Skip navigation

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

URL of this page:


What is it?

Creatine is a chemical found naturally in the body. It's also in red meat and seafood. It is often used to improve exercise performance and muscle mass.

Creatine is involved in making energy for muscles. About 95% of it is found in skeletal muscle. The majority of sports supplements in the US contain creatine. People who have lower creatine levels when they start taking creatine seem to get more benefit than people who start with higher levels.

People commonly use creatine for improving exercise performance and increasing muscle mass. It is also used for muscle cramps, fatigue, multiple sclerosis (MS), depression, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.

Creatine use is allowed by the International Olympic Committee and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for CREATINE are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Athletic performance. Taking creatine by mouth seems to somewhat improve rowing, jumping, and soccer performance. It's not clear if it helps with sprinting, cycling, swimming, or tennis.
  • Disorders of creatine metabolism or transport. Taking creatine by mouth daily can increase creatine levels in the brain in children and young adults with conditions called GAMT deficiency or AGAT deficiency. But taking creatine doesn't seem to improve brain creatine levels in children who have a disorder in which creatine isn't transported properly.
  • Muscle strength. Taking creatine by mouth seems to somewhat improve muscle strength in both younger and older adults. It's not clear if applying creatine to the skin helps.
  • Age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia). Taking creatine by mouth for up to 12 weeks seems to improve muscle strength in older adults. It seems to work best when used along with exercise to build muscles.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Lou Gehrig disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS). Taking creatine by mouth does not seem to slow disease progression or improve survival in people with ALS.
  • An inherited brain disorder that affects movements, emotions, and thinking (Huntington disease). Taking creatine by mouth does not improve symptoms in people with Huntington disease.
  • Low bone mass (osteopenia). Taking creatine by mouth doesn't seem to slow or reduce bone loss in people with osteopenia.
There is interest in using creatine for a number of other purposes, but there isn't enough reliable information to say whether it might be helpful.

Is it safe?

When taken by mouth: Creatine is likely safe for most people. Doses up to 25 grams daily for up to 14 days have been safely used. Lower doses up to 4-5 grams daily for up to 18 months have also been safely used. Creatine is possibly safe when taken long-term. Doses up to 10 grams daily for up to 5 years have been safely used. Side effects might include dehydration, upset stomach, and muscle cramps.

When applied to the skin: There isn't enough reliable information to know if creatine is safe. It might cause side effects such as redness and itching.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if creatine is safe to use when pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: Creatine is possibly safe when taken by mouth, short-term. Creatine 3-5 grams daily for 2-6 months has been taken safely in children 5-18 years of age. Creatine 2 grams daily for 6 months has been taken safely in children 2-5 years of age. Creatine 0.1-0.4 grams/kg daily for up to 6 months has been taken safely in both infants and children.

Bipolar disorder: Creatine might make mania worse in people with bipolar disorder.

Kidney disease: Creatine might make kidney disease worse in people who already have kidney disease. If you have kidney disease, speak with a healthcare professional before using creatine.

Parkinson disease: Caffeine and creatine taken together may make symptoms of Parkinson disease worse. If you have Parkinson disease and take creatine, use caffeine with caution.

Are there interactions with medications?

It is not known if this product interacts with any medicines.

Before taking this product, talk with your health professional if you take any medications.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Caffeine might decrease creatine's beneficial effects on athletic performance.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

How is it typically used?

Creatine is found in foods such as meat and seafood. Creatine is also found in many different types of sports supplements. In supplements, creatine has most often been used by adults in a one-time loading dose of up to 20 grams by mouth daily for up to 7 days, followed by a maintenance dose of 2.25-10 grams daily for up to 16 weeks. Speak with a healthcare provider to find out what type of product and dose might be best for a specific condition.

Creatine is allowed by the International Olympic Committee and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).

Other names

2-[carbamimidoyl(methyl)amino]acetic acid, Cr, Creatin, Creatina, Créatine, Créatine Anhydre, Creatine Anhydrous, Creatine Citrate, Créatine Citrate, Creatine Ethyl Ester, Créatine Ethyl Ester, Creatine Ethyl Ester HCl, Créatine Ethyl Ester HCl, Creatine Gluconate, Creatine Hydrochloride, Créatine Kré Alkaline, Creatine Malate, Créatine Malate, Creatine Monohydrate, Créatine Monohydrate, Créatine Monohydratée, Creatine Pyroglutamate, Créatine Pyroglutamate, Creatine Pyruvate, Créatine Pyruvate, Dicreatine Malate, Dicréatine Malate, Di-Creatine Malate, Éthyle Ester de Créatine, Glycine, Kreatin, Kre-Alkalyn Pyruvate, Malate de Tricréatine, Methylguanidine Acetic Acid, N-(aminoiminométhyl)-N-Méthyl, N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N methyl glycine, N-amidinosarcosine, Phosphocreatine, Phosphocréatine, Tricreatine HCA, Tricréatine HCA, Tricreatine Malate, Tricréatine Malate.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


