Proctitis is an inflammation of the rectum. It can cause discomfort, bleeding, and the discharge of mucus or pus.
There are many causes of proctitis. They can be grouped as follows:
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- Autoimmune disease
- Harmful substances
- Non-sexually transmitted infection
- Sexually transmitted disease (STD)
Infections that are not sexually transmitted are less common than STD proctitis. One type of proctitis not from an STD is an infection in children that is caused by the same bacteria as strep throat.
Proctitis may also be caused by some medicines, radiotherapy to prostate or pelvis or inserting harmful substances into the rectum.
Risk factors include:
- Autoimmune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease
- High-risk sexual practices, such as anal sex
Most of the time, proctitis will go away when the cause of the problem is treated. Antibiotics are used if an infection is causing the problem.
Corticosteroids or mesalamine suppositories or enemas may relieve symptoms for some people.
The outcome is good with treatment.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of proctitis.
Safe sex practices may help prevent the spread of the disease.
Inflammation - rectum; Rectal inflammation
Abdelnaby A, Downs JM. Diseases of the anorectum. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 129.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexually transmitted infections treatment guidelines, 2021. Proctitis, proctocolitis, and enteritis. www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/proctitis.htm. Updated July 22, 2021. Accessed August 11, 2021.
Coates WC. Disorders of the anorectum. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 86.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Proctitis. www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/proctitis/all-content. Updated August 2016. Accessed April 9, 2019.
Review Date 3/26/2019
Updated by: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Editorial update 08/11/2021.