Endovascular embolization is a procedure to treat abnormal blood vessels in the brain and other parts of the body. It is an alternative to open surgery.
This procedure cuts off the blood supply to a certain part of the body.
You may have general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free) and a breathing tube. Or, you may be given medicine to relax you, but you will not be asleep.
A small surgical cut will be made in the groin area. The doctor will use a needle to create a hole in the femoral artery, a large blood vessel.
- A tiny, flexible tube called a catheter is passed through the open skin and into the artery.
- Dye is injected through this tube so that the blood vessel can be seen on x-ray images.
- The doctor gently moves the catheter through the blood vessel up to the area being studied.
- Once the catheter is in place, the doctor places small plastic particles, glue, metal coils, foam, or a balloon through it to seal off the faulty blood vessel. (If coils are used, it is called coil embolization.)
This procedure can take several hours.
Why the Procedure is Performed
The procedure is most often used to treat aneurysms in the brain. It can also be used for other medical conditions when open surgery might be risky. The goal of the treatment is to prevent bleeding in the problem area and to reduce the risk that the blood vessel will break open (rupture).
Your doctor will help you decide whether it is safer to have surgery to block off the aneurysm before it can rupture.
This procedure may be used to treat:
- Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
- Brain aneurysm
- Carotid artery cavernous fistula (a problem with the large artery in the neck)
- Certain tumors
Risks from the procedure may include:
- Bleeding at the site of the needle puncture
- Bleeding in the brain
- Damage to the artery where the needle is inserted
- Dislodged coil or balloon
- Failure to completely treat the abnormal blood vessel
- Symptoms that keep returning
Before the Procedure
This procedure is often done on an emergency basis. If it is not an emergency:
- Tell your health care provider what drugs or herbs you are taking, and if you have been drinking a lot of alcohol.
- Ask your provider which medicines you should still take on the day of the surgery.
- Try to stop smoking.
- You will most often be asked not to eat or drink anything for 8 hours before the surgery.
- Take the medicines you have been told to take with a small sip of water.
- Arrive at the hospital on time.
After the Procedure
If there was no bleeding before the procedure, you may need to stay in the hospital for 1 to 2 days.
If bleeding occurred, your hospital stay will be longer.
How fast you recover depends on your overall health, the severity of your medical condition, and other factors.
In most cases, endovascular embolization is a successful procedure with good outcomes.
The outlook also depends on any brain damage that occurred from bleeding before, during, or after the surgery.
Treatment - endovascular embolism; Coil embolization; Cerebral aneurysm - endovascular; Coiling - endovascular; Saccular aneurysm - endovascular; Berry aneurysm - endovascular repair; Fusiform aneurysm repair - endovascular; Aneurysm repair - endovascular
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O'Mara DM, Weiss CR. Congenital vascular malformations: endovascular management. In: Sidawy AN, Perler BA, eds. Rutherford's Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 173.
Rangel-Castilla L, Shakir HJ, Siddiqui AH. Endovascular therapy for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. In: Caplan LR, Biller J, Leary MC, et al, eds. Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Elsevier Academic Press; 2017:chap 149.
Thanh N, Tudor J, Noguerira RG, Zaidat OO. Principles of neuroendovascular therapy. In: Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, Newman NJ, eds. Bradley and Daroff's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 54.
Review Date 1/28/2021
Updated by: Deepak Sudheendra, MD, RPVI, FSIR, Director of DVT & Complex Venous Disease Program, Assistant Professor of Interventional Radiology & Surgery at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, with an expertise in Vascular Interventional Radiology & Surgical Critical Care, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.