  1. Chilibeck PD, Candow DG, Gordon JJ, et al. A 2-yr Randomized Controlled Trial on Creatine Supplementation during Exercise for Postmenopausal Bone Health. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2023;55:1750-1760. View abstract.
  2. Amiri E, Sheikholeslami-Vatani D. The role of resistance training and creatine supplementation on oxidative stress, antioxidant defense, muscle strength, and quality of life in older adults. Front Public Health 2023;11:1062832. View abstract.
  3. Burke R, Piñero A, Coleman M, et al. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation Combined with Resistance Training on Regional Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2023;15:2116. View abstract.
  4. Gordon AN, Moore SR, Patterson ND, et al. The Effects of Creatine Monohydrate Loading on Exercise Recovery in Active Women throughout the Menstrual Cycle. Nutrients 2023;15:3567. View abstract.
  5. Moriarty T, Bourbeau K, Dorman K, et al. Dose-Response of Creatine Supplementation on Cognitive Function in Healthy Young Adults. Brain Sci 2023;13:1276. View abstract.
  6. Fernández-Landa J, Santibañez-Gutierrez A, Todorovic N, Stajer V, Ostojic SM. Effects of Creatine Monohydrate on Endurance Performance in a Trained Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sports Med 2023. View abstract.
  7. Maicas-Pérez L, Hernández-Lougedo J, Heredia-Elvar JR, et al. Effects of Creatine Supplementation after 20 Minutes of Recovery in a Bench Press Exercise Protocol in Moderately Physically Trained Men. Nutrients 2023;15:657. View abstract.
  8. Abuawad AK, Bozack AK, Navas-Acien A, et al. The Folic Acid and Creatine Trial: Treatment Effects of Supplementation on Arsenic Methylation Indices and Metabolite Concentrations in Blood in a Bangladeshi Population. Environ Health Perspect 2023;131:37015. View abstract.
  9. Robles EL, Pache KM, Gluck JS. Acute compartment syndrome of the leg caused by cocaine use, creatine supplementation and vigorous exercise. J Surg Case Rep 2022;2022:rjac502. View abstract.
  10. de Souza JT, Minicucci MF, Ferreira NC, et al. Influence of CReatine supplementation on mUScle mass and strength after stroke (ICaRUS Stroke Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2023;24:214. View abstract.
  11. Todorovic N, Korovljev D, Stajer V, Jorga J, Ostojic SM. Creatine consumption and liver disease manifestations in individuals aged 12?years and over. Food Sci Nutr 2022;11:1134-1141. View abstract.
  12. Butchart S, Candow DG, Forbes SC, et al. Effects of Creatine Supplementation and Progressive Resistance Training in Stroke Survivors. Int J Exerc Sci 2022;15:1117-1132. View abstract.
  13. Glaister M, Rhodes L. Short-Term Creatine Supplementation and Repeated Sprint Ability-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2022;32:491-500. View abstract.
  14. Askow AT, Paulussen KJM, McKenna CF, et al. Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation, but not Creatyl-L-Leucine, Increased Muscle Creatine Content in Healthy Young Adults: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2022;32:446-452. View abstract.
  15. Prokopidis K, Giannos P, Triantafyllidis KK, Kechagias KS, Forbes SC, Candow DG. Author's reply: Letter to the Editor: Double counting due to inadequate statistics leads to false-positive findings in "Effects of creatine supplementation on memory in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Nutr Rev 2023. View abstract.
  16. Eckert I, Pascher E. Letter to the Editor: Double-counting due to inadequate statistics leads to false-positive findings in "Effects of creatine supplementation on memory in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Nutr Rev 2023. View abstract.
  17. Prokopidis K, Giannos P, Triantafyllidis KK, Kechagias KS, Forbes SC, Candow DG. Effects of creatine supplementation on memory in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Rev 2023;81:416-427. View abstract.
  18. Delpino FM, Figueiredo LM, Forbes SC, Candow DG, Santos HO. Influence of age, sex, and type of exercise on the efficacy of creatine supplementation on lean body mass: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Nutrition 2022;103-104:111791. View abstract.
  19. Sarris J, Ravindran A, Yatham LN, et al. Clinician guidelines for the treatment of psychiatric disorders with nutraceuticals and phytoceuticals: The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) and Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Taskforce. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2022;23:424-455. View abstract.
  20. Silva C, Fung AWS, Masson V, et al. Vitamin D toxicity from an unusual and unexpected source: a report of 2 cases. Horm Res Paediatr 2022. View abstract.
  21. Avgerinos KI, Spyrou N, Bougioukas KI, Kapogiannis D. Effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function of healthy individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Exp Gerontol. 2018;108:166-173. View abstract.
  22. Alves CR, Merege Filho CA, Benatti FB, et al. Creatine supplementation associated or not with strength training upon emotional and cognitive measures in older women: a randomized double-blind study. PLoS One. 2013;8:e76301. View abstract.
  23. Delpino FM, Figueiredo LM. Does creatine supplementation improve glycemic control and insulin resistance in healthy and diabetic patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nutr ESPEN 2022;47:128-134. View abstract.
  24. Domingues WJR, Ritti-Dias RM, Cucato GG, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on functional capacity and muscle oxygen saturation in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease: A pilot study of a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutrients 2021;13:149. View abstract.
  25. Dos Santos EEP, de Araújo RC, Candow DG, et al. Efficacy of creatine supplementation combined with resistance training on muscle strength and muscle mass in older females: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients 2021;13:3757. View abstract.
  26. Forbes SC, Candow DG, Krentz JR, Roberts MD, Young KC. Changes in fat mass following creatine supplementation and resistance training in adults =50 years of age: A meta-analysis. J Funct Morphol Kinesiol 2019;4:62. View abstract.
  27. Pakulak A, Candow DG, Totosy de Zepetnek J, Forbes SC, Basta D. Effects of creatine and caffeine supplementation during resistance training on body composition, strength, endurance, rating of perceived exertion and fatigue in trained young adults. J Diet Suppl 2021. View abstract.
  28. Sarshin A, Fallahi V, Forbes SC, et al. Short-term co-ingestion of creatine and sodium bicarbonate improves anaerobic performance in trained taekwondo athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2021;18:10. View abstract.
  29. Jurado-Castro JM, Campos-Pérez J, Vilches-Redondo MÁ, Mata F, Navarrete-Pérez A, Ranchal-Sanchez A. Morning versus evening intake of creatine in elite female handball players. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;19:393. View abstract.
  30. Ostojic SM, Korovljev D, Stajer V. Dietary creatine and cognitive function in U.S. adults aged 60 years and over. Aging Clin Exp Res 2021;33:3269-3274. View abstract.
  31. Gras D, Lanhers C, Bagheri R, et al. Creatine supplementation and VOmax: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021. View abstract.
  32. Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Gordon JJ, Kontulainen S. Efficacy of creatine supplementation and resistance training on area and density of bone and muscle in older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021;53:2388-2395. View abstract.
  33. Forbes SC, Candow DG, Ostojic SM, Roberts MD, Chilibeck PD. Meta-analysis examining the importance of creatine ingestion strategies on lean tissue mass and strength in older adults. Nutrients 2021;13:1912. View abstract.
  34. Kley RA, Tarnopolsky MA, Vorgerd M. Creatine for treating muscle disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;2013:CD004760. View abstract.
  35. Candow DG, Forbes SC, Vogt E. Effect of pre-exercise and post-exercise creatine supplementation on bone mineral content and density in healthy aging adults. Exp Gerontol. 2019;119:89-92. View abstract.
  36. Chilibeck PD, Candow DG, Landeryou T, Kaviani M, Paus-Jenssen L. Effects of creatine and resistance training on bone health in postmenopausal women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47:1587-95. View abstract.
  37. Dover S, Stephens S, Schneiderman JE, et al. The effect of creatine supplementation on muscle function in childhood myositis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled feasibility study. J Rheumatol. 2020:jrheum.191375. View abstract.
  38. Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Gordon J, et al. Effect of 12 months of creatine supplementation and whole-body resistance training on measures of bone, muscle and strength in older males. Nutr Health. 2020:260106020975247. View abstract.
  39. Ribeiro AS, Avelar A, Kassiano W, et al. Creatine supplementation does not influence the ratio between intracellular water and skeletal muscle mass in resistance-trained men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2020:1-7. View abstract.
  40. Whinton AK, Donahoe K, Gao R, et al. Repeated application of a novel creatine cream improves muscular peak and average power in male subjects. J Strength Cond Res. 2020;34:2482-2491. View abstract.
  41. Mills S, Candow DG, Forbes SC, Neary JP, Ormsbee MJ, Antonio J. Effects of creatine supplementation during resistance training sessions in physically active young adults. Nutrients. 2020;12:1880. View abstract.
