Skip navigation

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

URL of this page:


What is it?

L-arginine is an amino acid naturally found in red meat, poultry, fish, and dairy. It is necessary for making proteins and is commonly used for circulation.

L-arginine is converted in the body into a chemical called nitric oxide. Nitric oxide causes blood vessels to open wider for improved blood flow. L-arginine also stimulates the release of growth hormone, insulin, and other substances in the body. It can be made in a lab and used in supplements.

People use L-arginine for chest pain and various blood flow issues, erectile dysfunction, high blood pressure during pregnancy, and a serious disease in premature infants called necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). It's also used for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these other uses.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for L-ARGININE are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Chest pain (angina). Taking L-arginine by mouth seems to decrease symptoms and improve exercise tolerance and quality of life in people with angina. But it doesn't seem to help widen blood vessels that are narrowed in angina.
  • Erectile dysfunction (ED). Taking 2.5-5 grams of L-arginine by mouth daily seems to improve sexual function in people with ED. Taking L-arginine with medications such as sildenafil and tadalafil might work better than taking either L-arginine or the medication alone.
  • High blood pressure. Taking L-arginine by mouth can reduce blood pressure in healthy people, people with high blood pressure, and people with slightly high blood pressure with or without diabetes.
  • A serious intestinal disease in premature infants (necrotizing enterocolitis or NEC). Adding L-arginine to formula seems to reduce the risk for this condition in premature infants.
  • Narrowing of blood vessels that causes poor blood flow to the limbs (peripheral arterial disease). Taking L-arginine by mouth or by IV for up to 8 weeks increases blood flow in people with this condition. But using it for up to 6 months does not help to improve walking speed or distance. IV products can only be given by a healthcare provider.
  • A pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia). Taking L-arginine by IV can reduce blood pressure in pregnant people with pre-eclampsia. L-arginine might also reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia in people who are at high risk for this condition. IV products can only be given by a healthcare provider. It's not clear if taking L-arginine by mouth helps.
  • High blood pressure during pregnancy. Taking L-arginine by IV can reduce blood pressure in pregnancy. It's unclear if taking L-arginine by mouth lowers blood pressure during pregnancy, but it might decrease the need to take blood pressure lowering drugs. IV products can only be given by a healthcare provider.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Long-term kidney disease (chronic kidney disease or CKD). Taking L-arginine by mouth or by IV doesn't improve kidney function in most people with CKD.
  • High cholesterol. Taking L-arginine by mouth doesn't help to lower cholesterol levels.
  • Heart attack. Taking L-arginine by mouth doesn't seem to help prevent a heart attack. It also doesn't seem to help treat a heart attack after it occurs. In fact, there is concern that L-arginine might be harmful for people after a recent heart attack. Do not take L-arginine if you have had a recent heart attack.
  • Tuberculosis. Taking L-arginine by mouth along with standard treatment for tuberculosis does not seem to help improve symptoms or clear the infection.
  • Wound healing. Taking L-arginine by mouth does not seem to improve wound healing.
There is interest in using L-arginine for a number of other purposes, but there isn't enough reliable information to say whether it might be helpful.

Is it safe?

When taken by mouth: L-arginine is possibly safe for most people when taken short-term. It can cause some side effects such as stomach pain, bloating, diarrhea, and low blood pressure.

When applied to the skin: L-arginine is possibly safe for most people when used short-term. It's also possibly safe when used in a toothpaste short-term.

When inhaled: L-arginine is possibly safe for most people when used short-term.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy: L-arginine is possibly safe when taken by mouth for a short time during pregnancy. Not enough is known about using L-arginine long-term in pregnancy. Stay on the safe side and avoid long-term use.

Breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if L-arginine is safe to use when breast-feeing. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: L-arginine is possibly safe in children when taken by mouth, when used in a toothpaste, or when inhaled.

Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT): People with this inherited condition are unable to convert arginine and other similar chemicals into creatine. To prevent complications from this condition, avoid L-arginine supplements.

Recent heart attack: L-arginine might increase the risk of death after a heart attack, especially in older people. If you have had a heart attack recently, don't take L-arginine.

Kidney disease: L-arginine has caused high potassium levels when used by people with kidney disease. In some cases, this has resulted in a dangerous irregular heartbeat.

Surgery: L-arginine might interfere with blood pressure control during and after surgery. Stop taking L-arginine at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Are there interactions with medications?

Be cautious with this combination.
Isoproterenol (Isuprel)
L-arginine seems to decrease blood pressure. Isoproterenol is a drug that is used to lower blood pressure. Taking L-arginine along with isoproterenol might cause your blood pressure to go too low.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
L-arginine might lower blood sugar levels. Taking L-arginine along with diabetes medications might cause blood sugar to drop too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely.
Medications for high blood pressure (ACE inhibitors)
L-arginine might lower blood pressure. Taking L-arginine along with medications that lower blood pressure might cause blood pressure to go too low. Monitor your blood pressure closely.
Medications for high blood pressure (Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs))
L-arginine might lower blood pressure. Taking L-arginine along with medications that lower blood pressure might cause blood pressure to go too low. Monitor your blood pressure closely.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
L-arginine might lower blood pressure. Taking L-arginine along with medications that lower blood pressure might cause blood pressure to go too low. Monitor your blood pressure closely.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
L-arginine might slow blood clotting. Taking L-arginine along with medications that also slow blood clotting might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding.
Sildenafil (Viagra)
Sildenafil can lower blood pressure. L-arginine can also lower blood pressure. There is a chance that taking sildenafil and L-arginine together might cause blood pressure to go too low. But most people seem to be fine when taking these products together.
Water pills (Potassium-sparing diuretics)
L-arginine might increase potassium levels in the body. Some "water pills" might also increase potassium in the body. Taking L-arginine along with some "water pills" might cause too much potassium to be in the body.
Be watchful with this combination.
L-arginine might increase testosterone levels. But it's not clear if this is a big concern. People taking testosterone should be cautious until more is known about this potential interaction.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressure
L-arginine might lower blood pressure. Taking it with other supplements that have the same effect might cause blood pressure to drop too much. Examples of supplements with this effect include andrographis, casein peptides, niacin, and stinging nettle.
Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar
L-arginine might lower blood sugar. Taking it with other supplements with similar effects might lower blood sugar too much. Examples of supplements with this effect include aloe, bitter melon, cassia cinnamon, chromium, and prickly pear cactus.
Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
L-arginine might slow blood clotting and increase the risk of bleeding. Taking it with other supplements with similar effects might increase the risk of bleeding in some people. Examples of supplements with this effect include garlic, ginger, ginkgo, nattokinase, and Panax ginseng.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

How is it typically used?

L-arginine has most often been used by adults in doses that vary from 1.5 to 24 grams by mouth daily, for up to 18 months. It's also sometimes used in gels and creams. Speak with a healthcare provider to find out what type of product or dose might be best for a specific condition.

Other names

2-Amino-5-(diaminomethylidene amino) pentanoic acid, 2-Amino-5-guanidinopentanoic Acid, (2S)-2-Amino-5-{[amino (imino) methyl]amino}pentanoic Acid, (S)-2-Amino-5- Guanidinopentanoic Acid, Acide 2-Amino-5-Guanidinopentanoïque, Arg, Arginine, Arginine Aspartate, Arginine Ethyl Ester, Arginine Ethyl Ester Dihydrochloride, Arginine Ethyl Ester HCl, Arginine HCl, Arginine Hydrochloride, Di-Arginine Malate, Di-Arginine Orotate, Di-L-Arginine-L-Malate, Dl-Arginine, L-Arginina, L-Arginine Ethyl Ester Dichloride, L-Arginine HCl, L-Arginine Hexanoate, L-Arginine Hydrochloride, L-Arginine Ketoisocaproic Acid, L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate, L-Arginine Pyroglutamate, L-Arginine Taurinate, Malate de Di-Arginine, Orotate de Di-Arginine, R-Gene 10.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


