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Turpentine oil poisoning

Turpentine oil comes from a substance in pine trees. Turpentine oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows turpentine oil or breathes in the fumes. Breathing these fumes on purpose is sometimes called "huffing" or "bagging."

This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If you or someone you are with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

Poisonous Ingredient

Turpentine can be harmful if it is used incorrectly.

Where Found

Turpentine is found in these products:

  • Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes
  • Some paint brush cleaners
  • Pure turpentine

Other products may also contain turpentine.

Symptoms

Below are symptoms of turpentine poisoning in different parts of the body.

BLADDER AND KIDNEYS

EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT

  • Loss of vision
  • Severe pain in the throat
  • Severe pain or burning in the nose, eyes, ears, lips, or tongue

STOMACH AND INTESTINES

HEART AND BLOOD

LUNGS AND AIRWAYS

  • Breathing difficulty (from breathing in turpentine)
  • Severe cough or choking
  • Throat swelling (which may also cause breathing difficulty)

SKIN

  • Bluish skin color
  • Burns
  • Irritation

Home Care

Seek medical help right away. DO NOT make the person throw up unless poison control or a health care provider tells you to. If the turpentine is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes.

If the person swallowed turpentine, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not to. DO NOT give anything to drink if the person has symptoms that make it hard to swallow. These include vomiting, convulsions, or a decreased level of alertness. If the person breathed in the turpentine, move them to fresh air right away.

Before Calling Emergency

Have this information ready:

  • Person's age, weight, and condition
  • Name of the product (ingredients, if known)
  • Time it was swallowed
  • Amount swallowed

Poison Control

Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.

This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

What to Expect at the Emergency Room

Take the container with you to the hospital, if possible.

The provider will measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated.

The person may receive:

  • Blood and urine tests
  • Breathing support, including a tube through the mouth and into the lungs, and a breathing machine (ventilator).
  • Bronchoscopy. Camera placed down the throat to see burns in the airways and lungs.
  • Chest x-ray
  • EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing)
  • Endoscopy. Camera placed down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach.
  • Fluids through the veins (by IV)
  • Medicines to treat symptoms
  • Surgery to remove burned skin
  • Washing of the skin (irrigation). Perhaps every few hours for several days.

Outlook (Prognosis)

How well someone does depends on how much turpentine they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better the chance for recovery. Turpentine can cause extensive damage in the:

  • Lungs
  • Mouth
  • Stomach
  • Throat

The outcome depends on the extent of this damage.

Delayed injury may occur, including a hole forming in the throat, esophagus, or stomach. This can lead to severe bleeding and infection.

If turpentine gets in the eye, sores may develop in the cornea, the clear part of the eye. This can cause blindness.

References

Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158.

Lewander WJ, Aleguas A Jr. Petroleum distillates and plant hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 92.

Zosel AE. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 143.

Review Date 10/19/2015

Updated by: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.