  42. Almeida D, Colombini A, Machado M. Creatine supplementation improves performance, but is it safe? Double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2020;60:1034-9. View abstract.
  43. de Guingand DL, Palmer KR, Snow RJ, Davies-Tuck ML, Ellery SJ. Risk of adverse outcomes in females taking oral creatine monohydrate: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2020;12:E1780. View abstract.
  44. Kreider RB, Kalman DS, Antonio J, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creating supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14:18. View abstract.
  45. VAN Cutsem J, Roelands B, Pluym B, et al. Can Creatine Combat the Mental Fatigue-associated Decrease in Visuomotor Skills? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2020;52:120-130. View abstract.
  46. Van Bavel D, de Moraes R, Tibirica E. Effects of dietary supplementation with creatine on homocysteinemia and systemic microvascular endothelial function in individuals adhering to vegan diets. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2019;33:428-440. View abstract.
  47. Sales LP, Pinto AJ, Rodrigues SF, et al. Creatine supplementation (3 g/day) and bone health in older women: a 2-year, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019. pii: glz162. View abstract.
  48. Ostojic SM, Stajer V, Vranes M, Ostojic J. Searching for a better formulation to enhance muscle bioenergetics: A randomized controlled trial of creatine nitrate plus creatinine vs. creatine nitrate vs. creatine monohydrate in healthy men. Food Sci Nutr. 2019;7:3766-3773. View abstract.
  49. Marini ACB, Motobu RD, Freitas ATV, et al. Short-Term Creatine Supplementation May Alleviate the Malnutrition-Inflammation Score and Lean Body Mass Loss in Hemodialysis Patients: A Pilot Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2019. View abstract.
  50. de Souza E Silva A, Pertille A, Reis Barbosa CG, et al. Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Renal Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Ren Nutr. 2019;29:480-489. View abstract.
  51. Bernat P, Candow DG, Gryzb K, Butchart S, Schoenfeld BJ, Bruno P. Effects of high-velocity resistance training and creatine supplementation in untrained healthy aging males. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2019;44:1246-1253. View abstract.
  52. Kerksick CM, Wilborn CD, Roberts MD, et al. ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: research & recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15:38. View abstract.
  53. Lobo DM, Tritto AC, da Silva LR, et al. Effects of long-term low-dose dietary creatine supplementation in older women. Exp Gerontol. 2015 Oct;70:97-104. View abstract.
  54. Baker TP, Candow DG, Farthing JP. Effect of preexercise creatine ingestion on muscle performance in healthy aging males. J Strength Cond Res. 2016 Jun;30:1763-6. View abstract.
  55. Boychuk KE, Lanovaz JL, Krentz JR, Lishchynsky JT, Cando DG, Farthing JP. Creatine supplementation does not alter neuromuscular recovery after eccentric exercise. Muscle Nerv. 2016 Sep;54:487-95. View abstract.
  56. Collins J, Longhurst G, Roschel H, Gualano B. Resistance training and co-supplementation with creatine and protein in older subjects with frailty. J Frailty Aging. 2016;5:126-34. View abstract.
  57. Forbes SC, Sletten N, Durrer C, Myette-Cote E, Candow D, Little JP. Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not augment fitness, performance, or body composition adaptations in response to four weeks of high-intensity interval training in young females. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2017 Jun;27:285-92. View abstract.
  58. Wilkinson TJ, Lemmy AB, Jones AG, et al. Can creatine supplementation improve body composition and objective physical function in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients? A randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016 Jun;68:729-37. View abstract.
  59. Trexler ET, Smith-Ryan AE, Roelofs EJ, Hirsch KR, Persky AM, Mock AG. Effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous intake during creatine loading. J Strength Cond Res. 2016 May;30:1438-46. View abstract.
  60. Deminice R, Rosa FT, Pfrimer K, Ferrioli E, Jorao AA, Freitas E. Creatine supplementation increases total body water in soccer players: a deuterium oxide dilution study. Int J Sports Med. 2016 Feb;37:149-53. View abstract.
  61. Ramirez-Campillo R, Gonzalez-Jurado JA, Martinez C, et al. Effects of plyometric training and creatine supplementation on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in female soccer players. J Sci Med Sport. 2016 Aug;19:682-7. View abstract.
  62. Wang CC, Yang MT, Lu KH, Chan KH. The effects of creatine supplementation on explosive performance and optimal individual postactivation potentiation time. Nutrients. 2016 Mar 4;8:143. View abstract.
  63. Galvan E, Walker Dk, Simbo SY, et al. Acute and chronic safety and efficacy of dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Mar 31;13:12. View abstract.
  64. Johannsmeyer S, Candow BG, Brahms CM, Michel D, Zello GA. Effect of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults. Exp Gerentol. 2016 Oct;83:112-9. View abstract.
  65. Hersch SM, Schifitto G, Oakes D, et al. The CREST-E study for creatine for Huntington disease: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2017 Aug 8;89:594-601. View abstract.
  66. Simon DK, Wu C, Tilly BC, et al. Caffeine and progression of Parkinson Disease: a deleterious interaction with creatine. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2015 Sep-Oct;38:163-9. View abstract.
  67. Buford TW, Kreider RB, Stout JR, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007;4:6. View abstract.
  68. Creatine in the dock. Men's Fitness Magazine (Australia). September 2013. Available at:
  69. The Associated Press. Creatine ruled out in athletes' deaths. The New York Times. May 2, 1998. Available at:
  70. Litsky F. Collegiate wrestling deaths raise fears about training. The New York Times. December 19, 1997. Available at:
  71. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hyperthermia and dehydration-related deaths associated with rapid weight loss in three collegiate wrestlers - North Carolina, Wisconsin, and Michigan, November-December 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998:47:105-8. View abstract.
  72. Lanhers C, Pereira B, Naughton G, et al. Creating supplementation and lower limb strength performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med 2015;45:1285-94. View abstract.
  73. Lanhers C, Pereira B, Naughton G, et al. Creating supplementation and upper limb strength performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med 2017;47:163-73. View abstract.
  74. Fight against doping. The Olympic Games Web site. Available at: Accessed March 12, 2017.
  75. 2016=2017 NCAA Banned Drug List. Available at: Accessed March 12, 2017.
  76. WADA Prohibited List. 2017 Prohibited List - Effective January 1, 2017. Available at: Accessed March 12, 2017.
  77. Jäger R, Purpura M, Shao A, Inoue T, Kreider RB. Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine. Amino Acids 2011;40:1369-83. View abstract.
  78. Ganguly S, Jayappa S, Dash AK. Evaluation of the stability of creatine in solution prepared from effervescent creatine formulations. AAPS PharmSciTech 2003;4:E25. View abstract.
  79. Jager R, Purpura M, Shao A, et al. Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine. Amino Acids 2011;40:1369-83. View abstract.
  80. Alves CR, Santiago BM, Lima FR, et al. Creatine supplementation in fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2013;65:1449-59. View abstract.
  81. Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Forbes SC. Creatine supplementation and aging musculoskeletal health. Endocrine 2014;45:354-61. View abstract.
  82. Li N, Hauser R, Holford T, et al. Muscle-building supplement use and increased risk of testicular germ cell cancer in men from Connecticut and Massachusetts. Br J Cancer 2015;112:1247-50. View abstract.
  83. Carvalho AP, Rassi S, Fontana KE, et al. Influence of creatine supplementation on the functional capacity of patients with heart failure. Arg Bras Cardiol 2012;99:623-9. View abstract.
  84. Candow DG, Zello GA, Ling B, et al. Comparison of creatine supplementation before versus after supervised resistance training in healthy older adults. Res Sports Med 2014;22:61-74. View abstract.
  85. Devries MC, Phillips SM. Creatine supplementation during resistance training in older adults - a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2014;46:1194-203. View abstract.
  86. Golini J, Jones WL. Kre-Celazine® as a viable treatment for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis/juvenile idiopathic arthritis - a pilot study. J Med Food 2014;17:1022-6. View abstract.
  87. Gualano B, Macedo AR, Alves CR, et al. Creatine supplementation and resistance training in vulnerable older women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Exp Gerontol 2014;53:7-15. View abstract.
  88. Vilella AL, Limsuwat C, Williams DR, Seifert CF. Cholestatic jaundice as a result of combination designer supplement ingestion. Ann Pharmacother 2013;47(7-8):e33. View abstract.
  89. Young C, Oladipo O, Frasier S, et al. Hemorrhagic stroke in young healthy male following use of sports supplement Jack3d. Mil Med 2012;177:1450-4. View abstract.
  90. Tan CW, Hae Tha M, Joo Ng H. Creatine supplementation and venous thrombotic events. Am J Med 2014;127:e7-8. View abstract.