  1. Porto AA, Gonzaga LA, Benjamim CJR, Valenti VE. Absence of Effects of L-Arginine and L-Citrulline on Inflammatory Biomarkers and Oxidative Stress in Response to Physical Exercise: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2023;15:1995. View abstract.
  2. Mousavi SM, Milajerdi A, Fatahi S, et al. The effect of L-arginine supplementation on obesity-related indices: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2021;91(1-2):164-174. View abstract.
  3. Binou P, Yanni AE, Kartsioti K, et al. Wheat biscuits enriched with plant-based protein contribute to weight loss and beneficial metabolic effects in subjects with overweight/obesity. Nutrients. 2022;14:2516. View abstract.
  4. Kisil I, Gimelfarb Y. Long-term supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine for pressure ulcer in sedentary older adults: a retrospective matched case-control study. J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2023. Epub ahead of print. View abstract.
  5. Viribay A, Burgos J, Fernández-Landa J, Seco-Calvo J, Mielgo-Ayuso J. Effects of arginine supplementation on athletic performance based on energy metabolism: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2020;12:1300. View abstract.
  6. Norouzi M, Nadjarzadeh A, Maleki M, et al. Evaluation of the recovery after heart surgery following preoperative supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, L-arginine, and L-glutamine: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Trials 2022;23:649. View abstract.
  7. Furushima D, Sugiyama I, Nomura Y, Unno K, Yamada H. Effect of Combined Ingestion of L-Theanine and L-Arginine for Short-Term Psychological Stress in Young Adults: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2022;68:540-546. View abstract.
  8. Muralidharan J, Kashyap S, S P, et al. The effect of l-arginine supplementation on amelioration of oxygen support in severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Clin Nutr ESPEN 2022;52:431-435. View abstract.
  9. El-Khateeb E, El-Haggar SM, El-Razaky O, El-Shanshory MR, Mostafa TM. Randomized Clinical and Biochemical Study Comparing the Effect of L-arginine and Sildenafil in Beta Thalassemia Major Children With High Tricuspid Regurgitant Jet Velocity. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2022;27:10742484221132671. View abstract.
  10. Tosato M, Calvani R, Picca A, et al. Effects of l-Arginine Plus Vitamin C Supplementation on Physical Performance, Endothelial Function, and Persistent Fatigue in Adults with Long COVID: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2022;14:4984. View abstract.
  11. Hiratsu A, Tataka Y, Namura S, Nagayama C, Hamada Y, Miyashita M. The effects of acute and chronic oral l-arginine supplementation on exercise-induced ammonia accumulation and exercise performance in healthy young men: A randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial. J Exerc Sci Fit 2022;20:140-147. View abstract.
  12. Gallo L, Pecoraro S, Sarnacchiaro P. Adjuvant daily therapy with L-arginine 2,500 mg and tadalafil 5 mg increases efficacy and duration of benefits of low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy for erectile dysfunction: A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study with 1-year follow-up. Investig Clin Urol 2022;63:83-91. View abstract.
  13. Menafra D, de Angelis C, Garifalos F, et al. Long-term high-dose L-arginine supplementation in patients with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction: a multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Endocrinol Invest 2022;45:941-961. View abstract.
  14. Esen O, Eser MC, Abdioglu M, Benesova D, Gabrys T, Karayigit R. Eight Days of L-Citrulline or L-Arginine Supplementation Did Not Improve 200-m and 100-m Swimming Time Trials. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19:4462. View abstract.
  15. Mone P, Pansini A, Jankauskas SS, et al. L-Arginine Improves Cognitive Impairment in Hypertensive Frail Older Adults. Front Cardiovasc Med 2022;9:868521. View abstract.
  16. Shiraseb F, Asbaghi O, Bagheri R, Wong A, Figueroa A, Mirzaei K. The Effect of L-arginine Supplementation On Blood Pressure in Adults: A Systematic Review and Dose-response Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Adv Nutr 2021. View abstract.
  17. Li H, Liu Q, Zou Z, et al. L-arginine supplementation to mitigate cardiovascular effects of walking outside in the context of traffic-related air pollution in participants with elevated blood pressure: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Environ Int 2021;156:106631. View abstract.
  18. Monari F, Menichini D, Pignatti L, Basile L, Facchinetti F, Neri I. Effect of L-arginine supplementation in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and previous placenta vascular disorders receiving Aspirin prophylaxis: a randomized control trial. Minerva Obstet Gynecol 2021;73:782-789. View abstract.
  19. Gambardella J, Fiordelisi A, Spigno L, et al. Effects of Chronic Supplementation of L-Arginine on Physical Fitness in Water Polo Players. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021;2021:6684568. View abstract.
  20. Salmani M, Alipoor E, Navid H, Farahbakhsh P, Yaseri M, Imani H. Effect of l-arginine on cardiac reverse remodeling and quality of life in patients with heart failure. Clin Nutr 2021;40:3037-3044. View abstract.
  21. Goto E. Effects of prenatal oral L-arginine on birth outcomes: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2021;11:22748. View abstract.
  22. Shynkevych VI, Kolomiiets SV, Kaidashev IP. Effects of l-arginine and l-ornithine supplementations on the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A preliminary randomized short-term clinical trial. Heliyon. 2021;7:e08353. View abstract.
  23. Bagnati M, Puricelli C, Bauce G, et al. Short-term effects of supplemental L-arginine, diosmin, troxerutin, and hesperidin in diabetic patients: A Pilot Study. Biomed Res Int 2021;2021:3508281. View abstract.
  24. Fiorentino G, Coppola A, Izzo R, et al. Effects of adding L-arginine orally to standard therapy in patients with COVID-19: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Results of the first interim analysis. EClinicalMedicine 2021;101125. View abstract.
  25. Xu Z, Liu C, Liu S, Zhou Z. Comparison of efficacy and safety of daily oral L-arginine and PDE5Is alone or combination in treating erectile dysfunction: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Andrologia. 2021:e14007. View abstract.
  26. Rezaei S, Gholamalizadeh M, Tabrizi R, Nowrouzi-Sohrabi P, Rastgoo S, Doaei S. The effect of L-arginine supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Physiol Rep. 2021;9:e14739. View abstract.
  27. Onalo R, Cooper P, Cilliers A, et al. Randomized control trial of oral arginine therapy for children with sickle cell anemia hospitalized for pain in Nigeria. Am J Hematol. 2021;96:89-97. View abstract.
  28. Hannemann J, Rendant-Gantzberg L, Zummack J, Hillig J, Eilermann I, Böger R. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Arginase 1 and 2 Genes Are Differentially Associated with Circulating l-Arginine Concentration in Unsupplemented and l-Arginine-Supplemented Adults. J Nutr. 2020:nxaa325. View abstract.
  29. Daraei A, Ahmadizad S, Rahmani H, et al. L-Arginine Improves Endurance to High-Intensity Interval Exercises in Overweight Men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2020:1-9. View abstract.
  30. Yousefi Rad E, Nazarian B, Saboori S, Falahi E, Hekmatdoost A. Effects of l-arginine supplementation on glycemic profile: Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. J Integr Med. 2020;18:284-291. View abstract.
  31. So S, Yamaguchi W, Murabayashi N, Miyano N, Tawara F, Kanayama N. Beneficial effect of l-arginine in women using assisted reproductive technologies: a small-scale randomized controlled trial. Nutr Res. 2020;82:67-73. View abstract.
  32. Liao SY, Showalter MR, Linderholm AL, et al. l-Arginine supplementation in severe asthma. JCI Insight. 2020;5:e137777. View abstract.
  33. Abu El-Hamd M, Hegazy EM. Comparison of the clinical efficacy of daily use of L-arginine, tadalafil and combined L-arginine with tadalafil in the treatment of elderly patients with erectile dysfunction. Andrologia. 2020;52:e13640. View abstract.
  34. Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Scipione C, et al. Prevention of vaginal dryness in perimenopausal women. Supplementation with Lady Prelox®. Minerva Ginecol. 2019;71:434-41. View abstract.
  35. El-Wakeel LM, Fouad FA, Saleem MD, Saber-Khalaf M. Efficacy and tolerability of sildenafil/l-arginine combination relative to sildenafil alone in patients with organic erectile dysfunction. Andrology. 2020;8:143-147. View abstract.
  36. Hadi A, Arab A, Moradi S, Pantovic A, Clark CCT, Ghaedi E. The effect of l-arginine supplementation on lipid profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2019;122:1021-1032. View abstract.
  37. Sepandi M, Abbaszadeh S, Qobady S, Taghdir M. Effect of L-Arginine supplementation on lipid profiles and inflammatory markers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pharmacol Res. 2019;148:104407. View abstract.
  38. Nazarian B, Fazeli Moghadam E, Asbaghi O, et al. Effect of l-arginine supplementation on C-reactive protein and other inflammatory biomarkers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complement Ther Med. 2019;47:102226. View abstract.
  39. de la Parra PR, González-Cruz MÁ, Ferreiro-Marin A, Casaubón-Garcín PR. L-arginine-induced esophagitis, report of six cases. Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex. 2020;77:38-41. View abstract.
  40. Gallo L, Pecoraro S, Sarnacchiaro P, Silvani M, Antonini G. The daily therapy with L-arginine 2,500 mg and tadalafil 5 mg in combination and in monotherapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: A prospective, randomized multicentre study. Sex Med. 2020:8:178-185. View abstract.
  41. El Taieb M, Hegazy E, Ibrahim A. Daily oral l-arginine plus tadalafil in diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction: A double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Sex Med. 2019;16:1390-1397. View abstract.
  42. Suzuki I, Sakuraba K, Horiike T, et al. A combination of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine improved 10-min full-power cycling test performance in male collegiate soccer players: a randomized crossover trial. Eur J Appl Physiol 2019;119:1075-84. View abstract.
  43. Wada N, Kurokawa Y, Tanaka K, et al. Perioperative nutritional support with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine in surgery for abdominal malignancies. Wounds 2018;30:251-6. View abstract.
  44. McNeal CJ, Meininger CJ, Wilborn CD, Tekwe CD, Wu G. Safety of dietary supplementation with arginine in adult humans. Amino Acids. 2018;50:1215-1229. View abstract.
  45. Binet Q, Dufour I, Agneessens E, et al. The second case of a young man with L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2018;11:424-427. View abstract.
  46. Andrade WB, Jacinto JL, da Silva DK, et al. l-Arginine supplementation does not improve muscle function during recovery from resistance exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2018;43:928-936. View abstract.
  47. Koçyigit Y, Yoca G, Karahan S, Ayhan Y, Yazici MK. L-Arginine add-on treatment for schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 2018;29:147-153. View abstract.
  48. Koga Y, Povalko N, Inoue E, et al. Therapeutic regimen of L-arginine for MELAS: 9-year, prospective, multicenter, clinical research. J Neurol. 2018;265:2861-2874. View abstract.
  49. Rodrigues-Krause J, Krause M, Rocha IMGD, Umpierre D, Fayh APT. Association of l-arginine supplementation with markers of endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular or metabolic disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2018;11. pii: E15. View abstract.
  50. Yokota T, Hamauchi S, Yoshida Y, et al. A phase II study of HMB/Arg/Gln against oral mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2018;26:3241-3248. View abstract.
  51. Meirelles CM, Matsuura C. Acute supplementation of L-arginine affects neither strength performance nor nitric oxide production. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018 Mar;58:216-220. doi: 10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06680-9. View abstract.
  52. Morris CR, Kuypers FA, Lavrisha L, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of arginine therapy for the treatment of children with sickle cell disease hospitalized with vaso-occlusive pain episodes. Haematologica. 2013 Sep;98:1375-82. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2013.086637. View abstract.
  53. Aguiar AF, Balvedi MC, Buzzachera CF, et al. L-Arginine supplementation does not enhance blood flow and muscle performance in healthy and physically active older women. Eur J Nutr. 2016;55:2053-62. View abstract.
  54. Camarena Pulido EE, García Benavides L, Panduro Barón JG, et al. Efficacy of L-arginine for preventing preeclampsia in high-risk pregnancies: A double-blind, randomized, clinical trial. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2016;35:217-25. View abstract.
  55. Grasemann H, Tullis E, Ratjen F. A randomized controlled trial of inhaled L-arginine in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros. 2013;12:468-74. View abstract.
  56. Li J, Huang Z, Mei L, Li G, Li H. Anti-caries effect of arginine-containing formulations in vivo: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Caries Res. 2015;49:606-17. View abstract.
  57. Hafner P, Bonati U, Erne B, et al. Improved muscle function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy through L-arginine and metformin: An investigator-initiated, open-label, single-center, proof-of-concept-study. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0147634. View abstract.
  58. Chen J, Gong X, Chen P, Luo K, Zhang X. Effect of L-arginine and sildenafil citrate on intrauterine growth restriction fetuses: a meta-analysis. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016;16:225. View abstract.
  59. Shah PS, Shah VS, Kelly LE. Arginine supplementation for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;4:CD004339. View abstract.
  60. Imai T, Matsuura K, Asada Y, et al. Effect of HMB/Arg/Gln on the prevention of radiation dermatitis in head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2014;44:422-7. View abstract.
  61. Armstrong DG, Hanft JR, Driver VR, et al. Effect of oral nutritional supplementation on wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Diabet Med 2014;31:1069-77. View abstract.
  62. Bottari A, Belcaro G, Ledda A, et al. Lady Prelox improves sexual function in generally healthy women of reproductive age. Minerva Ginecol 2013;65:435-44. View abstract.
  63. Loscalzo J. What we know and don't know about L-arginine and NO. Circulation. 2000 May 9;101:2126-9. View abstract.
  64. Vadillo-Ortega F, Perichart-Perera O, Espino S, et al. Effect of supplementation during pregnancy with L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins in medical food on pre-eclampsia in high risk population: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2011 May 19;342:d2901. View abstract.
  65. Ralph AP, Waramori G, Pontororing GJ, et al. L-arginine and vitamin D adjunctive therapies in pulmonary tuberculosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 14;8:e70032. View abstract.
  66. Monti LD, Setola E, Lucotti PC, et al. Effect of a long-term oral l-arginine supplementation on glucose metabolism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012 Oct;14:893-900. View abstract.
  67. Mitchell K, Lyttle A, Amin H, et al. Arginine supplementation in prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in the premature infant: an updated systematic review. BMC Pediatr. 2014 Sep 10;14:226. Review. View abstract.
