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Bunions are usually caused by pressure put on the feet by narrow toed, high-heeled shoes. The shoes press on the big toe and push it toward the second toe. Over time, the condition can become painful. The pain comes from the growth of extra bone where the base of the big toe meets the foot.
Review Date 6/8/2022
Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.