  91. Gosselink R, Spruit MA Troosters T et al. Oral creatine supplementation (CR) in COPD exercise training: a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PL) controlled trial [Abstract]. Am.J.Respir.Crit.Care Med. 2003;167:A961.
  92. Burke LM, Pyne DB, and Telford RD. Oral creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995;27:S146.
  93. Myburgh, K H FACSM, Bold, A*, Bellinger, B*, Wilson, G*, and Noakes, T D FACSM. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION AND SPRINT TRAINING IN CYCLISTS: METABOLIC AND PERFORMANCE EFFECTS. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 1996;28:81.
  94. Mihic S, MacDonald JR, McKenzie S, and et al. The effect of creatine supplementation on blood pressure, plasma creatine kinase, and body composition. FASEB J 1998;12:A652.
  95. Greenhaff PL, Bodin K, Harris RC, and et al. The influence of oral creatine supplementation on muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis following intense contraction in man. J Physiol 1993;467:75p.
  96. Melton C, Kreider R, Rasmussen C, and et al. Effects of ingesting creatine containing supplements during training on blood lipid profiles. 83rd Annual Experimental Biology Meeting 1999;
  97. Rasmussen C, Kreider R, Ransom J, and et al. Creatine supplementation during pre-season football training does not affect fluid or electrolyte status. 46th Annual American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting 1999;
  98. Kreider R, Ransom J, Rasmussen C, and et al. Creatine supplementation during pre-season football does not affect markers of renal function. 83rd Annual Experimental Biology Meeting 1999;
  99. Kirksey KB, Warren BJ, Stone MH, and et al. The effects of six weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation in male and female track athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29(5 Suppl):S145.
  100. Wang CH, Finkel RS Bertini ES Schroth M Simonds A Wong B et al. Consensus statement for standard of care in spinal muscular atrophy. Journal of Child Neurology 2007;22:1027-1049.
  101. Reimers B, Maddalena F, Cacciavillani L, and et al. La fosfocreatina nell'infarto miocardico acuto: studio randomizzato multicentrico. II Cuore 1994;11:345-354.
  102. Camilova UK, Katsenovich RA, and Kostco SZ. Combined use of phosphocreatine and nifedipine for treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Current Therapeutic Research 1991;50:591-298.
  103. Satolli F and Marchesi G. Creatine phosphate in the rehabilitation of patients with muscle hypotonotrophy of the lower extremity. Curr Ther Res 1989;46:67-73.
  104. Strozzi C, Bagni B, and Ferri A. Creatine phosphate in the treatment of chronic ischemic heart failure. Current Therapeutic Research 1992;51:925-932.
  105. Grazioli I, Melzi G, and Strumia E. Multicenter controlled study of creatine phosphate in the treatment of heart failure. Current Therapeutic Research 1992;52:271-280.
  106. Ferraro S, Maddalena G, Fazio S, and et al. Acute and short-term efficacy of high doses of creatine phosphate in the treatment of cardiac failure. Current Therapeutic Research 1990;47:917-923.
  107. Lawrence SR, Preen DB, Dawson BT, and et al. The effect of oral creatine supplementation on maximal exercise performance in competitive rowers. Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation. 1997;7:243-253.
  108. Myburgh KH, Bold A, Bellinger B, and et al. Creatine supplementation and sprint training in cyclists: metabolic and performance effects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28(5 Suppl ):S81.
  109. Rossouw F, Krüger PE, and Rossouw J. The effect of creatine monohydrate loading on maximal intermittent exercise and sport-specific strength in well-trained power-lifters. Nutrition Research 2000;20:505-514.
  110. Balsom PD, Ekblom B, Soderlund K, and et al. Creatine supplementation and dynamic high-intensity intermittent excercise. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1993;3:143-149.
  111. Kern M, Podewils LJ Vukovich M Buono MJ. Physiological response to exercise in the heat following creatine supplementation. JEP Online. 2001;1.
  112. Kuehl K, Goldberg L, and Elliot D. Renal insufficiency after creatine supplementation in a college football athlete. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30(5 Suppl ):S235.
  113. Ziegenfuss T, Lowery LM, and Lemon PW. Acute fluid volume changes in men during three days of creatine supplementation. J Exerc Physiol Online 1998;1: .
  114. Vandenberghe K, Van Hecke P, Van Leemputte M, and et al. Inhibition of muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis by caffeine after creatine loading. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29(5 Supplement):249.
  115. Andreev NA, Andreeva TN, and Bichkov IV. Effect of phosphocreatine in congestive heart failure. Current Therapeutic Research 1992;51:649-660.
  116. Kristensen, C. A., Askenasy, N., Jain, R. K., and Koretsky, A. P. Creatine and cyclocreatine treatment of human colon adenocarcinoma xenografts: 31P and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies. Br J Cancer 1999;79:278-285. View abstract.
  117. Juhn, M. S. and Tarnopolsky, M. Oral creatine supplementation and athletic performance: a critical review. Clin J Sport Med 1998;8:286-297. View abstract.
  118. Pulido, S. M., Passaquin, A. C., Leijendekker, W. J., Challet, C., Wallimann, T., and Ruegg, U. T. Creatine supplementation improves intracellular Ca2+ handling and survival in mdx skeletal muscle cells. FEBS Lett 11-20-1998;439:357-362. View abstract.
  119. Vandebuerie, F., Vanden Eynde, B., Vandenberghe, K., and Hespel, P. Effect of creatine loading on endurance capacity and sprint power in cyclists. Int J Sports Med 1998;19:490-495. View abstract.
  120. Aaserud, R., Gramvik, P., Olsen, S. R., and Jensen, J. Creatine supplementation delays onset of fatigue during repeated bouts of sprint running. Scand.J Med Sci.Sports 1998;8(5 Pt 1):247-251. View abstract.
  121. Smith, S. A., Montain, S. J., Matott, R. P., Zientara, G. P., Jolesz, F. A., and Fielding, R. A. Creatine supplementation and age influence muscle metabolism during exercise. J Appl.Physiol 1998;85:1349-1356. View abstract.
  122. Holtzman, D., Togliatti, A., Khait, I., and Jensen, F. Creatine increases survival and suppresses seizures in the hypoxic immature rat. Pediatr.Res 1998;44:410-414. View abstract.
  123. Maganaris, C. N. and Maughan, R. J. Creatine supplementation enhances maximum voluntary isometric force and endurance capacity in resistance trained men. Acta Physiol Scand. 1998;163:279-287. View abstract.
  124. Schulze, A., Mayatepek, E., Bachert, P., Marescau, B., De Deyn, P. P., and Rating, D. Therapeutic trial of arginine restriction in creatine deficiency syndrome. Eur.J Pediatr. 1998;157:606-607. View abstract.
  125. Poortmans, J. R. and Francaux, M. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. Lancet 7-18-1998;352:234. View abstract.
  126. Engelhardt, M., Neumann, G., Berbalk, A., and Reuter, I. Creatine supplementation in endurance sports. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 1998;30:1123-1129. View abstract.
  127. Oopik, V., Paasuke, M., Timpmann, S., Medijainen, L., Ereline, J., and Smirnova, T. Effect of creatine supplementation during rapid body mass reduction on metabolism and isokinetic muscle performance capacity. Eur.J Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1998;78:83-92. View abstract.
  128. Ara, G., Gravelin, L. M., Kaddurah-Daouk, R., and Teicher, B. A. Antitumor activity of creatine analogs produced by alterations in pancreatic hormones and glucose metabolism. In Vivo 1998;12:223-231. View abstract.
  129. Peyrebrune, M. C., Nevill, M. E., Donaldson, F. J., and Cosford, D. J. The effects of oral creatine supplementation on performance in single and repeated sprint swimming. J Sports Sci. 1998;16:271-279. View abstract.
  130. Smith, J. C., Stephens, D. P., Hall, E. L., Jackson, A. W., and Earnest, C. P. Effect of oral creatine ingestion on parameters of the work rate-time relationship and time to exhaustion in high-intensity cycling. Eur.J Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1998;77:360-365. View abstract.
  131. Javierre, C., Lizarraga, M. A., Ventura, J. L., Garrido, E., and Segura, R. Creatine supplementation does not improve physical performance in a 150 m race. Rev Esp.Fisiol. 1997;53:343-348. View abstract.
  132. Grindstaff, P. D., Kreider, R., Bishop, R., Wilson, M., Wood, L., Alexander, C., and Almada, A. Effects of creatine supplementation on repetitive sprint performance and body composition in competitive swimmers. Int J Sport Nutr. 1997;7:330-346. View abstract.
  133. Schulze, A., Hess, T., Wevers, R., Mayatepek, E., Bachert, P., Marescau, B., Knopp, M. V., De Deyn, P. P., Bremer, H. J., and Rating, D. Creatine deficiency syndrome caused by guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: diagnostic tools for a new inborn error of metabolism. J Pediatr. 1997;131:626-631. View abstract.
  134. Stockler, S., Marescau, B., De Deyn, P. P., Trijbels, J. M., and Hanefeld, F. Guanidino compounds in guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, a new inborn error of creatine synthesis. Metabolism 1997;46:1189-1193. View abstract.
  135. Schneider, D. A., McDonough, P. J., Fadel, P. J., and Berwick, J. P. Creatine supplementation and the total work performed during 15-s and 1-min bouts of maximal cycling. Aust.J Sci.Med Sport 1997;29:65-68. View abstract.
  136. Volek, J. S., Kraemer, W. J., Bush, J. A., Boetes, M., Incledon, T., Clark, K. L., and Lynch, J. M. Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise. J Am.Diet.Assoc 1997;97:765-770. View abstract.