  68. Hurt RT, Ebbert JO, Schroeder DR, et al. L-arginine for the treatment of centrally obese subjects: a pilot study. J Diet Suppl. 2014 Mar;11:40-52. View abstract.
  69. Alvares TS, Conte CA, Paschoalin VM, et al. Acute l-arginine supplementation increases muscle blood volume but not strength performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Feb;37:115-26. View abstract.
  70. Bauer JD, Isenring E, Waterhouse M. The effectiveness of a specialised oral nutrition supplement on outcomes in patients with chronic wounds: a pragmatic randomised study. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013 Oct;26:452-8. View abstract.
  71. Cereda, E., Gini, A., Pedrolli, C., and Vanotti, A. Disease-specific, versus standard, nutritional support for the treatment of pressure ulcers in institutionalized older adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr.Soc 2009;57:1395-1402. View abstract.
  72. Aoki, H., Nagao, J., Ueda, T., Strong, J. M., Schonlau, F., Yu-Jing, S., Lu, Y., and Horie, S. Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol(R) and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. Phytother.Res. 2012;26:204-207. View abstract.
  73. O'Rourke, D. J., Ryan, S., Salomons, G., Jakobs, C., Monavari, A., and King, M. D. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency: late onset of movement disorder and preserved expressive language. Dev.Med.Child Neurol. 2009;51:404-407. View abstract.
  74. Claris-Appiani, A., Ardissino, G., Coppo, R., Bonaudo, R., Dacco, V., Bettinelli, A., and Tirelli, A. S. Effect of renal function of arginine supplementation in children with chronic renal insufficiency. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1993;4:766.
  75. Knechtle, B. and Bosch, A. The influence of arginine supplementation on performance and metabolism in athletes. INTERNATIONAL SPORTMED JOURNAL 2008;9:22-31.
  76. Eshghi F. The efficacy of L-arginine gel for treatment of chronic anal fissure compared to surgical sphincterotomy. Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007;7:481-484.
  77. Furuno T, Mullen MJ Thorne SA Thomson H Donald AE Powe A et al. Intravenous L-arginine restores endothelial function in healthy young smokers (abstract). Circulation 1996;94:3052.
  78. Maxwell AJ, Anderson B. A nutritional product designed to enhance nitric oxide activity restores endothelium-dependent function in hypercholesterolemia (abstract). J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33:282A.
  79. Pezza, V., Bernardini, F., Pezza, E., Pezza, B., and Curione, M. Study of supplemental oral l-arginine in hypertensives treated with enalapril + hydrochlorothiazide. Am.J Hypertens. 1998;11:1267-1270. View abstract.
  80. Quyyumi, A. A. Does acute improvement of endothelial dysfunction in coronary artery disease improve myocardial ischemia? A double-blind comparison of parenteral D- and L-arginine. J Am Coll.Cardiol 1998;32:904-911. View abstract.
  81. Thorne, S., Mullen, M. J., Clarkson, P., Donald, A. E., and Deanfield, J. E. Early endothelial dysfunction in adults at risk from atherosclerosis: different responses to L-arginine. J Am.Coll.Cardiol. 1998;32:110-116. View abstract.
  82. McCarter, M. D., Gentilini, O. D., Gomez, M. E., and Daly, J. M. Preoperative oral supplement with immunonutrients in cancer patients. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 1998;22:206-211. View abstract.
  83. Baligan, M., Giardina, A., Giovannini, G., Laghi, M. G., and Ambrosioni, G. [L-arginine and immunity. Study of pediatric subjects]. Minerva Pediatr 1997;49:537-542. View abstract.
  84. Wolzt, M., Ugurluoglu, A., Schmetterer, L., Dorner, G., Zanaschka, G., Mensik, C., and Eichler, H. G. Exogenous L-arginine does not affect angiotensin II-induced renal vasoconstriction in man. Br J Clin.Pharmacol. 1998;45:71-75. View abstract.
  85. Bortolotti, M., Brunelli, F., Sarti, P., and Miglioli, M. Clinical and manometric effects of L-arginine in patients with chest pain and oesophageal motor disorders. Ital J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 1997;29:320-324. View abstract.
  86. Heys, S. D., Ogston, K., Miller, I., Hutcheon, A. W., Walker, L. G., Sarker, T. K., Dewar, J., Ah-See, A. K., and Eremin, O. Potentiation of the response to chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer by dietary supplementation with L-arginine: results of a randomised controlled trial. Int.J Oncol. 1998;12:221-225. View abstract.
  87. Theilmeier, G., Chan, J. R., Zalpour, C., Anderson, B., Wang, B. Y., Wolf, A., Tsao, P. S., and Cooke, J. P. Adhesiveness of mononuclear cells in hypercholesterolemic humans is normalized by dietary L-arginine. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 1997;17:3557-3564. View abstract.
  88. Braga, M., Gianotti, L., Vignali, A., Cestari, A., Bisagni, P., and Di, Carlo, V. Artificial nutrition after major abdominal surgery: impact of route of administration and composition of the diet. Crit Care Med. 1998;26:24-30. View abstract.
  89. Nitenberg, A., Ledoux, S., Attali, J. R., and Valensi, P. [Response of the coronary arteries to cold test and flow velocity increase is improved by deferoxamine but not by L-arginine in diabetic patients]. Arch.Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1997;90:1037-1041. View abstract.
  90. Andoh, T. F., Gardner, M. P., and Bennett, W. M. Protective effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation on chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Transplantation 11-15-1997;64:1236-1240. View abstract.
  91. Gianotti, L., Braga, M., Vignali, A., Balzano, G., Zerbi, A., Bisagni, P., and Di, Carlo, V. Effect of route of delivery and formulation of postoperative nutritional support in patients undergoing major operations for malignant neoplasms. Arch.Surg. 1997;132:1222-1229. View abstract.
  92. Marietta, M., Facchinetti, F., Neri, I., Piccinini, F., Volpe, A., and Torelli, G. L-arginine infusion decreases platelet aggregation through an intraplatelet nitric oxide release. Thromb.Res 10-15-1997;88:229-235. View abstract.
  93. Herman, W. H., Fajans, S. S., Smith, M. J., Polonsky, K. S., Bell, G. I., and Halter, J. B. Diminished insulin and glucagon secretory responses to arginine in nondiabetic subjects with a mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha/MODY1 gene. Diabetes 1997;46:1749-1754. View abstract.
  94. Slawinski, M., Grodzinska, L., Kostka-Trabka, E., Bieron, K., Goszcz, A., and Gryglewski, R. J. L-arginine--substrate for no synthesis--its beneficial effects in therapy of patients with peripheral arterial disease: comparison with placebo-preliminary results. Acta Physiol Hung. 1996;84:457-458. View abstract.
  95. Schellong, S. M., Boger, R. H., Burchert, W., Bode-Boger, S. M., Galland, A., Frolich, J. C., Hundeshagen, H., and Alexander, K. Dose-related effect of intravenous L-arginine on muscular blood flow of the calf in patients with peripheral vascular disease: a H215O positron emission tomography study. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1997;93:159-165. View abstract.
  96. Senkal, M., Mumme, A., Eickhoff, U., Geier, B., Spath, G., Wulfert, D., Joosten, U., Frei, A., and Kemen, M. Early postoperative enteral immunonutrition: clinical outcome and cost-comparison analysis in surgical patients. Crit Care Med. 1997;25:1489-1496. View abstract.
  97. Zamora, S. A., Amin, H. J., McMillan, D. D., Kubes, P., Fick, G. H., Butzner, J. D., Parsons, H. G., and Scott, R. B. Plasma L-arginine concentrations in premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr 1997;131:226-232. View abstract.
  98. Wascher, T. C., Graier, W. F., Dittrich, P., Hussain, M. A., Bahadori, B., Wallner, S., and Toplak, H. Effects of low-dose L-arginine on insulin-mediated vasodilatation and insulin sensitivity. Eur.J Clin.Invest 1997;27:690-695. View abstract.
  99. Smith, S. D., Wheeler, M. A., Foster, H. E., Jr., and Weiss, R. M. Improvement in interstitial cystitis symptom scores during treatment with oral L-arginine. J Urol. 1997;158(3 Pt 1):703-708. View abstract.
  100. Smulders, R. A., Aarsen, M., Teerlink, T., De Vries, P. M., Van Kamp, G. J., Donker, A. J., and Stehouwer, C. D. Haemodynamic and biochemical responses to L-arginine and L-lysine infusions in normal subjects: L-arginine-induced vasodilatation cannot be explained by non-specific effects of cationic amino acids. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1997;92:367-374. View abstract.
  101. Assis, S. M., Monteiro, J. L., and Seguro, A. C. L-Arginine and allopurinol protect against cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Transplantation 4-27-1997;63:1070-1073. View abstract.
  102. Giugliano, D., Marfella, R., Coppola, L., Verrazzo, G., Acampora, R., Giunta, R., Nappo, F., Lucarelli, C., and D'Onofrio, F. Vascular effects of acute hyperglycemia in humans are reversed by L-arginine. Evidence for reduced availability of nitric oxide during hyperglycemia. Circulation 4-1-1997;95:1783-1790. View abstract.
  103. Wolf, A., Zalpour, C., Theilmeier, G., Wang, B. Y., Ma, A., Anderson, B., Tsao, P. S., and Cooke, J. P. Dietary L-arginine supplementation normalizes platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Am Coll.Cardiol 3-1-1997;29:479-485. View abstract.
  104. Khan, F., Litchfield, S. J., McLaren, M., Veale, D. J., Littleford, R. C., and Belch, J. J. Oral L-arginine supplementation and cutaneous vascular responses in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Arthritis Rheum. 1997;40:352-357. View abstract.
  105. Giugliano, D., Marfella, R., Verrazzo, G., Acampora, R., Coppola, L., Cozzolino, D., and D'Onofrio, F. The vascular effects of L-Arginine in humans. The role of endogenous insulin. J Clin.Invest 2-1-1997;99:433-438. View abstract.
  106. Lubec, B., Hayn, M., Kitzmuller, E., Vierhapper, H., and Lubec, G. L-Arginine reduces lipid peroxidation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 1997;22(1-2):355-357. View abstract.
  107. Schilling, J., Vranjes, N., Fierz, W., Joller, H., Gyurech, D., Ludwig, E., Marathias, K., and Geroulanos, S. Clinical outcome and immunology of postoperative arginine, omega-3 fatty acids, and nucleotide-enriched enteral feeding: a randomized prospective comparison with standard enteral and low calorie/low fat i.v. solutions. Nutrition 1996;12:423-429. View abstract.
  108. Marfella, R., Acampora, R., Verrazzo, G., Ziccardi, P., De, Rosa N., Giunta, R., and Giugliano, D. Metformin improves hemodynamic and rheological responses to L-arginine in NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1996;19:934-939. View abstract.
  109. Gryglewski, R. J., Grodzinska, L., Kostka-Trabka, E., Korbut, R., Bieroon, K., Goszcz, A., and Slawinski, M. Treatment with L-arginine is likely to stimulate generation of nitric oxide in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease. Wien.Klin.Wochenschr. 1996;108:111-116. View abstract.
  110. Chin-Dusting, J. P., Alexander, C. T., Arnold, P. J., Hodgson, W. C., Lux, A. S., and Jennings, G. L. Effects of in vivo and in vitro L-arginine supplementation on healthy human vessels. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 1996;28:158-166. View abstract.
  111. Wennmalm, A., Edlund, A., Granstrom, E. F., and Wiklund, O. Acute supplementation with the nitric oxide precursor L-arginine does not improve cardiovascular performance in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis 1995;118:223-231. View abstract.
  112. Mehta, S., Stewart, D. J., and Levy, R. D. The hypotensive effect of L-arginine is associated with increased expired nitric oxide in humans. Chest 1996;109:1550-1555. View abstract.
  113. Campo, C., Lahera, V., Garcia-Robles, R., Cachofeiro, V., Alcazar, J. M., Andres, A., Rodicio, J. L., and Ruilope, L. M. Aging abolishes the renal response to L-arginine infusion in essential hypertension. Kidney Int.Suppl 1996;55:S126-S128. View abstract.
  114. Egashira, K., Hirooka, Y., Kuga, T., Mohri, M., and Takeshita, A. Effects of L-arginine supplementation on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in patients with angina pectoris and normal coronary arteriograms. Circulation 7-15-1996;94:130-134. View abstract.
  115. Braga, M., Vignali, A., Gianotti, L., Cestari, A., Profili, M., and Carlo, V. D. Immune and nutritional effects of early enteral nutrition after major abdominal operations. Eur.J Surg. 1996;162:105-112. View abstract.
  116. Bode-Boger, S. M., Boger, R. H., Alfke, H., Heinzel, D., Tsikas, D., Creutzig, A., Alexander, K., and Frolich, J. C. L-arginine induces nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation in patients with critical limb ischemia. A randomized, controlled study. Circulation 1-1-1996;93:85-90. View abstract.
  117. Kirk, S. J., Hurson, M., Regan, M. C., Holt, D. R., Wasserkrug, H. L., and Barbul, A. Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings. Surgery 1993;114:155-159. View abstract.
  118. Brittenden, J., Heys, S. D., Miller, I., Sarkar, T. K., Hutcheon, A. W., Needham, G., Gilbert, F., McKean, M., Ah-See, A. K., and Eremin, O. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine in patients with breast cancer (> 4 cm) receiving multimodality treatment: report of a feasibility study. Br J Cancer 1994;69:918-921. View abstract.
  119. Brittenden, J., Heys, S. D., Ross, J., Park, K. G., and Eremin, O. Natural cytotoxicity in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy: effects of L-arginine supplementation. Eur.J Surg.Oncol. 1994;20:467-472. View abstract.
  120. Smulders, R. A., Stehouwer, C. D., Olthof, C. G., Van Kamp, G. J., Teerlink, T., De Vries, P. M., and Donker, A. J. Plasma endothelin levels and vascular effects of intravenous L-arginine infusion in subjects with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin.Sci (Lond) 1994;87:37-43. View abstract.
  121. Hayde, M., Vierhapper, H., Lubec, B., Popow, C., Weninger, M., Xi, Z., and Lubec, G. Low-dose dietary L-arginine increases plasma interleukin 1 alpha but not interleukin 1 beta in patients with diabetes mellitus. Cytokine 1994;6:79-82. View abstract.
  122. Bode-Boger, S. M., Boger, R. H., Creutzig, A., Tsikas, D., Gutzki, F. M., Alexander, K., and Frolich, J. C. L-arginine infusion decreases peripheral arterial resistance and inhibits platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1994;87:303-310. View abstract.
  123. Vigano, E., Badalamenti, S., Paone, G., Como, G., Finazzi, S., Tarantino, A., Galmarini, D., and Ponticelli, C. Renal effects of L-arginine infusion in cyclosporine-treated transplant recipients. Transplant.Proc. 1994;26:2622-2623. View abstract.
  124. Wolf, S. C., Erley, C. M., Kenner, S., Berger, E. D., and Risler, T. Does L-arginine alter proteinuria and renal hemodynamics in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis and hypertension? Clin.Nephrol. 1995;43 Suppl 1:S42-S46. View abstract.
  125. Daly, J. M., Weintraub, F. N., Shou, J., Rosato, E. F., and Lucia, M. Enteral nutrition during multimodality therapy in upper gastrointestinal cancer patients. Ann.Surg. 1995;221:327-338. View abstract.
  126. Higashi, Y., Oshima, T., Ozono, R., Watanabe, M., Matsuura, H., and Kajiyama, G. Effects of L-arginine infusion on renal hemodynamics in patients with mild essential hypertension. Hypertension 1995;25(4 Pt 2):898-902. View abstract.
  127. Gaston, R. S., Schlessinger, S. D., Sanders, P. W., Barker, C. V., Curtis, J. J., and Warnock, D. G. Cyclosporine inhibits the renal response to L-arginine in human kidney transplant recipients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1995;5:1426-1433. View abstract.
  128. Scibona, M., Meschini, P., Capparelli, S., Pecori, C., Rossi, P., and Menchini Fabris, G. F. [L-arginine and male infertility]. Minerva Urol.Nefrol. 1994;46:251-253. View abstract.
