscles, ligaments, and tendons around your knee stronger and more flexible.
If you have surgery to repair your meniscus, you may need physical therapy to regain the full use of your knee. Recovery can take a few weeks to a few months. Under your doctor's guidance, you should be able to do the same activities you did before.
When to Call the Doctor
Call your health car provider if:
- You have increased swelling or pain
- Self-care does not seem to help
- Your knee locks and you cannot straighten it
Knee cartilage tear - aftercare
Klingele K, Kramer D, Kocher MS. Meniscal disorders. In: Scott WN, ed. Insall & Scott Surgery of the Knee. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2012:chap 86.
Miller III RH, Azar, FM. Knee injuires. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, Daugherty K, Jones L, et al. Canale & Beaty: Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 45.
Reider BC, Davies GJ, Provencher MT. Meniscus injuries. In: Reider BC, Davies GJ, Provencher MT. Orthopaedic Rehabilitation of the Athlete. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 30.
Update Date 5/9/2015
Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, assistant professor, chief, sports medicine and shoulder service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.