  137. Terrillion, K. A., Kolkhorst, F. W., Dolgener, F. A., and Joslyn, S. J. The effect of creatine supplementation on two 700-m maximal running bouts. Int J Sport Nutr. 1997;7:138-143. View abstract.
  138. Jacobs, I., Bleue, S., and Goodman, J. Creatine ingestion increases anaerobic capacity and maximum accumulated oxygen deficit. Can J Appl.Physiol 1997;22:231-243. View abstract.
  139. Burke, L. M., Pyne, D. B., and Telford, R. D. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on single-effort sprint performance in elite swimmers. Int J Sport Nutr. 1996;6:222-233. View abstract.
  140. Redondo, D. R., Dowling, E. A., Graham, B. L., Almada, A. L., and Williams, M. H. The effect of oral creatine monohydrate supplementation on running velocity. Int J Sport Nutr. 1996;6:213-221. View abstract.
  141. Stockler, S., Hanefeld, F., and Frahm, J. Creatine replacement therapy in guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, a novel inborn error of metabolism. Lancet 9-21-1996;348:789-790. View abstract.
  142. Stockler, S., Isbrandt, D., Hanefeld, F., Schmidt, B., and von Figura, K. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: the first inborn error of creatine metabolism in man. Am.J Hum.Genet. 1996;58:914-922. View abstract.
  143. Isbrandt, D. and von Figura, K. Cloning and sequence analysis of human guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase cDNA. Biochim.Biophys Acta 12-27-1995;1264:265-267. View abstract.
  144. Cerny, J., Nemec, P., Bucek, J., Cerny, E., Papousek, F., and Lojek, A. [The effect of creatine phosphate in patients after surgery in ischemic heart disease]. Vnitr.Lek. 1993;39:153-159. View abstract.
  145. Greenhaff, P. L., Casey, A., Short, A. H., Harris, R., Soderlund, K., and Hultman, E. Influence of oral creatine supplementation of muscle torque during repeated bouts of maximal voluntary exercise in man. Clin Sci.(Lond) 1993;84:565-571. View abstract.
  146. Cafiero, M., Strumia, E., Pirone, S., Pacileo, S., and Santoro, R. [The efficacy of creatine phosphate in the treatment of patients with heart failure. Its echographic evaluation after acute and protracted treatment]. Clin Ter. 1994;144:321-328. View abstract.
  147. Teicher, B. A., Menon, K., Northey, D., Liu, J., Kufe, D. W., and Kaddurah-Daouk, R. Cyclocreatine in cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1995;35:411-416. View abstract.
  148. Weber, P., Vlasicova, Y., Labrova, R., and Semrad, B. [Use of creatine phosphate in treatment of cardiocerebral syndrome associated with acute myocardial infarct in the aged]. Cas.Lek.Cesk. 1-18-1995;134:53-56. View abstract.
  149. Maughan, R. J. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr. 1995;5:94-101. View abstract.
  150. Greenhaff, P. L. Creatine and its application as an ergogenic aid. Int J Sport Nutr. 1995;5 Suppl:S100-S110. View abstract.
  151. Pedone, V., Corbelli, C., Frondini, C., Franchi, R., Luppi, M., Lonardo, E., Balboni, A., Monetti, N., and di Biase, G. [Myocardial T1-201 scintigraphy in the study of the development of acute myocardial infarction. Evaluation of the effects of a drug with metabolic action: creatine phosphate]. Clin Ter. 12-31-1984;111:531-538. View abstract.
  152. Semenovsky, M. L., Shumakov, V. I., Sharov, V. G., Mogilevsky, G. M., Asmolovsky, A. V., Makhotina, L. A., and Saks, V. A. Protection of ischemic myocardium by exogenous phosphocreatine. II. Clinical, ultrastructural, and biochemical evaluations. J Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 1987;94:762-769. View abstract.
  153. Delanghe, J., De Slypere, J. P., De Buyzere, M., Robbrecht, J., Wieme, R., and Vermeulen, A. Normal reference values for creatine, creatinine, and carnitine are lower in vegetarians. Clin Chem. 1989;35:1802-1803. View abstract.
  154. Ruda, M. Y., Samarenko, M. B., Afonskaya, N. I., and Saks, V. A. Reduction of ventricular arrhythmias by phosphocreatine (Neoton) in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 1988;116(2 Pt 1):393-397. View abstract.
  155. Lugaresi, R., Leme, M., de, Salles Painelli, V, Murai, I. H., Roschel, H., Sapienza, M. T., Lancha Junior, A. H., and Gualano, B. Does long-term creatine supplementation impair kidney function in resistance-trained individuals consuming a high-protein diet? J.Int.Soc.Sports Nutr. 2013;10:26. View abstract.
  156. Pastula, D. M., Moore, D. H., and Bedlack, R. S. Creatine for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;12:CD005225. View abstract.
  157. Lyoo, I. K., Yoon, S., Kim, T. S., Hwang, J., Kim, J. E., Won, W., Bae, S., and Renshaw, P. F. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of oral creatine monohydrate augmentation for enhanced response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in women with major depressive disorder. Am.J.Psychiatry 2012;169:937-945. View abstract.
  158. Coco, M. and Perciavalle, V. Creatine ingestion effects on oxidative stress in a steady-state test at 75% VO(2max). J.Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 2012;52:165-169. View abstract.
  159. Wadman, R. I., Bosboom, W. M., van der Pol, W. L., van den Berg, L. H., Wokke, J. H., Iannaccone, S. T., and Vrancken, A. F. Drug treatment for spinal muscular atrophy types II and III. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;4:CD006282. View abstract.
  160. Baldinger, R., Katzberg, H. D., and Weber, M. Treatment for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;4:CD004157. View abstract.
  161. Gufford, B. T., Sriraghavan, K., Miller, N. J., Miller, D. W., Gu, X., Vennerstrom, J. L., and Robinson, D. H. Physicochemical characterization of creatine N-methylguanidinium salts. J.Diet.Suppl 2010;7:240-252. View abstract.
  162. Ndika, J. D., Johnston, K., Barkovich, J. A., Wirt, M. D., O'Neill, P., Betsalel, O. T., Jakobs, C., and Salomons, G. S. Developmental progress and creatine restoration upon long-term creatine supplementation of a patient with arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency. Mol.Genet.Metab 2012;106:48-54. View abstract.
  163. Alves, C. R., Ferreira, J. C., de Siqueira-Filho, M. A., Carvalho, C. R., Lancha, A. H., Jr., and Gualano, B. Creatine-induced glucose uptake in type 2 diabetes: a role for AMPK-alpha? Amino.Acids 2012;43:1803-1807. View abstract.
  164. Wadman, R. I., Bosboom, W. M., van den Berg, L. H., Wokke, J. H., Iannaccone, S. T., and Vrancken, A. F. Drug treatment for spinal muscular atrophy types II and III. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2011;:CD006282. View abstract.
  165. Peirano, R. I., Achterberg, V., Dusing, H. J., Akhiani, M., Koop, U., Jaspers, S., Kruger, A., Schwengler, H., Hamann, T., Wenck, H., Stab, F., Gallinat, S., and Blatt, T. Dermal penetration of creatine from a face-care formulation containing creatine, guarana and glycerol is linked to effective antiwrinkle and antisagging efficacy in male subjects. J.Cosmet.Dermatol. 2011;10:273-281. View abstract.
  166. Smith, A. E., Fukuda, D. H., Ryan, E. D., Kendall, K. L., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. Ergolytic/ergogenic effects of creatine on aerobic power. Int.J.Sports Med. 2011;32:975-981. View abstract.
  167. Rahimi, R. Creatine supplementation decreases oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by a single bout of resistance exercise. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2011;25:3448-3455. View abstract.
  168. Lamontagne-Lacasse, M., Nadon, R., and Goulet E DB. Effect of creatine supplementation on jumping performance in elite volleyball players. Int.J.Sports Physiol Perform. 2011;6:525-533. View abstract.
  169. Zuniga, J. M., Housh, T. J., Camic, C. L., Hendrix, C. R., Mielke, M., Johnson, G. O., Housh, D. J., and Schmidt, R. J. The effects of creatine monohydrate loading on anaerobic performance and one-repetition maximum strength. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2012;26:1651-1656. View abstract.
  170. Rocic, B., Znaor, A., Rocic, P., Weber, D., and Vucic, Lovrencic M. Comparison of antihyperglycemic effects of creatine and glibenclamide in type II diabetic patients. Wien.Med.Wochenschr. 2011;161(21-22):519-523. View abstract.
  171. Freilinger, M., Dunkler, D., Lanator, I., Item, C. B., Muhl, A., Fowler, B., and Bodamer, O. A. Effects of creatine supplementation in Rett syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J.Dev.Behav.Pediatr. 2011;32:454-460. View abstract.
  172. Neves, M., Jr., Gualano, B., Roschel, H., Lima, F. R., Lucia, de Sa-Pinto, Seguro, A. C., Shimizu, M. H., Sapienza, M. T., Fuller, R., Lancha, A. H., Jr., and Bonfa, E. Effect of creatine supplementation on measured glomerular filtration rate in postmenopausal women. Appl.Physiol Nutr.Metab 2011;36:419-422. View abstract.
  173. van de Kamp, J. M., Pouwels, P. J., Aarsen, F. K., ten Hoopen, L. W., Knol, D. L., de Klerk, J. B., de Coo, I. F., Huijmans, J. G., Jakobs, C., van der Knaap, M. S., Salomons, G. S., and Mancini, G. M. Long-term follow-up and treatment in nine boys with X-linked creatine transporter defect. J.Inherit.Metab Dis. 2012;35:141-149. View abstract.
  174. Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Burke, D. G., Mueller, K. D., and Lewis, J. D. Effect of different frequencies of creatine supplementation on muscle size and strength in young adults. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2011;25:1831-1838. View abstract.
  175. Kley, R. A., Tarnopolsky, M. A., and Vorgerd, M. Creatine for treating muscle disorders. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2011;:CD004760. View abstract.