  129. Mehta, S., Stewart, D. J., Langleben, D., and Levy, R. D. Short-term pulmonary vasodilation with L-arginine in pulmonary hypertension. Circulation 9-15-1995;92:1539-1545. View abstract.
  130. Dell'Omo, G., Catapano, G., Ebel, M., Gazzano, A., Ducci, M., Del, Chicca M., Clerico, A., and Pedrinelli, R. [Pressor, renal and endocrine effects of systemic infusion of L-arginine in hypertensive patients]. Ann.Ital Med.Int. 1995;10:107-112. View abstract.
  131. Higashi, Y., Oshima, T., Ono, N., Hiraga, H., Yoshimura, M., Watanabe, M., Matsuura, H., Kambe, M., and Kajiyama, G. Intravenous administration of L-arginine inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme in humans. J Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1995;80:2198-2202. View abstract.
  132. Sax, H. C. Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1994;18:559-560. View abstract.
  133. Koifman, B., Wollman, Y., Bogomolny, N., Chernichowsky, T., Finkelstein, A., Peer, G., Scherez, J., Blum, M., Laniado, S., Iaina, A., and . Improvement of cardiac performance by intravenous infusion of L-arginine in patients with moderate congestive heart failure. J Am Coll.Cardiol 11-1-1995;26:1251-1256. View abstract.
  134. Pedrinelli, R., Ebel, M., Catapano, G., Dell'Omo, G., Ducci, M., Del, Chicca M., and Clerico, A. Pressor, renal and endocrine effects of L-arginine in essential hypertensives. Eur.J Clin.Pharmacol. 1995;48(3-4):195-201. View abstract.
  135. Adams, M. R., Forsyth, C. J., Jessup, W., Robinson, J., and Celermajer, D. S. Oral L-arginine inhibits platelet aggregation but does not enhance endothelium-dependent dilation in healthy young men. J Am Coll.Cardiol 1995;26:1054-1061. View abstract.
  136. Amore, A., Gianoglio, B., Ghigo, D., Peruzzi, L., Porcellini, M. G., Bussolino, F., Costamagna, C., Cacace, G., Picciotto, G., Mazzucco, G., and . A possible role for nitric oxide in modulating the functional cyclosporine toxicity by arginine. Kidney Int. 1995;47:1507-1514. View abstract.
  137. Bushinsky, D. A. and Gennari, F. J. Life-threatening hyperkalemia induced by arginine. Ann.Intern.Med. 1978;89(5 Pt 1):632-634. View abstract.
  138. De, Aloysio D., Mantuano, R., Mauloni, M., and Nicoletti, G. The clinical use of arginine aspartate in male infertility. Acta Eur.Fertil. 1982;13:133-167. View abstract.
  139. Tanimura, J. Studies on arginine in human semen. II. The effects of medication with L-arginine-HCL on male infertility. Bull.Osaka Med.Sch 1967;13:84-89. View abstract.
  140. Tanimura, J. Studies on arginine in human semen. I. The arginine contents of normal and sterile human semen. Bull.Osaka Med.Sch 1967;13:76-83. View abstract.
  141. Miroueh, A. Effect of arginine on oligospermia. Fertil.Steril. 1970;21:217-219. View abstract.
  142. Hertz, P. and Richardson, J. A. Arginine-induced hyperkalemia in renal failure patients. Arch.Intern.Med. 1972;130:778-780. View abstract.
  143. Schachter, A., Friedman, S., Goldman, J. A., and Eckerling, B. Treatment of oligospermia with the amino acid arginine. Int.J Gynaecol.Obstet. 1973;11:206-209. View abstract.
  144. Schachter, A., Goldman, J. A., and Zukerman, Z. Treatment of oligospermia with the amino acid arginine. J Urol. 1973;110:311-313. View abstract.
  145. Pryor, J. P., Blandy, J. P., Evans, P., Chaput De Saintonge, D. M., and Usherwood, M. Controlled clinical trial of arginine for infertile men with oligozoospermia. Br J Urol. 1978;50:47-50. View abstract.
  146. Elam, R. P., Hardin, D. H., Sutton, R. A., and Hagen, L. Effects of arginine and ornithine on strength, lean body mass and urinary hydroxyproline in adult males. J Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 1989;29:52-56. View abstract.
  147. Marti-Carvajal, A. J., Knight-Madden, J. M., and Martinez-Zapata, M. J. Interventions for treating leg ulcers in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;11:CD008394. View abstract.
  148. Fallon, E. M., Nehra, D., Potemkin, A. K., Gura, K. M., Simpser, E., Compher, C., and Puder, M. A.S.P.E.N. clinical guidelines: nutrition support of neonatal patients at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2012;36:506-523. View abstract.
  149. Nelson, R. L., Thomas, K., Morgan, J., and Jones, A. Non surgical therapy for anal fissure. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;2:CD003431. View abstract.
  150. Dong, J. Y., Qin, L. Q., Zhang, Z., Zhao, Y., Wang, J., Arigoni, F., and Zhang, W. Effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Am.Heart J 2011;162:959-965. View abstract.
  151. Drover, J. W., Dhaliwal, R., Weitzel, L., Wischmeyer, P. E., Ochoa, J. B., and Heyland, D. K. Perioperative use of arginine-supplemented diets: a systematic review of the evidence. J Am.Coll.Surg. 2011;212:385-99, 399. View abstract.
  152. Davis, J. S. and Anstey, N. M. Is plasma arginine concentration decreased in patients with sepsis? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2011;39:380-385. View abstract.
  153. Puiman, P. J., Stoll, B., van Goudoever, J. B., and Burrin, D. G. Enteral arginine does not increase superior mesenteric arterial blood flow but induces mucosal growth in neonatal pigs. J Nutr. 2011;141:63-70. View abstract.
  154. Daly, J. M., Reynolds, J., Sigal, R. K., Shou, J., and Liberman, M. D. Effect of dietary protein and amino acids on immune function. Crit Care Med. 1990;18(2 Suppl):S86-S93. View abstract.
  155. Neri, I., Monari, F., Sgarbi, L., Berardi, A., Masellis, G., and Facchinetti, F. L-arginine supplementation in women with chronic hypertension: impact on blood pressure and maternal and neonatal complications. J Matern.Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23:1456-1460. View abstract.
  156. McMahon, L., Tamary, H., Askin, M., Adams-Graves, P., Eberhardt, R. T., Sutton, M., Wright, E. C., Castaneda, S. A., Faller, D. V., and Perrine, S. P. A randomized phase II trial of Arginine Butyrate with standard local therapy in refractory sickle cell leg ulcers. Br.J Haematol. 2010;151:516-524. View abstract.
  157. Morgante, G., Scolaro, V., Tosti, C., Di, Sabatino A., Piomboni, P., and De, Leo, V. [Treatment with carnitine, acetyl carnitine, L-arginine and ginseng improves sperm motility and sexual health in men with asthenopermia]. Minerva Urol.Nefrol. 2010;62:213-218. View abstract.
  158. Saleh, A. I., Abdel Maksoud, S. M., El-Maraghy, S. A., and Gad, M. Z. Protective effect of L-arginine in experimentally induced myocardial ischemia: comparison with aspirin. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol.Ther 2011;16:53-62. View abstract.
  159. Lakhan, S. E. and Vieira, K. F. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review. Nutr J 2010;9:42. View abstract.
  160. Shigemi, R., Fukuda, M., Suzuki, Y., Morimoto, T., and Ishii, E. L-arginine is effective in stroke-like episodes of MELAS associated with the G13513A mutation. Brain Dev. 2011;33:518-520. View abstract.
  161. Sullivan, K. J., Kissoon, N., Sandler, E., Gauger, C., Froyen, M., Duckworth, L., Brown, M., and Murphy, S. Effect of oral arginine supplementation on exhaled nitric oxide concentration in sickle cell anemia and acute chest syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol.Oncol. 2010;32:e249-e258. View abstract.
  162. Bailey, S. J., Winyard, P. G., Vanhatalo, A., Blackwell, J. R., DiMenna, F. J., Wilkerson, D. P., and Jones, A. M. Acute L-arginine supplementation reduces the O2 cost of moderate-intensity exercise and enhances high-intensity exercise tolerance. J Appl.Physiol 2010;109:1394-1403. View abstract.
  163. Tripathi, P., Chandra, M., and Misra, M. K. Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase. Oxid.Med.Cell Longev. 2009;2:231-237. View abstract.
  164. Hughes, N., Mason, S., Jeffery, P., Welton, H., Tobin, M., O'Shea, C., and Browne, M. A comparative clinical study investigating the efficacy of a test dentifrice containing 8% strontium acetate and 1040 ppm sodium fluoride versus a marketed control dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity. J Clin.Dent. 2010;21:49-55. View abstract.
  165. Koga, Y., Povalko, N., Nishioka, J., Katayama, K., Kakimoto, N., and Matsuishi, T. MELAS and L-arginine therapy: pathophysiology of stroke-like episodes. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2010;1201:104-110. View abstract.
  166. Battaglia, C., Mancini, F., Battaglia, B., Facchinetti, F., Artini, P. G., and Venturoli, S. L-arginine plus drospirenone-ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of patients with PCOS: a prospective, placebo controlled, randomised, pilot study. Gynecol.Endocrinol. 2010;26:861-868. View abstract.
  167. Marik, P. E. and Zaloga, G. P. Immunonutrition in high-risk surgical patients: a systematic review and analysis of the literature. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2010;34:378-386. View abstract.
  168. Tan, B., Yin, Y., Liu, Z., Tang, W., Xu, H., Kong, X., Li, X., Yao, K., Gu, W., Smith, S. B., and Wu, G. Dietary L-arginine supplementation differentially regulates expression of lipid-metabolic genes in porcine adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. J Nutr.Biochem. 2011;22:441-445. View abstract.
  169. Scavella, A., Leiva, L., Monjure, H., Zea, A. H., and Gardner, R. V. Effect of L-arginine supplementation on immune responsiveness in patients with sickle cell disease. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010;55:318-323. View abstract.
  170. Sunderland, K. L., Greer, F., and Morales, J. VO2max and ventilatory threshold of trained cyclists are not affected by 28-day L-arginine supplementation. J Strength.Cond.Res 2011;25:833-837. View abstract.
  171. Guttman, H., Zimlichman, R., Boaz, M., Matas, Z., and Shargorodsky, M. Effect of Long-Term L-Arginine Supplementation on Arterial Compliance and Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Multiple Cardiovascular risk Factors: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 6-7-2010; View abstract.
  172. Ast, J., Jablecka, A., Bogdanski, P., Smolarek, I., Krauss, H., and Chmara, E. Evaluation of the antihypertensive effect of L-arginine supplementation in patients with mild hypertension assessed with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Med.Sci.Monit. 2010;16:CR266-CR271. View abstract.
  173. Camic, C. L., Housh, T. J., Zuniga, J. M., Hendrix, R. C., Mielke, M., Johnson, G. O., and Schmidt, R. J. Effects of arginine-based supplements on the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold. J Strength.Cond.Res 2010;24:1306-1312. View abstract.
  174. Srivastava, S. and Agarwal, A. Effect of anion channel blockers on L-arginine action in spermatozoa from asthenospermic men. Andrologia 2010;42:76-82. View abstract.
  175. Tripathi, P. and Misra, M. K. Therapeutic role of L-arginine on free radical scavenging system in ischemic heart diseases. Indian J Biochem.Biophys. 2009;46:498-502. View abstract.
  176. Carrier, M., Perrault, L. P., Fortier, A., Bouchard, D., and Pellerin, M. L-arginine supplemented nondiluted blood cardioplegia: a clinical trial. J Cardiovasc.Surg.(Torino) 2010;51:283-287. View abstract.
  177. Chen, S., Kim, W., Henning, S. M., Carpenter, C. L., and Li, Z. Arginine and antioxidant supplement on performance in elderly male cyclists: a randomized controlled trial. J Int.Soc Sports Nutr. 2010;7:13. View abstract.
  178. Olek, R. A., Ziemann, E., Grzywacz, T., Kujach, S., Luszczyk, M., Antosiewicz, J., and Laskowski, R. A single oral intake of arginine does not affect performance during repeated Wingate anaerobic test. J Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 2010;50:52-56. View abstract.
  179. Giuggioli, D., Colaci, M., Sebastiani, M., and Ferri, C. L-Arginine in pregnant scleroderma patients. Clin.Rheumatol. 2010;29:937-939. View abstract.
  180. Glueck, C. J., Munjal, J., Khan, A., Umar, M., and Wang, P. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase T-786C mutation, a reversible etiology of Prinzmetal's angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 3-15-2010;105:792-796. View abstract.
  181. Doutreleau, S., Rouyer, O., Di, Marco P., Lonsdorfer, E., Richard, R., Piquard, F., and Geny, B. L-arginine supplementation improves exercise capacity after a heart transplant. Am J Clin.Nutr. 2010;91:1261-1267. View abstract.
  182. Ledda, A., Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Dugall, M., and Schonlau, F. Investigation of a complex plant extract for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study. BJU.Int. 2010;106:1030-1033. View abstract.
  183. Stechmiller, J. K. Understanding the role of nutrition and wound healing. Nutr.Clin.Pract. 2010;25:61-68. View abstract.
  184. Doley, J. Nutrition management of pressure ulcers. Nutr.Clin.Pract. 2010;25:50-60. View abstract.
  185. Jude, E. B., Dang, C., and Boulton, A. J. Effect of L-arginine on the microcirculation in the neuropathic diabetic foot in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Diabet.Med. 2010;27:113-116. View abstract.
  186. Huang, C. C., Lin, T. J., Lu, Y. F., Chen, C. C., Huang, C. Y., and Lin, W. T. Protective effects of L-arginine supplementation against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in young rat tissues. Chin J Physiol 10-31-2009;52:306-315. View abstract.
  187. Lagudis, S., Yamada, A. T., Vieira, M. L., Medeiros, C. C., Mansur, A. J., and Lage, S. G. The effect of dobutamine without and with L-arginine on arterial compliance in heart failure patients. Echocardiography. 2009;26:934-942. View abstract.
  188. Fontanive P, Saponati G, Iurato A, et al. Effects of L-arginine on the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire quality-of-life score in patients with chronic systolic heart failure. Med.Sci.Monit. 2009;15:CR606-11. View abstract.
  189. Sun, T., Zhou, W. B., Luo, X. P., Tang, Y. L., and Shi, H. M. Oral L-arginine supplementation in acute myocardial infarction therapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin.Cardiol 2009;32:649-652. View abstract.
  190. Ozbek, M., Erdogan, M., Karadeniz, M., Cetinkalp, S., Ozgen, A. G., Saygili, F., Yilmaz, C., and Tuzun, M. Evaluation of beta cell dysfunction by mixed meal tolerance test and oral L-arginine in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp.Clin.Endocrinol.Diabetes 2009;117:573-576. View abstract.
  191. Coeffier, M. and Dechelotte, P. Combined infusion of glutamine and arginine: does it make sense? Curr.Opin.Clin.Nutr.Metab Care 2010;13:70-74. View abstract.
  192. Cahill, N. E., Dhaliwal, R., Day, A. G., Jiang, X., and Heyland, D. K. Nutrition therapy in the critical care setting: what is "best achievable" practice? An international multicenter observational study. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:395-401. View abstract.
  193. Docimo, R., Montesani, L., Maturo, P., Costacurta, M., Bartolino, M., Zhang, Y. P., DeVizio, W., Delgado, E., Cummins, D., Dibart, S., and Mateo, L. R. Comparing the efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride to a benchmark commercial desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion: an eight-week clinical study in Rome, Italy. J Clin.Dent. 2009;20:137-143. View abstract.
  194. Nathoo, S., Delgado, E., Zhang, Y. P., DeVizio, W., Cummins, D., and Mateo, L. R. Comparing the efficacy in providing instant relief of dentin hypersensitivity of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride relative to a benchmark desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion and 1450 ppm fluoride, and to a control toothpaste with 1450 ppm fluoride: a three-day clinical study in New Jersey, USA. J Clin.Dent. 2009;20:123-130. View abstract.
