Propane is a colorless and odorless flammable gas that can turn into liquid under very cold temperatures.
This article discusses the harmful effects from breathing in or swallowing propane. Breathing in or swallowing propane can be harmful. Propane takes the place of oxygen in the lungs. This makes breathing difficult or impossible.
This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If you or someone you are with has an exposure, call the local emergency number (such as 911), or the local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.
Symptoms depend on the type of contact, but may include:
- Burning sensation
- General weakness
- Heartbeat -- irregular
- Heartbeat -- rapid
- Loss of consciousness (coma, or unresponsiveness)
- Nausea and vomiting
- Pain and numbness in arms and legs
- Skin irritation
- Slow and shallow breathing
Touching liquid propane results in frostbite-like symptoms.
Seek medical help right away. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move them to fresh air. If the person does not improve rapidly after moving to fresh air, call the local emergency number (such as 911).
If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes.
If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. DO NOT give water or milk if the person is having symptoms (such as vomiting, convulsions, or a decreased level of alertness) that make it hard to swallow.
DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional.
Before Calling Emergency
The following information is helpful for emergency assistance:
- Person's age, weight, and condition
- Name of the product (ingredients and strength, if known)
- Time it was swallowed
- Amount swallowed
However, DO NOT delay calling for help if this information is not immediately available.
Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.
This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
What to Expect at the Emergency Room
The provider will measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The person may receive:
- Airway support, including oxygen, breathing tube through the mouth (intubation), and breathing machine (ventilator)
- Blood and urine tests
- Chest x-ray
- ECG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing)
- Fluids through a vein (intravenous or IV)
- Medicines to treat symptoms
How well a person does depends on the type of contact with the poison, and how quickly treatment was received. The faster a person gets medical help, the better.
Those with short exposures may have temporary headaches or other mild nervous system symptoms. Stroke, coma, or death may occur with long-term exposure.
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Thomas SHL. Poisoning. In: Penman ID, Ralston SH, Strachan MWJ, Hobson RP, eds. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 10.
Wang GS, Buchanan JA. Hydrocarbons. In: Walls RM, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 147.
Review Date 1/2/2023
Updated by: Jesse Borke, MD, CPE, FAAEM, FACEP, Attending Physician at Kaiser Permanente, Orange County, CA. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.