  176. Neves, M., Jr., Gualano, B., Roschel, H., Fuller, R., Benatti, F. B., Pinto, A. L., Lima, F. R., Pereira, R. M., Lancha, A. H., Jr., and Bonfa, E. Beneficial effect of creatine supplementation in knee osteoarthritis. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1538-1543. View abstract.
  177. Sanchez-Gonzalez, M. A., Wieder, R., Kim, J. S., Vicil, F., and Figueroa, A. Creatine supplementation attenuates hemodynamic and arterial stiffness responses following an acute bout of isokinetic exercise. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2011;111:1965-1971. View abstract.
  178. Camic, C. L., Hendrix, C. R., Housh, T. J., Zuniga, J. M., Mielke, M., Johnson, G. O., Schmidt, R. J., and Housh, D. J. The effects of polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on muscular strength and power. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2010;24:3343-3351. View abstract.
  179. Gualano, B., de, Salles Painelli, V, Roschel, H., Lugaresi, R., Dorea, E., Artioli, G. G., Lima, F. R., da Silva, M. E., Cunha, M. R., Seguro, A. C., Shimizu, M. H., Otaduy, M. C., Sapienza, M. T., da Costa, Leite C., Bonfa, E., and Lancha Junior, A. H. Creatine supplementation does not impair kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2011;111:749-756. View abstract.
  180. Fukuda, D. H., Smith, A. E., Kendall, K. L., and Stout, J. R. The possible combinatory effects of acute consumption of caffeine, creatine, and amino acids on the improvement of anaerobic running performance in humans. Nutr.Res. 2010;30:607-614. View abstract.
  181. Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, S., Connolly, M. B., Poskitt, K. J., Horvath, G. A., Lowry, N., Salomons, G. S., Casey, B., Sinclair, G., Davis, C., Jakobs, C., and Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S. Treatment of intractable epilepsy in a female with SLC6A8 deficiency. Mol.Genet.Metab 2010;101:409-412. View abstract.
  182. Kingsley, M., Cunningham, D., Mason, L., Kilduff, L. P., and McEneny, J. Role of creatine supplementation on exercise-induced cardiovascular function and oxidative stress. Oxid.Med.Cell Longev. 2009;2:247-254. View abstract.
  183. Atassi, N., Ratai, E. M., Greenblatt, D. J., Pulley, D., Zhao, Y., Bombardier, J., Wallace, S., Eckenrode, J., Cudkowicz, M., and Dibernardo, A. A phase I, pharmacokinetic, dosage escalation study of creatine monohydrate in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Amyotroph.Lateral.Scler. 2010;11:508-513. View abstract.
  184. Rawson, E. S., Stec, M. J., Frederickson, S. J., and Miles, M. P. Low-dose creatine supplementation enhances fatigue resistance in the absence of weight gain. Nutrition 2011;27:451-455. View abstract.
  185. Cornelissen, V. A., Defoor, J. G., Stevens, A., Schepers, D., Hespel, P., Decramer, M., Mortelmans, L., Dobbels, F., Vanhaecke, J., Fagard, R. H., and Vanhees, L. Effect of creatine supplementation as a potential adjuvant therapy to exercise training in cardiac patients: a randomized controlled trial. Clin.Rehabil. 2010;24:988-999. View abstract.
  186. Pastula, D. M., Moore, D. H., and Bedlack, R. S. Creatine for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;:CD005225. View abstract.
  187. Fukuda, D. H., Smith, A. E., Kendall, K. L., Dwyer, T. R., Kerksick, C. M., Beck, T. W., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. R. The effects of creatine loading and gender on anaerobic running capacity. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2010;24:1826-1833. View abstract.
  188. Al-Ghimlas, F. and Todd, D. C. Creatine supplementation for patients with COPD receiving pulmonary rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respirology. 2010;15:785-795. View abstract.
  189. Banerjee, B., Sharma, U., Balasubramanian, K., Kalaivani, M., Kalra, V., and Jagannathan, N. R. Effect of creatine monohydrate in improving cellular energetics and muscle strength in ambulatory Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled 31P MRS study. Magn Reson.Imaging 2010;28:698-707. View abstract.
  190. Saidi, H. and Mani, M. Severe metabolic acidosis secondary to coadministration of creatine and metformin, a case report. Am.J.Emerg.Med. 2010;28:388-6. View abstract.
  191. Chambers, D. J., Braimbridge, M. V., Kosker, S., Yamada, M., Jupp, R. A., and Crowther, A. Creatine phosphate (Neoton) as an additive to St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegic solution (Plegisol). Results of a clinical study. Eur J Cardiothorac.Surg 1991;5:74-81. View abstract.
  192. Bemben MG, Witten MS Carter JM Eliot KA Knehans AW Bemben DA. The effects of supplementation with creatine and protein on muscle strength following a traditional resistance training program in middle-aged and older men. J Nutr Health Aging. 2010;14:155-159. View abstract.
  193. Gualano, B., Ferreira, D. C., Sapienza, M. T., Seguro, A. C., and Lancha, A. H., Jr. Effect of short-term high-dose creatine supplementation on measured GFR in a young man with a single kidney. Am.J.Kidney Dis. 2010;55:e7-e9. View abstract.
  194. Pittas, G., Hazell, M. D., Simpson, E. J., and Greenhaff, P. L. Optimization of insulin-mediated creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. J Sports Sci 2010;28:67-74. View abstract.
  195. Saremi A, Gharakhanloo R Sharghi S Gharaati MR Larijani B Omidfar K. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on serum myostatin and GASP-1. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;317(1-2):25-30. View abstract.
  196. Rocic, B., Bajuk, N. B., Rocic, P., Weber, D. S., Boras, J., and Lovrencic, M. V. Comparison of antihyperglycemic effects of creatine and metformin in type II diabetic patients. Clin.Invest Med. 2009;32:E322. View abstract.
  197. Sempere, A., Fons, C., Arias, A., Rodriguez-Pombo, P., Merinero, B., Alcaide, P., Capdevila, A., Ribes, A., Duque, R., Eiris, J., Poo, P., Fernandez-Alvarez, E., Campistol, J., and Artuch, R. [Cerebral creatine deficiency: first Spanish patients harbouring mutations in GAMT gene]. Med.Clin.(Barc.) 11-21-2009;133:745-749. View abstract.
  198. Kerksick, C. M., Wilborn, C. D., Campbell, W. I., Harvey, T. M., Marcello, B. M., Roberts, M. D., Parker, A. G., Byars, A. G., Greenwood, L. D., Almada, A. L., Kreider, R. B., and Greenwood, M. The effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation with and without D-pinitol on resistance training adaptations. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2009;23:2673-2682. View abstract.
  199. Ling, J., Kritikos, M., and Tiplady, B. Cognitive effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation. Behav.Pharmacol. 2009;20:673-679. View abstract.
  200. Leader, A., Amital, D., Rubinow, A., and Amital, H. An open-label study adding creatine monohydrate to ongoing medical regimens in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2009;1173:829-836. View abstract.
  201. van der Merwe, J., Brooks, N. E., and Myburgh, K. H. Three weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation affects dihydrotestosterone to testosterone ratio in college-aged rugby players. Clin.J.Sport Med. 2009;19:399-404. View abstract.
  202. Bazzucchi, I., Felici, F., and Sacchetti, M. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on neuromuscular function. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2009;41:1934-1941. View abstract.
  203. Juhasz, I., Gyore, I., Csende, Z., Racz, L., and Tihanyi, J. Creatine supplementation improves the anaerobic performance of elite junior fin swimmers. Acta Physiol Hung. 2009;96:325-336. View abstract.
  204. Kendall, K. L., Smith, A. E., Graef, J. L., Fukuda, D. H., Moon, J. R., Beck, T. W., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. R. Effects of four weeks of high-intensity interval training and creatine supplementation on critical power and anaerobic working capacity in college-aged men. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2009;23:1663-1669. View abstract.
  205. O'Rourke, D. J., Ryan, S., Salomons, G., Jakobs, C., Monavari, A., and King, M. D. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency: late onset of movement disorder and preserved expressive language. Dev.Med.Child Neurol. 2009;51:404-407. View abstract.
  206. Herda, T. J., Beck, T. W., Ryan, E. D., Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Hartman, M. J., Stout, J. R., and Cramer, J. T. Effects of creatine monohydrate and polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on muscular strength, endurance, and power output. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2009;23:818-826. View abstract.
  207. Law, Y. L., Ong, W. S., GillianYap, T. L., Lim, S. C., and Von, Chia E. Effects of two and five days of creatine loading on muscular strength and anaerobic power in trained athletes. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2009;23:906-914. View abstract.
  208. Lopez, R. M., Casa, D. J., McDermott, B. P., Ganio, M. S., Armstrong, L. E., and Maresh, C. M. Does creatine supplementation hinder exercise heat tolerance or hydration status? A systematic review with meta-analyses. J.Athl.Train. 2009;44:215-223. View abstract.
  209. Sakkas, G. K., Mulligan, K., Dasilva, M., Doyle, J. W., Khatami, H., Schleich, T., Kent-Braun, J. A., and Schambelan, M. Creatine fails to augment the benefits from resistance training in patients with HIV infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. PLoS.One. 2009;4:e4605. View abstract.
  210. Parness, J. You're "hot" from pumping iron? Anesth.Analg. 2009;108:711-713. View abstract.
  211. Bosboom, W., Vrancken, A. F., van den Berg, L. H., Wokke, J. H., and Iannaccone, S. T. Drug treatment for spinal muscular atrophy types II and III. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;:CD006282. View abstract.