  195. Ayad, F., Ayad, N., Delgado, E., Zhang, Y. P., DeVizio, W., Cummins, D., and Mateo, L. R. Comparing the efficacy in providing instant relief of dentin hypersensitivity of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride to a benchmark desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion and 1450 ppm fluoride, and to a control toothpaste with 1450 ppm fluoride: a three-day clinical study in Mississauga, Canada. J Clin.Dent. 2009;20:115-122. View abstract.
  196. Bescos, R., Gonzalez-Haro, C., Pujol, P., Drobnic, F., Alonso, E., Santolaria, M. L., Ruiz, O., Esteve, M., and Galilea, P. Effects of dietary L-arginine intake on cardiorespiratory and metabolic adaptation in athletes. Int.J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2009;19:355-365. View abstract.
  197. Ellinger, S. and Stehle, P. Efficacy of vitamin supplementation in situations with wound healing disorders: results from clinical intervention studies. Curr.Opin.Clin.Nutr.Metab Care 2009;12:588-595. View abstract.
  198. Celik, J. B., Gezginc, K., Ozcelik, K., and Celik, C. The role of immunonutrition in gynecologic oncologic surgery. Eur.J Gynaecol.Oncol. 2009;30:418-421. View abstract.
  199. Hrncic, D., Rasic-Markovic, A., Krstic, D., Macut, D., Djuric, D., and Stanojlovic, O. The role of nitric oxide in homocysteine thiolactone-induced seizures in adult rats. Cell Mol.Neurobiol. 2010;30:219-231. View abstract.
  200. De Luis, D. A., Izaola, O., Cuellar, L., Terroba, M. C., Martin, T., and Aller, R. High dose of arginine enhanced enteral nutrition in postsurgical head and neck cancer patients. A randomized clinical trial. Eur.Rev.Med.Pharmacol Sci 2009;13:279-283. View abstract.
  201. Jahangir, E., Vita, J. A., Handy, D., Holbrook, M., Palmisano, J., Beal, R., Loscalzo, J., and Eberhardt, R. T. The effect of L-arginine and creatine on vascular function and homocysteine metabolism. Vasc.Med. 2009;14:239-248. View abstract.
  202. Okamoto, Y., Okano, K., Izuishi, K., Usuki, H., Wakabayashi, H., and Suzuki, Y. Attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response and infectious complications after gastrectomy with preoperative oral arginine and omega-3 fatty acids supplemented immunonutrition. World J Surg. 2009;33:1815-1821. View abstract.
  203. Gentile, V., Antonini, G., Antonella, Bertozzi M., Dinelli, N., Rizzo, C., Ashraf, Virmani M., and Koverech, A. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and nicotinic acid on the efficacy of vardenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25:2223-2228. View abstract.
  204. Modolell, M., Choi, B. S., Ryan, R. O., Hancock, M., Titus, R. G., Abebe, T., Hailu, A., Muller, I., Rogers, M. E., Bangham, C. R., Munder, M., and Kropf, P. Local suppression of T cell responses by arginase-induced L-arginine depletion in nonhealing leishmaniasis. PLoS.Negl.Trop.Dis 2009;3:e480. View abstract.
  205. Lucotti, P., Monti, L., Setola, E., La, Canna G., Castiglioni, A., Rossodivita, A., Pala, M. G., Formica, F., Paolini, G., Catapano, A. L., Bosi, E., Alfieri, O., and Piatti, P. Oral L-arginine supplementation improves endothelial function and ameliorates insulin sensitivity and inflammation in cardiopathic nondiabetic patients after an aortocoronary bypass. Metabolism 2009;58:1270-1276. View abstract.
  206. Fan, X. Y., van den Berg, A., Snoek, M., van der Flier, L. G., Smids, B., Jansen, H. M., Liu, R. Y., and Lutter, R. Arginine deficiency augments inflammatory mediator production by airway epithelial cells in vitro. Respir.Res 2009;10:62. View abstract.
  207. Budoff, M. J., Ahmadi, N., Gul, K. M., Liu, S. T., Flores, F. R., Tiano, J., Takasu, J., Miller, E., and Tsimikas, S. Aged garlic extract supplemented with B vitamins, folic acid and L-arginine retards the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized clinical trial. Prev.Med. 2009;49(2-3):101-107. View abstract.
  208. Koppo, K., Taes, Y. E., Pottier, A., Boone, J., Bouckaert, J., and Derave, W. Dietary arginine supplementation speeds pulmonary VO2 kinetics during cycle exercise. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2009;41:1626-1632. View abstract.
  209. Schulze, F., Glos, S., Petruschka, D., Altenburg, C., Maas, R., Benndorf, R., Schwedhelm, E., Beil, U., and Boger, R. H. L-Arginine enhances the triglyceride-lowering effect of simvastatin in patients with elevated plasma triglycerides. Nutr.Res 2009;29:291-297. View abstract.
  210. Masha, A., Manieri, C., Dinatale, S., Bruno, G. A., Ghigo, E., and Martina, V. Prolonged treatment with N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine restores gonadal function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Endocrinol.Invest 2009;32:870-872. View abstract.
  211. Petrou, I., Heu, R., Stranick, M., Lavender, S., Zaidel, L., Cummins, D., Sullivan, R. J., Hsueh, C., and Gimzewski, J. K. A breakthrough therapy for dentin hypersensitivity: how dental products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate work to deliver effective relief of sensitive teeth. J Clin.Dent. 2009;20:23-31. View abstract.
  212. Mou, J., Fang, H., Jing, F., Wang, Q., Liu, Y., Zhu, H., Shang, L., Wang, X., and Xu, W. Design, synthesis and primary activity evaluation of L-arginine derivatives as amino-peptidase N/CD13 inhibitors. Bioorg.Med.Chem. 7-1-2009;17:4666-4673. View abstract.
  213. Malenfant, D., Catton, M., and Pope, J. E. The efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: a literature review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology.(Oxford) 2009;48:791-795. View abstract.
  214. Lee, J., Ryu, H., and Kowall, N. W. Motor neuronal protection by L-arginine prolongs survival of mutant SOD1 (G93A) ALS mice. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 7-10-2009;384:524-529. View abstract.
  215. Jovanovic, A., Gerrard, J., and Taylor, R. The second-meal phenomenon in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32:1199-1201. View abstract.
  216. Winer, N., Branger, B., Azria, E., Tsatsaris, V., Philippe, H. J., Roze, J. C., Descamps, P., Boog, G., Cynober, L., and Darmaun, D. L-Arginine treatment for severe vascular fetal intrauterine growth restriction: a randomized double-bind controlled trial. Clin.Nutr. 2009;28:243-248. View abstract.
  217. Debats, I. B., Booi, D. I., Wehrens, K. M., Cleutjens, J., Deutz, N. E., van de Hogen, E., Bemelmans, M., and van der Hulst, R. R. Oral arginine supplementation and the effect on skin graft donor sites: a randomized clinical pilot study. J Burn Care Res 2009;30:417-426. View abstract.
  218. Kato, G. J., Wang, Z., Machado, R. F., Blackwelder, W. C., Taylor, J. G., and Hazen, S. L. Endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in sickle cell disease: abnormal levels and correlations with pulmonary hypertension, desaturation, haemolysis, organ dysfunction and death. Br J Haematol. 2009;145:506-513. View abstract.
  219. Amin, H. J., Soraisham, A. S., and Sauve, R. S. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with l-arginine for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis. J Paediatr.Child Health 2009;45:219-223. View abstract.
  220. Weitzel, L. R., Mayles, W. J., Sandoval, P. A., and Wischmeyer, P. E. Effects of pharmaconutrients on cellular dysfunction and the microcirculation in critical illness. Curr.Opin.Anaesthesiol. 2009;22:177-183. View abstract.
  221. Boger, R. H., Sullivan, L. M., Schwedhelm, E., Wang, T. J., Maas, R., Benjamin, E. J., Schulze, F., Xanthakis, V., Benndorf, R. A., and Vasan, R. S. Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine and incidence of cardiovascular disease and death in the community. Circulation 3-31-2009;119:1592-1600. View abstract.
  222. Little, J. A., Hauser, K. P., Martyr, S. E., Harris, A., Maric, I., Morris, C. R., Suh, J. H., Taylor, J., Castro, O., Machado, R., Kato, G., and Gladwin, M. T. Hematologic, biochemical, and cardiopulmonary effects of L-arginine supplementation or phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition in patients with sickle cell disease who are on hydroxyurea therapy. Eur.J Haematol. 2009;82:315-321. View abstract.
  223. Takasaki, A., Tamura, H., Miwa, I., Taketani, T., Shimamura, K., and Sugino, N. Endometrial growth and uterine blood flow: a pilot study for improving endometrial thickness in the patients with a thin endometrium. Fertil.Steril. 2010;93:1851-1858. View abstract.
  224. Koga, Y. [L-arginine therapy on MELAS]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2008;48:1010-1012. View abstract.
  225. Baris, N., Erdogan, M., Sezer, E., Saygili, F., Mert, Ozgonul A., Turgan, N., and Ersoz, B. Alterations in L-arginine and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria. Acta Diabetol. 2009;46:309-316. View abstract.
  226. Goligorsky, M. S. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase: from structure to function in one aspartic substitution. Kidney Int. 2009;75:255-257. View abstract.
  227. Stanislavov, R., Nikolova, V., and Rohdewald, P. Improvement of seminal parameters with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Phytother.Res 2009;23:297-302. View abstract.
  228. Bracci, M., Tomasetti, M., Malavolta, M., Bonacucina, V., Mocchegiani, E., and Santarelli, L. L-arginine reduces mercury accumulation in thymus of mercury-exposed mice: role of nitric oxide synthase activity and metallothioneins. Ind.Health 2008;46:567-574. View abstract.
  229. Kato, G. J. and Gladwin, M. T. Evolution of novel small-molecule therapeutics targeting sickle cell vasculopathy. JAMA 12-10-2008;300:2638-2646. View abstract.
  230. Bai, Y., Sun, L., Yang, T., Sun, K., Chen, J., and Hui, R. Increase in fasting vascular endothelial function after short-term oral L-arginine is effective when baseline flow-mediated dilation is low: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin.Nutr. 2009;89:77-84. View abstract.
  231. Gad, M. Z., El-Mesallamy, H. O., and Sanad, E. F. hsCRP, sICAM-1 and TAFI in hemodialysis patients: linking inflammation and hypofibrinolysis to cardiovascular events. Kidney Blood Press Res 2008;31:391-397. View abstract.
  232. Napoli, C., Farzati, B., Sica, V., Iannuzzi, E., Coppola, G., Silvestroni, A., Balestrieri, M. L., Florio, A., and Matarazzo, A. Beneficial effects of autologous bone marrow cell infusion and antioxidants/L-arginine in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia. Eur.J Cardiovasc.Prev.Rehabil. 2008;15:709-718. View abstract.
  233. Wu, G., Bazer, F. W., Davis, T. A., Kim, S. W., Li, P., Marc, Rhoads J., Carey, Satterfield M., Smith, S. B., Spencer, T. E., and Yin, Y. Arginine metabolism and nutrition in growth, health and disease. Amino.Acids 2009;37:153-168. View abstract.
  234. Heyman, H., Van De Looverbosch, D. E., Meijer, E. P., and Schols, J. M. Benefits of an oral nutritional supplement on pressure ulcer healing in long-term care residents. J Wound Care 2008;17:476-8, 480. View abstract.
  235. Fons, C., Sempere, A., Arias, A., Lopez-Sala, A., Poo, P., Pineda, M., Mas, A., Vilaseca, M. A., Salomons, G. S., Ribes, A., Artuch, R., and Campistol, J. Arginine supplementation in four patients with X-linked creatine transporter defect. J Inherit.Metab Dis 2008;31:724-728. View abstract.
  236. Moutaouakil, F., El, Otmani H., Fadel, H., Sefrioui, F., and Slassi, I. [l-arginine efficiency in MELAS syndrome. A case report]. Rev.Neurol.(Paris) 2009;165:482-485. View abstract.
  237. Settergren, M., Bohm, F., Malmstrom, R. E., Channon, K. M., and Pernow, J. L-arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis 2009;204:73-78. View abstract.
  238. Abba, K., Sudarsanam, T. D., Grobler, L., and Volmink, J. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;:CD006086. View abstract.
  239. Childress, B., Stechmiller, J. K., and Schultz, G. S. Arginine metabolites in wound fluids from pressure ulcers: a pilot study. Biol.Res Nurs. 2008;10:87-92. View abstract.
  240. Tan, B., Li, X. G., Kong, X., Huang, R., Ruan, Z., Yao, K., Deng, Z., Xie, M., Shinzato, I., Yin, Y., and Wu, G. Dietary L-arginine supplementation enhances the immune status in early-weaned piglets. Amino.Acids 2009;37:323-331. View abstract.
  241. Binder, I., Rossbach, G., and van, Ophoven A. [The complexity of chronic pelvic pain exemplified by the condition currently called interstitial cystitis. Part 2: Treatment]. Aktuelle Urol. 2008;39:289-297. View abstract.
  242. Klek, S., Kulig, J., Sierzega, M., Szybinski, P., Szczepanek, K., Kubisz, A., Kowalczyk, T., Gach, T., Pach, R., and Szczepanik, A. M. The impact of immunostimulating nutrition on infectious complications after upper gastrointestinal surgery: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Ann.Surg. 2008;248:212-220. View abstract.
  243. Marik, P. E. and Zaloga, G. P. Immunonutrition in critically ill patients: a systematic review and analysis of the literature. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34:1980-1990. View abstract.
  244. Salvatore, P., Casamassimi, A., Sommese, L., Fiorito, C., Ciccodicola, A., Rossiello, R., Avallone, B., Grimaldi, V., Costa, V., Rienzo, M., Colicchio, R., Williams-Ignarro, S., Pagliarulo, C., Prudente, M. E., Abbondanza, C., Lamberti, F., Baroni, A., Buommino, E., Farzati, B., Tufano, M. A., Ignarro, L. J., and Napoli, C. Detrimental effects of Bartonella henselae are counteracted by L-arginine and nitric oxide in human endothelial progenitor cells. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 7-8-2008;105:9427-9432. View abstract.
  245. Klek, S., Kulig, J., Sierzega, M., Szczepanek, K., Szybinski, P., Scislo, L., Walewska, E., Kubisz, A., and Szczepanik, A. M. Standard and immunomodulating enteral nutrition in patients after extended gastrointestinal surgery--a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Clin.Nutr 2008;27:504-512. View abstract.
  246. Chilosi, A., Leuzzi, V., Battini, R., Tosetti, M., Ferretti, G., Comparini, A., Casarano, M., Moretti, E., Alessandri, M. G., Bianchi, M. C., and Cioni, G. Treatment with L-arginine improves neuropsychological disorders in a child with creatine transporter defect. Neurocase. 2008;14:151-161. View abstract.
  247. Tuchman, M., Lee, B., Lichter-Konecki, U., Summar, M. L., Yudkoff, M., Cederbaum, S. D., Kerr, D. S., Diaz, G. A., Seashore, M. R., Lee, H. S., McCarter, R. J., Krischer, J. P., and Batshaw, M. L. Cross-sectional multicenter study of patients with urea cycle disorders in the United States. Mol.Genet.Metab 2008;94:397-402. View abstract.
  248. Chung, H. T., Choi, B. M., Kwon, Y. G., and Kim, Y. M. Interactive relations between nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO): heme oxygenase-1/CO pathway is a key modulator in NO-mediated antiapoptosis and anti-inflammation. Methods Enzymol. 2008;441:329-338. View abstract.
  249. Ralph, A. P., Kelly, P. M., and Anstey, N. M. L-arginine and vitamin D: novel adjunctive immunotherapies in tuberculosis. Trends Microbiol. 2008;16:336-344. View abstract.
  250. Fricke, O., Baecker, N., Heer, M., Tutlewski, B., and Schoenau, E. The effect of L-arginine administration on muscle force and power in postmenopausal women. Clin.Physiol Funct.Imaging 2008;28:307-311. View abstract.
  251. Acevedo, A. M., Montero, M., Rojas-Sanchez, F., Machado, C., Rivera, L. E., Wolff, M., and Kleinberg, I. Clinical evaluation of the ability of CaviStat in a mint confection to inhibit the development of dental caries in children. J Clin.Dent. 2008;19:1-8. View abstract.
  252. Binder, I. and van, Ophoven A. [The complexity of chronic pelvic pain exemplified by the condition currently called interstitial cystitis. Part 1: Background and basic principles]. Aktuelle Urol. 2008;39:205-214. View abstract.
  253. Casas-Rodera, P., Gomez-Candela, C., Benitez, S., Mateo, R., Armero, M., Castillo, R., and Culebras, J. M. Immunoenhanced enteral nutrition formulas in head and neck cancer surgery: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Nutr.Hosp. 2008;23:105-110. View abstract.
