With age, a woman's breasts lose fat, tissue, and mammary glands. Many of these changes are due to the decrease in the body's production of estrogen that occurs at menopause. Without estrogen, the gland tissue shrinks, making the breasts smaller and less full. The connective tissue that supports the breasts becomes less elastic, so the breasts sag.
Changes also occur in the nipple. The area surrounding the nipple (the areola) becomes smaller and may nearly disappear. The nipple may also turn in slightly.
Breast lumps are common around the time of menopause. These are usually noncancerous cysts. However, if you notice a lump, make an appointment with your health care provider, because breast cancer risk increases with age. Women should be aware of the benefits and limitations of breast self-exams. These exams do not always pick up early stages of breast cancer. Women should talk to their providers about regular physical examinations and mammogram to screen for breast cancer.
Davidson NE. Breast cancer and benign breast disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 188.
Lobo RA. Menopause and aging. In: Strauss JF, Barbieri RL, eds. Yen & Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 14.
Walston JD. Common clinical sequelae of aging. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 22.
Review Date 7/21/2022
Updated by: Frank D. Brodkey, MD, FCCM, Associate Professor, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.