  212. Benatar, M., Kurent, J., and Moore, D. H. Treatment for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;:CD006153. View abstract.
  213. Easton, C., Calder, A., Prior, F., Dobinson, S., I'Anson, R., MacGregor, R., Mohammad, Y., Kingsmore, D., and Pitsiladis, Y. P. The effects of a novel "fluid loading" strategy on cardiovascular and haematological responses to orthostatic stress. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2009;105:899-908. View abstract.
  214. Johnston, A. P., Burke, D. G., MacNeil, L. G., and Candow, D. G. Effect of creatine supplementation during cast-induced immobilization on the preservation of muscle mass, strength, and endurance. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2009;23:116-120. View abstract.
  215. Bender, A., Samtleben, W., Elstner, M., and Klopstock, T. Long-term creatine supplementation is safe in aged patients with Parkinson disease. Nutr.Res. 2008;28:172-178. View abstract.
  216. Candow, D. G., Little, J. P., Chilibeck, P. D., Abeysekara, S., Zello, G. A., Kazachkov, M., Cornish, S. M., and Yu, P. H. Low-dose creatine combined with protein during resistance training in older men. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2008;40:1645-1652. View abstract.
  217. Simon, D. K., Swearingen, C. J., Hauser, R. A., Trugman, J. M., Aminoff, M. J., Singer, C., Truong, D., and Tilley, B. C. Caffeine and progression of Parkinson disease. Clin.Neuropharmacol. 2008;31:189-196. View abstract.
  218. Rosenfeld, J., King, R. M., Jackson, C. E., Bedlack, R. S., Barohn, R. J., Dick, A., Phillips, L. H., Chapin, J., Gelinas, D. F., and Lou, J. S. Creatine monohydrate in ALS: effects on strength, fatigue, respiratory status and ALSFRS. Amyotroph.Lateral.Scler. 2008;9:266-272. View abstract.
  219. Gordon, P. H., Cheung, Y. K., Levin, B., Andrews, H., Doorish, C., Macarthur, R. B., Montes, J., Bednarz, K., Florence, J., Rowin, J., Boylan, K., Mozaffar, T., Tandan, R., Mitsumoto, H., Kelvin, E. A., Chapin, J., Bedlack, R., Rivner, M., McCluskey, L. F., Pestronk, A., Graves, M., Sorenson, E. J., Barohn, R. J., Belsh, J. M., Lou, J. S., Levine, T., Saperstein, D., Miller, R. G., and Scelsa, S. N. A novel, efficient, randomized selection trial comparing combinations of drug therapy for ALS. Amyotroph.Lateral.Scler. 2008;9:212-222. View abstract.
  220. Rawson, E. S., Lieberman, H. R., Walsh, T. M., Zuber, S. M., Harhart, J. M., and Matthews, T. C. Creatine supplementation does not improve cognitive function in young adults. Physiol Behav. 9-3-2008;95(1-2):130-134. View abstract.
  221. Koenig CA, Benardot D Cody M Thompson WR. Comparison of creatine monohydrate and carbohydrate supplementation on repeated jump height performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22:1081-1086. View abstract.
  222. NINDS NET-PD Investigators. A pilot clinical trial of creatine and minocycline in early Parkinson disease: 18-month results. Clin.Neuropharmacol. 2008;31:141-150. View abstract.
  223. Walter, A. A., Smith, A. E., Herda, T. J., Ryan, E. D., Moon, J. R., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. R. Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold in cycle ergometry in college-age men. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2008;18:142-151. View abstract.
  224. Whitt, K. N., Ward, S. C., Deniz, K., Liu, L., Odin, J. A., and Qin, L. Cholestatic liver injury associated with whey protein and creatine supplements. Semin.Liver Dis. 2008;28:226-231. View abstract.
  225. Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Ross, R., Shanklin, M., Kang, J., and Faigenbaum, A. D. Effect of a pre-exercise energy supplement on the acute hormonal response to resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 2008;22:874-882. View abstract.
  226. Deacon, S. J., Vincent, E. E., Greenhaff, P. L., Fox, J., Steiner, M. C., Singh, S. J., and Morgan, M. D. Randomized controlled trial of dietary creatine as an adjunct therapy to physical training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am.J.Respir.Crit Care Med. 8-1-2008;178:233-239. View abstract.
  227. Ostojic, S. M. and Ahmetovic, Z. Gastrointestinal distress after creatine supplementation in athletes: are side effects dose dependent? Res.Sports Med. 2008;16:15-22. View abstract.
  228. Kley, R. A., Tarnopolsky, M. A., and Vorgerd, M. Creatine treatment in muscle disorders: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. J.Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry 2008;79:366-367. View abstract.
  229. Knott, A., Koop, U., Mielke, H., Reuschlein, K., Peters, N., Muhr, G. M., Lenz, H., Wensorra, U., Jaspers, S., Kolbe, L., Raschke, T., Stab, F., Wenck, H., and Gallinat, S. A novel treatment option for photoaged skin. J.Cosmet.Dermatol. 2008;7:15-22. View abstract.
  230. Young, P., De, Jonghe P., Stogbauer, F., and Butterfass-Bahloul, T. Treatment for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;:CD006052. View abstract.
  231. Sakellaris, G., Nasis, G., Kotsiou, M., Tamiolaki, M., Charissis, G., and Evangeliou, A. Prevention of traumatic headache, dizziness and fatigue with creatine administration. A pilot study. Acta Paediatr. 2008;97:31-34. View abstract.
  232. Taes, Y. E., Marescau, B., De, Vriese A., De Deyn, P. P., Schepers, E., Vanholder, R., and Delanghe, J. R. Guanidino compounds after creatine supplementation in renal failure patients and their relation to inflammatory status. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2008;23:1330-1335. View abstract.
  233. Faager, G., Soderlund, K., Skold, C. M., Rundgren, S., Tollback, A., and Jakobsson, P. Creatine supplementation and physical training in patients with COPD: a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Int J Chron.Obstruct.Pulmon.Dis 2006;1:445-453. View abstract.
  234. Roitman, S., Green, T., Osher, Y., Karni, N., and Levine, J. Creatine monohydrate in resistant depression: a preliminary study. Bipolar.Disord 2007;9:754-758. View abstract.
  235. Gotshalk, L. A., Kraemer, W. J., Mendonca, M. A., Vingren, J. L., Kenny, A. M., Spiering, B. A., Hatfield, D. L., Fragala, M. S., and Volek, J. S. Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older women. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2008;102:223-231. View abstract.
  236. Bassit, R. A., Curi, R., and Costa Rosa, L. F. Creatine supplementation reduces plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 after a half-ironman competition. Amino.Acids 2008;35:425-431. View abstract.
  237. McMorris, T., Mielcarz, G., Harris, R. C., Swain, J. P., and Howard, A. Creatine supplementation and cognitive performance in elderly individuals. Neuropsychol.Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol.Cogn 2007;14:517-528. View abstract.
  238. Wright, G. A., Grandjean, P. W., and Pascoe, D. D. The effects of creatine loading on thermoregulation and intermittent sprint exercise performance in a hot humid environment. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2007;21:655-660. View abstract.
  239. Cramer, J. T., Stout, J. R., Culbertson, J. Y., and Egan, A. D. Effects of creatine supplementation and three days of resistance training on muscle strength, power output, and neuromuscular function. J Strength.Cond.Res 2007;21:668-677. View abstract.
  240. Easton, C., Turner, S., and Pitsiladis, Y. P. Creatine and glycerol hyperhydration in trained subjects before exercise in the heat. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2007;17:70-91. View abstract.
  241. Gualano, B., Novaes, R. B., Artioli, G. G., Freire, T. O., Coelho, D. F., Scagliusi, F. B., Rogeri, P. S., Roschel, H., Ugrinowitsch, C., and Lancha, A. H., Jr. Effects of creatine supplementation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in sedentary healthy males undergoing aerobic training. Amino.Acids 2008;34:245-250. View abstract.
  242. Branch, J. D., Schwarz, W. D., and Van, Lunen B. Effect of creatine supplementation on cycle ergometer exercise in a hyperthermic environment. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2007;21:57-61. View abstract.
  243. Kley, R. A., Vorgerd, M., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Creatine for treating muscle disorders. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2007;:CD004760. View abstract.
  244. Forsberg, A. M., Nilsson, E., Werneman, J., Bergstrom, J., and Hultman, E. Muscle composition in relation to age and sex. Clin Sci (Lond) 1991;81:249-256. View abstract.
  245. Weiss, B. A. and Powers, M. E. Creatine supplementation does not impair the thermoregulatory response during a bout of exercise in the heat. J.Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 2006;46:555-563. View abstract.
  246. Almeida, L. S., Rosenberg, E. H., Martinez-Munoz, C., Verhoeven, N. M., Vilarinho, L., Jakobs, C., and Salomons, G. S. Overexpression of GAMT restores GAMT activity in primary GAMT-deficient fibroblasts. Mol.Genet.Metab 2006;89:392-394. View abstract.
  247. Smith, C. A., Chetlin, R. D., Gutmann, L., Yeater, R. A., and Alway, S. E. Effects of exercise and creatine on myosin heavy chain isoform composition in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Muscle Nerve 2006;34:586-594. View abstract.
  248. Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, S., Stoeckler-Ipsiroglu, S., Adami, A., Appleton, R., Araujo, H. C., Duran, M., Ensenauer, R., Fernandez-Alvarez, E., Garcia, P., Grolik, C., Item, C. B., Leuzzi, V., Marquardt, I., Muhl, A., Saelke-Kellermann, R. A., Salomons, G. S., Schulze, A., Surtees, R., van der Knaap, M. S., Vasconcelos, R., Verhoeven, N. M., Vilarinho, L., Wilichowski, E., and Jakobs, C. GAMT deficiency: features, treatment, and outcome in an inborn error of creatine synthesis. Neurology 8-8-2006;67:480-484. View abstract.