  254. Huang, C. C., Tsai, S. C., and Lin, W. T. Potential ergogenic effects of L-arginine against oxidative and inflammatory stress induced by acute exercise in aging rats. Exp.Gerontol. 2008;43:571-577. View abstract.
  255. Mhanni, A. A., Chan, A., Collison, M., Seifert, B., Lehotay, D. C., Sokoro, A., Huynh, H. Q., and Greenberg, C. R. Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome (HHH) presenting with acute fulminant hepatic failure. J Pediatr Gastroenterol.Nutr. 2008;46:312-315. View abstract.
  256. Ruel, M., Beanlands, R. S., Lortie, M., Chan, V., Camack, N., deKemp, R. A., Suuronen, E. J., Rubens, F. D., DaSilva, J. N., Sellke, F. W., Stewart, D. J., and Mesana, T. G. Concomitant treatment with oral L-arginine improves the efficacy of surgical angiogenesis in patients with severe diffuse coronary artery disease: the Endothelial Modulation in Angiogenic Therapy randomized controlled trial. J Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 2008;135:762-70, 770. View abstract.
  257. Hackett, A., Gillard, J., and Wilcken, B. n of 1 trial for an ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency carrier. Mol.Genet.Metab 2008;94:157-161. View abstract.
  258. Lauer, T., Kleinbongard, P., Rath, J., Schulz, R., Kelm, M., and Rassaf, T. L-arginine preferentially dilates stenotic segments of coronary arteries thereby increasing coronary flow. J Intern.Med. 2008;264:237-244. View abstract.
  259. Shao, A. and Hathcock, J. N. Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol 2008;50:376-399. View abstract.
  260. Berk, L., James, J., Schwartz, A., Hug, E., Mahadevan, A., Samuels, M., and Kachnic, L. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a beta-hydroxyl beta-methyl butyrate, glutamine, and arginine mixture for the treatment of cancer cachexia (RTOG 0122). Support.Care Cancer 2008;16:1179-1188. View abstract.
  261. Martina, V., Masha, A., Gigliardi, V. R., Brocato, L., Manzato, E., Berchio, A., Massarenti, P., Settanni, F., Della, Casa L., Bergamini, S., and Iannone, A. Long-term N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine administration reduces endothelial activation and systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2008;31:940-944. View abstract.
  262. Tarumoto, T., Imagawa, S., Kobayashi, M., Hirayama, A., Ozawa, K., and Nagasawa, T. L-arginine administration reverses anemia associated with renal disease. Int.J Hematol. 2007;86:126-129. View abstract.
  263. Sakurai, Y., Masui, T., Yoshida, I., Tonomura, S., Shoji, M., Nakamura, Y., Isogaki, J., Uyama, I., Komori, Y., and Ochiai, M. Randomized clinical trial of the effects of perioperative use of immune-enhancing enteral formula on metabolic and immunological status in patients undergoing esophagectomy. World J Surg. 2007;31:2150-2157. View abstract.
  264. Giger, U., Buchler, M., Farhadi, J., Berger, D., Husler, J., Schneider, H., Krahenbuhl, S., and Krahenbuhl, L. Preoperative immunonutrition suppresses perioperative inflammatory response in patients with major abdominal surgery-a randomized controlled pilot study. Ann.Surg.Oncol. 2007;14:2798-2806. View abstract.
  265. Wilson, A. M., Harada, R., Nair, N., Balasubramanian, N., and Cooke, J. P. L-arginine supplementation in peripheral arterial disease: no benefit and possible harm. Circulation 7-10-2007;116:188-195. View abstract.
  266. Siasos, G., Tousoulis, D., Vlachopoulos, C., Antoniades, C., Stefanadi, E., Ioakeimidis, N., Andreou, I., Zisimos, K., Papavassiliou, A. G., and Stefanadis, C. Short-term treatment with L-arginine prevents the smoking-induced impairment of endothelial function and vascular elastic properties in young individuals. Int.J Cardiol 6-6-2008;126:394-399. View abstract.
  267. Zhou, M. and Martindale, R. G. Arginine in the critical care setting. J Nutr. 2007;137(6 Suppl 2):1687S-1692S. View abstract.
  268. Smriga, M., Ando, T., Akutsu, M., Furukawa, Y., Miwa, K., and Morinaga, Y. Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans. Biomed.Res 2007;28:85-90. View abstract.
  269. Matsumoto, K., Mizuno, M., Mizuno, T., Dilling-Hansen, B., Lahoz, A., Bertelsen, V., Munster, H., Jordening, H., Hamada, K., and Doi, T. Branched-chain amino acids and arginine supplementation attenuates skeletal muscle proteolysis induced by moderate exercise in young individuals. Int.J Sports Med. 2007;28:531-538. View abstract.
  270. Tepaske, R., te, Velthuis H., Oudemans-van Straaten, H. M., Bossuyt, P. M., Schultz, M. J., Eijsman, L., and Vroom, M. Glycine does not add to the beneficial effects of perioperative oral immune-enhancing nutrition supplements in high-risk cardiac surgery patients. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2007;31:173-180. View abstract.
  271. Helminen, H., Raitanen, M., and Kellosalo, J. Immunonutrition in elective gastrointestinal surgery patients. Scand.J Surg. 2007;96:46-50. View abstract.
  272. Facchinetti, F., Saade, G. R., Neri, I., Pizzi, C., Longo, M., and Volpe, A. L-arginine supplementation in patients with gestational hypertension: a pilot study. Hypertens.Pregnancy. 2007;26:121-130. View abstract.
  273. Zheng, Y., Li, F., Qi, B., Luo, B., Sun, H., Liu, S., and Wu, X. Application of perioperative immunonutrition for gastrointestinal surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Asia Pac.J Clin.Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:253-257. View abstract.
  274. Finco, C., Magnanini, P., Sarzo, G., Vecchiato, M., Luongo, B., Savastano, S., Bortoliero, M., Barison, P., and Merigliano, S. Prospective randomized study on perioperative enteral immunonutrition in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Surg.Endosc. 2007;21:1175-1179. View abstract.
  275. McConell, G. K. Effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise metabolism. Curr.Opin.Clin.Nutr.Metab Care 2007;10:46-51. View abstract.
  276. Yan, H., Peng, X., Huang, Y., Zhao, M., Li, F., and Wang, P. Effects of early enteral arginine supplementation on resuscitation of severe burn patients. Burns 2007;33:179-184. View abstract.
  277. Savoye, G., Jemaa, Y., Mosni, G., Savoye-Collet, C., Morcamp, P., Dechelotte, P., Bouin, M., Denis, P., and Ducrotte, P. Effects of intragastric L-arginine administration on proximal stomach tone under basal conditions and after an intragastric diet. Dig.Dis Sci. 2006;51:2147-2153. View abstract.
  278. De Luis, D. A., Izaola, O., Cuellar, L., Terroba, M. C., Martin, T., and Aller, R. Clinical and biochemical outcomes after a randomized trial with a high dose of enteral arginine formula in postsurgical head and neck cancer patients. Eur.J Clin.Nutr 2007;61:200-204. View abstract.
  279. Rytlewski, K., Olszanecki, R., Lauterbach, R., Grzyb, A., and Basta, A. Effects of oral L-arginine on the foetal condition and neonatal outcome in preeclampsia: a preliminary report. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2006;99:146-152. View abstract.
  280. Wachtler, P., Axel, Hilger R., Konig, W., Bauer, K. H., Kemen, M., and Koller, M. Influence of a pre-operative enteral supplement on functional activities of peripheral leukocytes from patients with major surgery. Clin.Nutr 1995;14:275-282. View abstract.
  281. Xu, J., Zhong, Y., Jing, D., and Wu, Z. Preoperative enteral immunonutrition improves postoperative outcome in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. World J Surg. 2006;30:1284-1289. View abstract.
  282. Marin, V. B., Rodriguez-Osiac, L., Schlessinger, L., Villegas, J., Lopez, M., and Castillo-Duran, C. Controlled study of enteral arginine supplementation in burned children: impact on immunologic and metabolic status. Nutrition 2006;22(7-8):705-712. View abstract.
  283. Lobo, D. N., Williams, R. N., Welch, N. T., Aloysius, M. M., Nunes, Q. M., Padmanabhan, J., Crowe, J. R., Iftikhar, S. Y., Parsons, S. L., Neal, K. R., Allison, S. P., and Rowlands, B. J. Early postoperative jejunostomy feeding with an immune modulating diet in patients undergoing resectional surgery for upper gastrointestinal cancer: a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Clin.Nutr 2006;25:716-726. View abstract.
  284. Lucotti, P., Setola, E., Monti, L. D., Galluccio, E., Costa, S., Sandoli, E. P., Fermo, I., Rabaiotti, G., Gatti, R., and Piatti, P. Beneficial effects of a long-term oral L-arginine treatment added to a hypocaloric diet and exercise training program in obese, insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2006;291:E906-E912. View abstract.
  285. Koga, Y., Akita, Y., Junko, N., Yatsuga, S., Povalko, N., Fukiyama, R., Ishii, M., and Matsuishi, T. Endothelial dysfunction in MELAS improved by l-arginine supplementation. Neurology 6-13-2006;66:1766-1769. View abstract.
  286. Schlaich, M. P., Oehmer, S., Schneider, M. P., Delles, C., Schmidt, B. M., and Schmieder, R. E. Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition and L-arginine on renal haemodynamics in young patients at high cardiovascular risk. Atherosclerosis 2007;192:155-160. View abstract.
  287. Neri, I., Jasonni, V. M., Gori, G. F., Blasi, I., and Facchinetti, F. Effect of L-arginine on blood pressure in pregnancy-induced hypertension: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Matern.Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006;19:277-281. View abstract.
  288. Hladunewich, M. A., Derby, G. C., Lafayette, R. A., Blouch, K. L., Druzin, M. L., and Myers, B. D. Effect of L-arginine therapy on the glomerular injury of preeclampsia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet.Gynecol. 2006;107:886-895. View abstract.
  289. Colagrande, L., Formica, F., Porta, F., Martino, A., Sangalli, F., Avalli, L., and Paolini, G. Reduced cytokines release and myocardial damage in coronary artery bypass patients due to L-arginine cardioplegia supplementation. Ann.Thorac.Surg. 2006;81:1256-1261. View abstract.
  290. Oka, R. K., Szuba, A., Giacomini, J. C., and Cooke, J. P. A pilot study of L-arginine supplementation on functional capacity in peripheral arterial disease. Vasc.Med. 2005;10:265-274. View abstract.
  291. Mansoor, J. K., Morrissey, B. M., Walby, W. F., Yoneda, K. Y., Juarez, M., Kajekar, R., Severinghaus, J. W., Eldridge, M. W., and Schelegle, E. S. L-arginine supplementation enhances exhaled NO, breath condensate VEGF, and headache at 4,342 m. High Alt.Med.Biol. 2005;6:289-300. View abstract.
  292. Colagrande, L., Formica, F., Porta, F., Brustia, M., Avalli, L., Sangalli, F., Muratore, M., and Paolini, G. L-arginine effects on myocardial stress in cardiac surgery: preliminary results. Ital Heart J 2005;6:904-910. View abstract.
  293. Desneves, K. J., Todorovic, B. E., Cassar, A., and Crowe, T. C. Treatment with supplementary arginine, vitamin C and zinc in patients with pressure ulcers: a randomised controlled trial. Clin.Nutr. 2005;24:979-987. View abstract.
  294. Yin, W. H., Chen, J. W., Tsai, C., Chiang, M. C., Young, M. S., and Lin, S. J. L-arginine improves endothelial function and reduces LDL oxidation in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Clin.Nutr. 2005;24:988-997. View abstract.
  295. Parnell, M. M., Holst, D. P., and Kaye, D. M. Augmentation of endothelial function following exercise training is associated with increased L-arginine transport in human heart failure. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 2005;109:523-530. View abstract.
  296. Jezova, D., Makatsori, A., Smriga, M., Morinaga, Y., and Duncko, R. Subchronic treatment with amino acid mixture of L-lysine and L-arginine modifies neuroendocrine activation during psychosocial stress in subjects with high trait anxiety. Nutr.Neurosci. 2005;8:155-160. View abstract.
  297. Garhofer, G., Resch, H., Lung, S., Weigert, G., and Schmetterer, L. Intravenous administration of L-arginine increases retinal and choroidal blood flow. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:69-76. View abstract.
  298. Stechmiller, J. K., Langkamp-Henken, B., Childress, B., Herrlinger-Garcia, K. A., Hudgens, J., Tian, L., Percival, S. S., and Steele, R. Arginine supplementation does not enhance serum nitric oxide levels in elderly nursing home residents with pressure ulcers. Biol.Res Nurs. 2005;6:289-299. View abstract.
  299. Gosselink, M. P., Darby, M., Zimmerman, D. D., Gruss, H. J., and Schouten, W. R. Treatment of chronic anal fissure by application of L-arginine gel: a phase II study in 15 patients. Dis Colon Rectum 2005;48:832-837. View abstract.
  300. Baecker, N., Boese, A., Schoenau, E., Gerzer, R., and Heer, M. L-arginine, the natural precursor of NO, is not effective for preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner.Res 2005;20:471-479. View abstract.
  301. Koga, Y., Akita, Y., Nishioka, J., Yatsuga, S., Povalko, N., Tanabe, Y., Fujimoto, S., and Matsuishi, T. L-arginine improves the symptoms of strokelike episodes in MELAS. Neurology 2-22-2005;64:710-712. View abstract.
  302. Farreras, N., Artigas, V., Cardona, D., Rius, X., Trias, M., and Gonzalez, J. A. Effect of early postoperative enteral immunonutrition on wound healing in patients undergoing surgery for gastric cancer. Clin.Nutr 2005;24:55-65. View abstract.
  303. West, S. G., Likos-Krick, A., Brown, P., and Mariotti, F. Oral L-arginine improves hemodynamic responses to stress and reduces plasma homocysteine in hypercholesterolemic men. J Nutr. 2005;135:212-217. View abstract.
  304. Tsuei, B. J., Bernard, A. C., Barksdale, A. R., Rockich, A. K., Meier, C. F., and Kearney, P. A. Supplemental enteral arginine is metabolized to ornithine in injured patients. J Surg.Res 2005;123:17-24. View abstract.
  305. Rytlewski, K., Olszanecki, R., Korbut, R., and Zdebski, Z. Effects of prolonged oral supplementation with l-arginine on blood pressure and nitric oxide synthesis in preeclampsia. Eur.J Clin.Invest 2005;35:32-37. View abstract.
  306. Xiao, X. M. and Li, L. P. L-Arginine treatment for asymmetric fetal growth restriction. Int.J Gynaecol.Obstet. 2005;88:15-18. View abstract.
  307. Kernohan, A. F., McIntyre, M., Hughes, D. M., Tam, S. W., Worcel, M., and Reid, J. L. An oral yohimbine/L-arginine combination (NMI 861) for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction: a pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and interaction study with intravenous nitroglycerine in healthy male subjects. Br J Clin.Pharmacol. 2005;59:85-93. View abstract.
  308. Neri, I., Blasi, I., and Facchinetti, F. Effects of acute L-arginine infusion on non-stress test in hypertensive pregnant women. J Matern.Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004;16:23-26. View abstract.
  309. Schlaich, M. P., Ahlers, B. A., Parnell, M. M., and Kaye, D. M. beta-Adrenoceptor-mediated, nitric-oxide-dependent vasodilatation is abnormal in early hypertension: restoration by L-arginine. J Hypertens. 2004;22:1917-1925. View abstract.
  310. Kiziltepe, U., Tunctan, B., Eyileten, Z. B., Sirlak, M., Arikbuku, M., Tasoz, R., Uysalel, A., and Ozyurda, U. Efficiency of L-arginine enriched cardioplegia and non-cardioplegic reperfusion in ischemic hearts. Int.J Cardiol 2004;97:93-100. View abstract.
  311. Sieroszewski, P., Suzin, J., and Karowicz-Bilinska, A. Ultrasound evaluation of intrauterine growth restriction therapy by a nitric oxide donor (L-arginine). J Matern.Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004;15:363-366. View abstract.
  312. Jiang, X. H., Li, N., Zhu, W. M., Wu, G. H., Quan, Z. W., and Li, J. S. Effects of postoperative immune-enhancing enteral nutrition on the immune system, inflammatory responses, and clinical outcome. Chin Med.J (Engl.) 2004;117:835-839. View abstract.
  313. De Luis, D. A., Izaola, O., Cuellar, L., Terroba, M. C., and Aller, R. Randomized clinical trial with an enteral arginine-enhanced formula in early postsurgical head and neck cancer patients. Eur.J Clin.Nutr 2004;58:1505-1508. View abstract.
  314. George, J., Shmuel, S. B., Roth, A., Herz, I., Izraelov, S., Deutsch, V., Keren, G., and Miller, H. L-arginine attenuates lymphocyte activation and anti-oxidized LDL antibody levels in patients undergoing angioplasty. Atherosclerosis 2004;174:323-327. View abstract.
  315. Dudek, D., Legutko, J., Heba, G., Bartus, S., Partyka, L., Huk, I., Dembinska-Kiec, A., Kaluza, G. L., and Dubiel, J. S. L-arginine supplementation does not inhibit neointimal formation after coronary stenting in human beings: an intravascular ultrasound study. Am Heart J 2004;147:E12. View abstract.
  316. Palloshi, A., Fragasso, G., Piatti, P., Monti, L. D., Setola, E., Valsecchi, G., Galluccio, E., Chierchia, S. L., and Margonato, A. Effect of oral L-arginine on blood pressure and symptoms and endothelial function in patients with systemic hypertension, positive exercise tests, and normal coronary arteries. Am J Cardiol 4-1-2004;93:933-935. View abstract.
  317. Bode-Boger, S. M., Muke, J., Surdacki, A., Brabant, G., Boger, R. H., and Frolich, J. C. Oral L-arginine improves endothelial function in healthy individuals older than 70 years. Vasc.Med. 2003;8:77-81. View abstract.
  318. Park, K. G., Heys, S. D., Blessing, K., Kelly, P., McNurlan, M. A., Eremin, O., and Garlick, P. J. Stimulation of human breast cancers by dietary L-arginine. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1992;82:413-417. View abstract.
  319. Stokes, G. S., Barin, E. S., Gilfillan, K. L., and Kaesemeyer, W. H. Interactions of L-arginine, isosorbide mononitrate, and angiotensin II inhibitors on arterial pulse wave. Am J Hypertens. 2003;16(9 Pt 1):719-724. View abstract.
  320. Jiang, Z. M., Gu, Z. Y., Chen, F. L., Wang, X. R., Li, Z. J., Xu, Y., and Li, R. [The role of immune enhanced enteral nutrition on plasma amino acid, gut permeability and clinical outcome (a randomized, double blind, controlled, multi-center clinical trail with 120 cases)]. Zhongguo Yi.Xue.Ke.Xue.Yuan Xue.Bao. 2001;23:515-518. View abstract.
  321. Houwing, R. H., Rozendaal, M., Wouters-Wesseling, W., Beulens, J. W., Buskens, E., and Haalboom, J. R. A randomised, double-blind assessment of the effect of nutritional supplementation on the prevention of pressure ulcers in hip-fracture patients. Clin.Nutr. 2003;22:401-405. View abstract.
  322. McGovern, M. M., Wasserstein, M. P., Aron, A., and Perrine, S. P. Biochemical effect of intravenous arginine butyrate in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. J Pediatr 2003;142:709-713. View abstract.
  323. Dallinger, S., Sieder, A., Strametz, J., Bayerle-Eder, M., Wolzt, M., and Schmetterer, L. Vasodilator effects of L-arginine are stereospecific and augmented by insulin in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2003;284:E1106-E1111. View abstract.
  324. Schon, T., Elias, D., Moges, F., Melese, E., Tessema, T., Stendahl, O., Britton, S., and Sundqvist, T. Arginine as an adjuvant to chemotherapy improves clinical outcome in active tuberculosis. Eur.Respir.J 2003;21:483-488. View abstract.
  325. Abdelhamed, A. I., Reis, S. E., Sane, D. C., Brosnihan, K. B., Preli, R. B., and Herrington, D. M. No effect of an L-arginine-enriched medical food (HeartBars) on endothelial function and platelet aggregation in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Am Heart J 2003;145:E15. View abstract.
  326. Sydow, K., Schwedhelm, E., Arakawa, N., Bode-Boger, S. M., Tsikas, D., Hornig, B., Frolich, J. C., and Boger, R. H. ADMA and oxidative stress are responsible for endothelial dysfunction in hyperhomocyst(e)inemia: effects of L-arginine and B vitamins. Cardiovasc.Res 2003;57:244-252. View abstract.
  327. Miller, H. I., Dascalu, A., Rassin, T. A., Wollman, Y., Chernichowsky, T., and Iaina, A. Effects of an acute dose of L-arginine during coronary angiography in patients with chronic renal failure: a randomized, parallel, double-blind clinical trial. Am J Nephrol. 2003;23:91-95. View abstract.
  328. Braga, M., Gianotti, L., Vignali, A., and Carlo, V. D. Preoperative oral arginine and n-3 fatty acid supplementation improves the immunometabolic host response and outcome after colorectal resection for cancer. Surgery 2002;132:805-814. View abstract.
  329. Carey, P. E., Halliday, J., Snaar, J. E., Morris, P. G., and Taylor, R. Direct assessment of muscle glycogen storage after mixed meals in normal and type 2 diabetic subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2003;284:E688-E694. View abstract.
  330. De Luis, D. A., Aller, R., Izaola, O., Cuellar, L., and Terroba, M. C. Postsurgery enteral nutrition in head and neck cancer patients. Eur.J Clin.Nutr 2002;56:1126-1129. View abstract.
  331. Lekakis, J. P., Papathanassiou, S., Papaioannou, T. G., Papamichael, C. M., Zakopoulos, N., Kotsis, V., Dagre, A. G., Stamatelopoulos, K., Protogerou, A., and Stamatelopoulos, S. F. Oral L-arginine improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension. Int.J Cardiol 2002;86(2-3):317-323. View abstract.
  332. Song, J. X., Qing, S. H., Huang, X. C., and Qi, D. L. Effect of parenteral nutrition with L-arginine supplementation on postoperative immune function in patients with colorectal cancer. Di Yi.Jun.Yi.Da.Xue.Xue.Bao. 2002;22:545-547. View abstract.
  333. Bennett-Richards, K. J., Kattenhorn, M., Donald, A. E., Oakley, G. R., Varghese, Z., Bruckdorfer, K. R., Deanfield, J. E., and Rees, L. Oral L-arginine does not improve endothelial dysfunction in children with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int. 2002;62:1372-1378. View abstract.
  334. Schaefer, A., Piquard, F., Geny, B., Doutreleau, S., Lampert, E., Mettauer, B., and Lonsdorfer, J. L-arginine reduces exercise-induced increase in plasma lactate and ammonia. Int.J Sports Med. 2002;23:403-407. View abstract.
  335. Cassone, Faldetta M., Laurenti, O., Desideri, G., Bravi, M. C., De, Luca O., Marinucci, M. C., De, Mattia G., and Ferri, C. L-arginine infusion decreases plasma total homocysteine concentrations through increased nitric oxide production and decreased oxidative status in Type II diabetic patients. Diabetologia 2002;45:1120-1127. View abstract.
  336. van den Meiracker, A. H., van der Linde, N. A., Broere, A., Derkx, F. H., and Boomsma, F. Effects of L-arginine and L-NAME on the renal function in hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Nephron 2002;91:444-451. View abstract.
  337. Cen, Y., Luo, X. S., and Liu, X. X. [Effect of L-arginine supplementation on partial-thickness burned patients]. Zhongguo Xiu.Fu Chong.Jian.Wai Ke.Za Zhi. 1999;13:227-231. View abstract.
  338. Gianotti, L., Braga, M., Nespoli, L., Radaelli, G., Beneduce, A., and Di, Carlo, V. A randomized controlled trial of preoperative oral supplementation with a specialized diet in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Gastroenterology 2002;122:1763-1770. View abstract.
  339. Kimber, J., Watson, L., and Mathias, C. J. Cardiovascular and neurohormonal responses to i. v. l-arginine in two groups with primary autonomic failure. J Neurol. 2001;248:1036-1041. View abstract.
  340. Schramm, L., La, M., Heidbreder, E., Hecker, M., Beckman, J. S., Lopau, K., Zimmermann, J., Rendl, J., Reiners, C., Winderl, S., Wanner, C., and Schmidt, H. H. L-arginine deficiency and supplementation in experimental acute renal failure and in human kidney transplantation. Kidney Int. 2002;61:1423-1432. View abstract.
  341. Carrier, M., Pellerin, M., Perrault, L. P., Bouchard, D., Page, P., Searle, N., and Lavoie, J. Cardioplegic arrest with L-arginine improves myocardial protection: results of a prospective randomized clinical trial. Ann.Thorac.Surg. 2002;73:837-841. View abstract.
  342. Kawano, H., Motoyama, T., Hirai, N., Kugiyama, K., Yasue, H., and Ogawa, H. Endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemia is improved by L-arginine administration: possible role of oxidative stress. Atherosclerosis 2002;161:375-380. View abstract.
  343. Suzuki, T., Hayase, M., Hibi, K., Hosokawa, H., Yokoya, K., Fitzgerald, P. J., Yock, P. G., Cooke, J. P., Suzuki, T., and Yeung, A. C. Effect of local delivery of L-arginine on in-stent restenosis in humans. Am J Cardiol 2-15-2002;89:363-367. View abstract.
  344. Braga, M., Gianotti, L., Nespoli, L., Radaelli, G., and Di, Carlo, V. Nutritional approach in malnourished surgical patients: a prospective randomized study. Arch.Surg. 2002;137:174-180. View abstract.
  345. Bello, E., Caramelo, C., Martell, N., Alcazar, J. M., Gonzalez, J., Lopez, M. D., Ruilope, L. M., Gonzalez, F. R., Rovira, A. M., Gazapo, R., Soldevilla, M. J., and Casado, S. Impairment of renal vasodilation with l-arginine is related to more severe disease in untreated hypertensive patients. Hypertension 2001;38:907-912. View abstract.
  346. Mantovani, F., Patelli, E., Colombo, F., Pozzoni, F., Confalonieri, S., and Pisani, E. [Erectile dysfunction after non-nerve sparing radical pelvic surgery. Therapeutical experience with sildenafil and L-arginine evaluated by Buckling test]. Minerva Med. 2001;92:285-287. View abstract.
  347. Zhang, X. Z., Ardissino, G., Ghio, L., Tirelli, A. S., Dacco, V., Colombo, D., Pace, E., Testa, S., and Claris-Appiani, A. L-arginine supplementation in young renal allograft recipients with chronic transplant dysfunction. Clin.Nephrol. 2001;55:453-459. View abstract.
  348. Piatti, P. M., Monti, L. D., Valsecchi, G., Magni, F., Setola, E., Marchesi, F., Galli-Kienle, M., Pozza, G., and Alberti, K. G. Long-term oral L-arginine administration improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2001;24:875-880. View abstract.
  349. Angdin, M., Settergren, G., Liska, J., and Astudillo, R. No effect of L-arginine supplementation on pulmonary endothelial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass. Acta Anaesthesiol.Scand. 2001;45:441-448. View abstract.
  350. Nagaya, N., Uematsu, M., Oya, H., Sato, N., Sakamaki, F., Kyotani, S., Ueno, K., Nakanishi, N., Yamagishi, M., and Miyatake, K. Short-term oral administration of L-arginine improves hemodynamics and exercise capacity in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir.Crit Care Med. 2001;163:887-891. View abstract.
  351. van Bokhorst-De Van Der Schueren, MA, Quak, J. J., von Blomberg-van der Flier BM, Kuik, D. J., Langendoen, S. I., Snow, G. B., Green, C. J., and van Leeuwen, P. A. Effect of perioperative nutrition, with and without arginine supplementation, on nutritional status, immune function, postoperative morbidity, and survival in severely malnourished head and neck cancer patients. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2001;73:323-332. View abstract.
  352. Morris, C. R., Kuypers, F. A., Larkin, S., Sweeters, N., Simon, J., Vichinsky, E. P., and Styles, L. A. Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol. 2000;111:498-500. View abstract.
  353. Riso, S., Aluffi, P., Brugnani, M., Farinetti, F., Pia, F., and D'Andrea, F. Postoperative enteral immunonutrition in head and neck cancer patients. Clin.Nutr 2000;19:407-412. View abstract.
  354. Bednarz, B., Wolk, R., Chamiec, T., Herbaczynska-Cedro, K., Winek, D., and Ceremuzynski, L. Effects of oral L-arginine supplementation on exercise-induced QT dispersion and exercise tolerance in stable angina pectoris. Int.J Cardiol 9-15-2000;75(2-3):205-210. View abstract.
  355. Gianotti, L., Braga, M., Gentilini, O., Balzano, G., Zerbi, A., and Di, Carlo, V. Artificial nutrition after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pancreas 2000;21:344-351. View abstract.
  356. Sozykin, A. V., Noeva, E. A., Balakhonova, T. V., Pogorelova, O. A., and Men'shikov, M. I. [Effect of L-arginine on platelet aggregation, endothelial function adn exercise tolerance in patients with stable angina pectoris]. Ter.Arkh. 2000;72:24-27. View abstract.
  357. Langkamp-Henken, B., Herrlinger-Garcia, K. A., Stechmiller, J. K., Nickerson-Troy, J. A., Lewis, B., and Moffatt, L. Arginine supplementation is well tolerated but does not enhance mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in elderly nursing home residents with pressure ulcers. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 2000;24:280-287. View abstract.
  358. Wideman, L., Weltman, J. Y., Patrie, J. T., Bowers, C. Y., Shah, N., Story, S., Veldhuis, J. D., and Weltman, A. Synergy of L-arginine and GHRP-2 stimulation of growth hormone in men and women: modulation by exercise. Am J Physiol Regul.Integr.Comp Physiol 2000;279:R1467-R1477. View abstract.
  359. Schlaich, M. P., Jacobi, J., John, S., Delles, C., Fleischmann, I., and Schmieder, R. E. Is l-arginine infusion an adequate tool to assess endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the human renal vasculature? Clin.Sci.(Lond) 2000;99:293-302. View abstract.
  360. Maxwell, A. J., Anderson, B. E., and Cooke, J. P. Nutritional therapy for peripheral arterial disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of HeartBar. Vasc.Med. 2000;5:11-19. View abstract.
  361. Cartledge, J. J., Davies, A. M., and Eardley, I. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of the efficacy of L-arginine in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. BJU.Int. 2000;85:421-426. View abstract.
  362. Komers, R., Komersova, K., Kazdova, L., Ruzickova, J., and Pelikanova, T. Effect of ACE inhibition and angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade on renal and blood pressure response to L-arginine in humans. J Hypertens. 2000;18:51-59. View abstract.
  363. Beale, R. J., Bryg, D. J., and Bihari, D. J. Immunonutrition in the critically ill: a systematic review of clinical outcome. Crit Care Med. 1999;27:2799-2805. View abstract.
  364. Senkal, M., Zumtobel, V., Bauer, K. H., Marpe, B., Wolfram, G., Frei, A., Eickhoff, U., and Kemen, M. Outcome and cost-effectiveness of perioperative enteral immunonutrition in patients undergoing elective upper gastrointestinal tract surgery: a prospective randomized study. Arch.Surg. 1999;134:1309-1316. View abstract.
  365. Khan, F. and Belch, J. J. Skin blood flow in patients with systemic sclerosis and Raynaud's phenomenon: effects of oral L-arginine supplementation. J Rheumatol. 1999;26:2389-2394. View abstract.
  366. de Gouw, H. W., Verbruggen, M. B., Twiss, I. M., and Sterk, P. J. Effect of oral L-arginine on airway hyperresponsiveness to histamine in asthma. Thorax 1999;54:1033-1035. View abstract.
  367. Facchinetti, F., Longo, M., Piccinini, F., Neri, I., and Volpe, A. L-arginine infusion reduces blood pressure in preeclamptic women through nitric oxide release. J Soc Gynecol.Investig. 1999;6:202-207. View abstract.
  368. Di, Carlo, V, Gianotti, L., Balzano, G., Zerbi, A., and Braga, M. Complications of pancreatic surgery and the role of perioperative nutrition. Dig.Surg. 1999;16:320-326. View abstract.
  369. Zhang, X. Z., Ghio, L., Ardissino, G., Tirelli, A. S., Dacco, V., Testa, S., and Claris-Appiani, A. Renal and metabolic effects of L-arginine infusion in kidney transplant recipients. Clin.Nephrol. 1999;52:37-43. View abstract.
  370. De, Nicola L., Bellizzi, V., Minutolo, R., Andreucci, M., Capuano, A., Garibotto, G., Corso, G., Andreucci, V. E., and Cianciaruso, B. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of arginine supplementation in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int. 1999;56:674-684. View abstract.
  371. Kobayashi, N., Nakamura, M., and Hiramori, K. Effects of infusion of L-arginine on exercise-induced myocardial ischemic ST-segment changes and capacity to exercise of patients with stable angina pectoris. Coron.Artery Dis 1999;10:321-326. View abstract.
  372. Battaglia, C., Salvatori, M., Maxia, N., Petraglia, F., Facchinetti, F., and Volpe, A. Adjuvant L-arginine treatment for in-vitro fertilization in poor responder patients. Hum.Reprod. 1999;14:1690-1697. View abstract.
  373. Snyderman, C. H., Kachman, K., Molseed, L., Wagner, R., D'Amico, F., Bumpous, J., and Rueger, R. Reduced postoperative infections with an immune-enhancing nutritional supplement. Laryngoscope 1999;109:915-921. View abstract.
  374. Wallace, A. W., Ratcliffe, M. B., Galindez, D., and Kong, J. S. L-arginine infusion dilates coronary vasculature in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. Anesthesiology 1999;90:1577-1586. View abstract.
  375. Koller-Strametz, J., Wolzt, M., Fuchs, C., Putz, D., Wisser, W., Mensik, C., Eichler, H. G., Laufer, G., and Schmetterer, L. Renal hemodynamic effects of L-arginine and sodium nitroprusside in heart transplant recipients. Kidney Int. 1999;55:1871-1877. View abstract.
  376. Tangphao, O., Grossmann, M., Chalon, S., Hoffman, B. B., and Blaschke, T. F. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral L-arginine in normal volunteers. Br J Clin.Pharmacol. 1999;47:261-266. View abstract.
  377. Braga, M., Gianotti, L., Radaelli, G., Vignali, A., Mari, G., Gentilini, O., and Di, Carlo, V. Perioperative immunonutrition in patients undergoing cancer surgery: results of a randomized double-blind phase 3 trial. Arch.Surg. 1999;134:428-433. View abstract.
  378. Debats IB, Booi DI, Wehrens KM, et al. Oral arginine supplementation and the effect on skin graft donor sites: a randomized clinical pilot study. J Burn Care Res. 2009 May-Jun;30:417-26. View abstract.
  379. Higashi Y, Oshima T, Sasaki S, et. al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, but not calcium antagonism, improves a response of the renal vasculature to L-arginine in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension. 1998 Jul;32:16-24. View abstract.
  380. Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Stöckler-Ipsiroglu S, Salomons GS. Creatine Deficiency Syndromes. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2014. View abstract.
  381. Anon. Arginine hydrochloride injection (marketed as R-Gene 10). FDA Drug Safety Newsletter 2009;2:16-18. Available at:
  382. Jude EB, Boulton AJ, Ferguson MW, Appleton I. The role of nitric oxide synthase isoforms and arginase in the pathogenesis of diabetic foot ulcers: possible modulatory effects by transforming growth factor beta 1. Diabetologia 1999;42:748-57. View abstract.
  383. Arana V, Paz Y, González A, Méndez V, Méndez JD. Healing of diabetic foot ulcers in L-arginine-treated patients. Biomed Pharmacother 2004;58:588-97. View abstract.
  384. Fossel ET. Improvement of temperature and flow in feet of subjects with diabetes with use of a transdermal preparation of L-arginine: a pilot study. Diabetes Care 2004;27:284-5. View abstract.
  385. Chauhan A, More RS, Mullins PA, et al. Aging-associated endothelial dysfunction in humans is reversed by L-arginine. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28:1796-804. View abstract.
  386. Bednarz B, Jaxa-Chamiec T, Maciejewski P, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral l-arginine in acute myocardial infarction. Results of the multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled ARAMI pilot trial. Kardiol Pol 2005;62:421-7. View abstract.
  387. Schulman SP, Becker LC, Kass DA, et al. L-arginine therapy in acute myocardial infarction. The vascular interaction with age in myocardial infarction (VINTAGE MI) randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2006;295:58-64. View abstract.
  388. Resnick DJ, Softness B, Murphy AR, et al. Case report of an anaphylactoid reaction to arginine. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;88:67-8. View abstract.
  389. Staff AC, Berge L, Haugen G, et al. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine or placebo in women with pre-eclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004;83:103-7. View abstract.
  390. Morris CR, Morris SM Jr, Hagar W, et al. Arginine therapy: a new treatment for pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;168:63-9. View abstract.
  391. Venho B, Voutilainen S, Valkonen VP, et al. Arginine intake, blood pressure, and the incidence of acute coronary events in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:359-64.. View abstract.
  392. Huynh NT, Tayek JA. Oral arginine reduces systemic blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: its potential role in nitric oxide generation. J Am Coll Nutr 2002;21:422-7.. View abstract.
  393. Stanislavov R, Nikolova V. Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L-arginine. J Sex Marital Ther 2003;29:207-13.. View abstract.
  394. de Luis DA, Izaola O, Cuellar L, et al. Effect of c-reactive protein and interleukins blood levels in postsurgery arginine-enhanced enteral nutrition in head and neck cancer patients. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57:96-9. View abstract.
  395. Parker JO, Parker JD, Caldwell RW, et al. The effect of supplemental L-arginine on tolerance development during continuous transdermal nitroglycerin therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:1199-203. View abstract.
  396. Amin HJ, Zamora SA, McMillan DD, et al. Arginine supplementation prevents necrotizing enterocolitis in the premature infant. J Pediatr 2002;140:425-31. View abstract.
  397. Ohtsuka Y, Nakaya J. Effect of oral administration of L-arginine on senile dementia. Am J Med 2000;108:439. View abstract.
  398. Houghton JL, Philbin EF, Strogatz DS, et al. The presence of African American race predicts improvement in coronary endothelial function after supplementary L-arginine. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:1314-22. View abstract.
  399. Bocchi EA, Vilella de Moraes AV, Esteves-Filho A, et al. L-arginine reduces heart rate and improves hemodynamics in severe congestive heart failure. Clin Cardiol 2000;23:205-10. View abstract.
  400. Katz SD, Khan T, Zeballos GA, et al. Decreased activity of the L-arginine-nitric oxide metabolic pathway in patients with congestive heart failure. Circulation 1999;99:2113-7. View abstract.
  401. Wallace AW, Tom WL. Interaction of L-arginine and phosphodiesterase inhibitors in vasodilation of the porcine internal mammary artery. Anesth Analg 2000;90:840-6. View abstract.
  402. Chin-Dusting JP, Kaye DM, Lefkovits J, et al. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine fails to restore endothelial function in forearm resistance arteries of patients with severe heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:1207-13. View abstract.
  403. Cheng JW, Balwin SN. L-arginine in the management of cardiovascular diseases. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35:755-64. View abstract.
  404. Mullen MJ, Wright D, Donald AE, et al. Atorvastatin but not L-arginine improves endothelial function in type I diabetes mellitus: a double-blind study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:410-6. View abstract.
  405. Wu G, Meininger CJ. Arginine nutrition and cardiovascular function. J Nutr 2000;130:2626-9. View abstract.
  406. Tepaske R, Velthuis H, Oudemans-van Straaten HM, et al. Effect of preoperative oral immune-enhancing nutritional supplement on patients at high risk of infection after cardiac surgery: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;358:696-701. View abstract.
  407. Siani A, Pagano E, Iacone R, et al. Blood pressure and metabolic changes during dietary L-arginine supplementation in humans. Am J Hypertens 2000;13:547-51. View abstract.
  408. Blum A, Hathaway L, Mincemoyer R, et al. Oral L-arginine in patients with coronary artery disease on medical management. Circulation 2000;101:2160-4. View abstract.
  409. Ceremuzynski L, Chamiec T, Herbaczynska-Cedro K. Effect of supplemental oral L-arginine on exercise capacity in patients with stable angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 1997;80:331-3. View abstract.
  410. Maxwell AJ, Zapien MP, Pearce GL, et al. Randomized trial of a medical food for the dietary management of chronic, stable angina. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:37-45. View abstract.
  411. Park KG. The immunological and metabolic effects of L-arginine in human cancer. Proc Nutr Soc 1993;52:387-401. View abstract.
  412. Kanaya Y, Nakamura M, Kobayashi N, Hiramori K. Effects of L-arginine on lower limb vasodilator reserve and exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. Heart 1999;81:512-7. View abstract.
  413. Feskens EJM, Oomen CM, Hogendoorn E, et al. Arginine intake and 25-year CHD mortality: the seven countries study (letter). Eur Heart J 2001;22:611-2. View abstract.
  414. Hambrecht R, Hilbrich L, Erbs S, et al. Correction of endothelial dysfunction in chronic heart failure: additional effects of exercise training and oral L-arginine supplementation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:706-13. View abstract.
  415. Kemen M, Senkal M, Homann HH, et al. Early postoperative enteral nutrition with arginine-omega-3 fatty acids and ribonucleic acid-supplemented diet vs placebo in cancer patients: an immunologic evaluation of impact. Crit Care Med 1995;23:652-9. View abstract.
  416. Senkal M, Kemen M, Homann HH, et al. Modulation of postoperative immune response by enteral nutrition with a diet enriched with arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer. Eur J Surg 1995;161:115-22. View abstract.
  417. Daly JM, Lieberman MD, Goldfine J, et al. Enteral nutrition with supplemental arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids in patients after operation: immunologic, metabolic and clinical outcome. Surgery 1992;112:56-67. View abstract.
  418. Watanabe G, Tomiyama H, Doba N. Effects of oral administration of L-arginine on renal function in patients with heart failure. J Hypertens 2000;18:229-34. View abstract.
  419. Rector TS, Bank AJ, Mullen KA, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of supplemental oral L-arginine in patients with heart failure. Circulation 1996;93:2135-41. View abstract.
  420. Blum A, Porat R, Rosenschein U, et al. Clinical and inflammatory effects of dietary L-arginine in patients with intractable angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 1999;15:1488-90. View abstract.
  421. Boger RH, Bode-Boger SM, Thiele W, et al. Restoring vascular nitric oxide formation by L-arginine improves the symptoms of intermittent claudication in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32:1336-44. View abstract.
  422. Korting GE, Smith SD, Wheeler MA, et al. A randomized double-blind trial of oral L-arginine for treatment of interstitial cystitis. J Urol 1999;161:558-65. View abstract.
  423. Oomen CM, van Erk MJ, Feskens E, et al. Arginine intake and risk of coronary heart disease mortality in elderly men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:2134-9. View abstract.
  424. Brittenden J, Park KGM, Heys SD, et al. L-Arginine stimulates host defenses in patients with breast cancer. Surgery 1994;115:205-12. View abstract.
  425. Tenenbaum A, Fisman EZ, Motro M. L-arginine: Rediscovery in progress. Cardiology 1998;90:153-9. View abstract.
  426. Wang R, Ghahary A, Shen YJ, et al. Human dermal fibroblasts produce nitric oxide and express both constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase isoforms. J Invest Dermatol 1996;106:419-27. View abstract.
  427. Peters H, Noble NA. Dietary L-arginine in renal disease. Semin Nephrol 1996;16:567-75. View abstract.
  428. Klotz T, Mathers MJ, Braun M, et al. Effectiveness of oral L-arginine in first-line treatment of erectile dysfunction in a controlled crossover study. Urol Int 1999;63:220-3. View abstract.
  429. Zorgniotti AW, Lizza EF. Effect of large doses of the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, on erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 1994;6:33-5. View abstract.
  430. Clark RH, Feleke G, Din M, et al. Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting using beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine, and arginine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2000;24:133-9. View abstract.
  431. FDA. List of orphan designations and approvals. Office of Orphan Products Development. Available at:
  432. Clarkson P, Adams MR, Powe AJ, et al. Oral L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent dilation in hypercholesterolemic young adults. J Clin Invest 1996;97:1989-94. View abstract.
  433. Creager MA, Gallagher SJ, Girerd XJ, et al. L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Clin Invest 1992;90:1248-53. View abstract.
  434. Blum A, Hathaway L, Mincemoyer R, et al. Effects of oral L-arginine on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and markers of inflammation in healthy postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:271-6. View abstract.
  435. Chen J, Wollman Y, Chernichovsky T, et al. Effect of oral administration of high-dose nitric oxide donor L-arginine in men with organic erectile dysfunction: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. BJU Int 1999;83:269-73. View abstract.
  436. Sapienza MA, Kharitonov SA, Horvath I, et al. Effect of inhaled L-arginine on exhaled nitric oxide in normal and asthmatic subjects. Thorax 1998;53:172-5. View abstract.
  437. McCaffrey MJ, Bose CL, Reiter PD, Stiles AD. Effect of L-arginine infusion on infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Biol Neonate 1995;67:240-3. View abstract.
  438. Takano H, Lim HB, Miyabara Y, et al. Oral administration of L-arginine potentiates allergen-induced airway inflammation and expression of interleukin-5 in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998;286:767-71. View abstract.
  439. Adams MR, McCredie R, Jessup W, et al. Oral L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent dilatation and reduces monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in young men with coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis 1997;129:261-9. View abstract.
  440. Saffle JR, Wiebke G, Jennings K, et al. Randomized trial of immune-enhancing enteral nutrition in burn patients. J Trauma 1997;42:793-800, discussion 800-2. View abstract.
  441. Wheeler MA, Smith SD, Saito N, et al. Effect of long-term oral L-arginine on the nitric oxide synthase pathway in the urine from patients with interstitial cystitis. J Urol 1997;158:2045-50. View abstract.
  442. Pichard C, Sudre P, Karsegard V, et al. A randomized double-blind controlled study of 6 months of oral nutritional supplementation with arginine and omega-3 fatty acids in HIV-infected patients. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. AIDS 1998;12:53-63. View abstract.
  443. Andres A, Morales JM, Praga M, et al. L-arginine reverses the antinatriuretic effect of cyclosporin in renal transplant patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997;12:1437-40. View abstract.
  444. Lerman A, Burnett JC Jr, Higano ST, et al. Long-term L-arginine improves small-vessel coronary endothelial function in humans. Circulation 1998;97:2123-8. View abstract.
  445. Bode-Boger SM, Boger RH, Galland A, et al. L-arginine-induced vasodilation in healthy humans: pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998;46:489-97. View abstract.
  446. Ehren I, Lundberg JO, Adolfsson J, Wiklund NP. Effects of L-arginine treatment on symptoms and bladder nitric oxide levels in patients with interstitial cystitis. Urology 1998;52:1026-9. View abstract.
  447. McEvoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.
  448. Newall CA, Anderson LA, Philpson JD. Herbal Medicine: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals. London, UK: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996.
  449. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
  450. Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK: European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.
Last reviewed - 05/21/2024