  249. Pluim, B. M., Ferrauti, A., Broekhof, F., Deutekom, M., Gotzmann, A., Kuipers, H., and Weber, K. The effects of creatine supplementation on selected factors of tennis specific training. Br J Sports Med 2006;40:507-511. View abstract.
  250. Watson, G., Casa, D. J., Fiala, K. A., Hile, A., Roti, M. W., Healey, J. C., Armstrong, L. E., and Maresh, C. M. Creatine use and exercise heat tolerance in dehydrated men. J.Athl.Train. 2006;41:18-29. View abstract.
  251. Thorelius, J., Thelin, S., Ronquist, G., Halden, E., and Hansson, H. E. Biochemical and functional effects of creatine phosphate in cardioplegic solution during aortic valve surgery--a clinical study. Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg 1992;40:10-13. View abstract.
  252. Astorino, T. A., Marrocco, A. C., Gross, S. M., Johnson, D. L., Brazil, C. M., Icenhower, M. E., and Kneessi, R. J. Is running performance enhanced with creatine serum ingestion? J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19:730-734. View abstract.
  253. Eckerson, J. M., Stout, J. R., Moore, G. A., Stone, N. J., Iwan, K. A., Gebauer, A. N., and Ginsberg, R. Effect of creatine phosphate supplementation on anaerobic working capacity and body weight after two and six days of loading in men and women. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19:756-763. View abstract.
  254. Murphy, A. J., Watsford, M. L., Coutts, A. J., and Richards, D. A. Effects of creatine supplementation on aerobic power and cardiovascular structure and function. J Sci Med Sport 2005;8:305-313. View abstract.
  255. Carter, J. M., Bemben, D. A., Knehans, A. W., Bemben, M. G., and Witten, M. S. Does nutritional supplementation influence adaptability of muscle to resistance training in men aged 48 to 72 years. J Geriatr.Phys.Ther 2005;28:40-47. View abstract.
  256. Chilibeck, P. D., Chrusch, M. J., Chad, K. E., Shawn, Davison K., and Burke, D. G. Creatine monohydrate and resistance training increase bone mineral content and density in older men. J Nutr Health Aging 2005;9:352-353. View abstract.
  257. Carducci, C., Santagata, S., Leuzzi, V., Carducci, C., Artiola, C., Giovanniello, T., Battini, R., and Antonozzi, I. Quantitative determination of guanidinoacetate and creatine in dried blood spot by flow injection analysis-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chim.Acta 2006;364(1-2):180-187. View abstract.
  258. Verhoeven, N. M., Salomons, G. S., and Jakobs, C. Laboratory diagnosis of defects of creatine biosynthesis and transport. Clin Chim.Acta 2005;361(1-2):1-9. View abstract.
  259. Anomasiri, W., Sanguanrungsirikul, S., and Saichandee, P. Low dose creatine supplementation enhances sprint phase of 400 meters swimming performance. J Med Assoc Thai 2004;87 Suppl 2:S228-S232. View abstract.
  260. Kendall, R. W., Jacquemin, G., Frost, R., and Burns, S. P. Creatine supplementation for weak muscles in persons with chronic tetraplegia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. J Spinal Cord.Med 2005;28:208-213. View abstract.
  261. Roy, B. D., de Beer, J., Harvey, D., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not improve functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:1293-1298. View abstract.
  262. Fuld, J. P., Kilduff, L. P., Neder, J. A., Pitsiladis, Y., Lean, M. E., Ward, S. A., and Cotton, M. M. Creatine supplementation during pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2005;60:531-537. View abstract.
  263. Escolar, D. M., Buyse, G., Henricson, E., Leshner, R., Florence, J., Mayhew, J., Tesi-Rocha, C., Gorni, K., Pasquali, L., Patel, K. M., McCarter, R., Huang, J., Mayhew, T., Bertorini, T., Carlo, J., Connolly, A. M., Clemens, P. R., Goemans, N., Iannaccone, S. T., Igarashi, M., Nevo, Y., Pestronk, A., Subramony, S. H., Vedanarayanan, V. V., and Wessel, H. CINRG randomized controlled trial of creatine and glutamine in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Ann Neurol 2005;58:151-155. View abstract.
  264. Javierre, C., Barbany, J. R., Bonjorn, V. M., Lizarraga, M. A., Ventura, J. L., and Segura, R. Creatine supplementation and performance in 6 consecutive 60 meter sprints. J Physiol Biochem 2004;60:265-271. View abstract.
  265. Theodorou, A. S., Havenetidis, K., Zanker, C. L., O'Hara, J. P., King, R. F., Hood, C., Paradisis, G., and Cooke, C. B. Effects of acute creatine loading with or without carbohydrate on repeated bouts of maximal swimming in high-performance swimmers. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19:265-269. View abstract.
  266. Hoffman, J. R., Stout, J. R., Falvo, M. J., Kang, J., and Ratamess, N. A. Effect of low-dose, short-duration creatine supplementation on anaerobic exercise performance. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19:260-264. View abstract.
  267. Deldicque, L., Louis, M., Theisen, D., Nielens, H., Dehoux, M., Thissen, J. P., Rennie, M. J., and Francaux, M. Increased IGF mRNA in human skeletal muscle after creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005;37:731-736. View abstract.
  268. Sijens, P. E., Verbruggen, K. T., Meiners, L. C., Soorani-Lunsing, R. J., Rake, J. P., and Oudkerk, M. 1H chemical shift imaging of the brain in guanidino methyltransferase deficiency, a creatine deficiency syndrome; guanidinoacetate accumulation in the gray matter. Eur Radiol. 2005;15:1923-1926. View abstract.
  269. Kornblum, C., Schroder, R., Muller, K., Vorgerd, M., Eggers, J., Bogdanow, M., Papassotiropoulos, A., Fabian, K., Klockgether, T., and Zange, J. Creatine has no beneficial effect on skeletal muscle energy metabolism in patients with single mitochondrial DNA deletions: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 31P-MRS crossover study. Eur J Neurol 2005;12:300-309. View abstract.
  270. Cheillan, D., Cognat, S., Vandenberghe, N., Des, Portes, V, and Vianey-Saban, C. [Creatine deficiency syndromes]. Rev Neurol.(Paris) 2005;161:284-289. View abstract.
  271. Mendel, R. W., Blegen, M., Cheatham, C., Antonio, J., and Ziegenfuss, T. Effects of creatine on thermoregulatory responses while exercising in the heat. Nutrition 2005;21:301-307. View abstract.
  272. Groeneveld, G. J., Beijer, C., Veldink, J. H., Kalmijn, S., Wokke, J. H., and van den Berg, L. H. Few adverse effects of long-term creatine supplementation in a placebo-controlled trial. Int J Sports Med 2005;26:307-313. View abstract.
  273. Ahmun, R. P., Tong, R. J., and Grimshaw, P. N. The effects of acute creatine supplementation on multiple sprint cycling and running performance in rugby players. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19:92-97. View abstract.
  274. Bender, A., Auer, D. P., Merl, T., Reilmann, R., Saemann, P., Yassouridis, A., Bender, J., Weindl, A., Dose, M., Gasser, T., and Klopstock, T. Creatine supplementation lowers brain glutamate levels in Huntington's disease. J Neurol 2005;252:36-41. View abstract.
  275. Sykut-Cegielska, J., Gradowska, W., Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, S., and Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S. Biochemical and clinical characteristics of creatine deficiency syndromes. Acta Biochim.Pol. 2004;51:875-882. View abstract.
  276. Chilibeck, P. D., Stride, D., Farthing, J. P., and Burke, D. G. Effect of creatine ingestion after exercise on muscle thickness in males and females. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36:1781-1788. View abstract.
  277. Taes, Y. E., Delanghe, J. R., De Bacquer, D., Langlois, M., Stevens, L., Geerolf, I., Lameire, N. H., and De Vriese, A. S. Creatine supplementation does not decrease total plasma homocysteine in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 2004;66:2422-2428. View abstract.
  278. Matsumura, T., Yokoe, M., Nakamori, M., Hattori, N., Saito, T., Nozaki, S., Fujimura, H., and Shinno, S. [A clinical trial of creatine monohydrate in muscular dystrophy patients]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2004;44:661-666. View abstract.
  279. Ju, J. S., Smith, J. L., Oppelt, P. J., and Fisher, J. S. Creatine feeding increases GLUT4 expression in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2005;288:E347-E352. View abstract.
  280. Kilduff, L. P., Georgiades, E., James, N., Minnion, R. H., Mitchell, M., Kingsmore, D., Hadjicharlambous, M., and Pitsiladis, Y. P. The effects of creatine supplementation on cardiovascular, metabolic, and thermoregulatory responses during exercise in the heat in endurance-trained humans. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2004;14:443-460. View abstract.
  281. Syrotuik, D. G. and Bell, G. J. Acute creatine monohydrate supplementation: a descriptive physiological profile of responders vs. nonresponders. J Strength.Cond.Res 2004;18:610-617. View abstract.
  282. Almeida, L. S., Verhoeven, N. M., Roos, B., Valongo, C., Cardoso, M. L., Vilarinho, L., Salomons, G. S., and Jakobs, C. Creatine and guanidinoacetate: diagnostic markers for inborn errors in creatine biosynthesis and transport. Mol.Genet.Metab 2004;82:214-219. View abstract.
  283. Ensenauer, R., Thiel, T., Schwab, K. O., Tacke, U., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S., Schulze, A., Hennig, J., and Lehnert, W. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: differences of creatine uptake in human brain and muscle. Mol.Genet.Metab 2004;82:208-213. View abstract.
  284. Chetlin, R. D., Gutmann, L., Tarnopolsky, M. A., Ullrich, I. H., and Yeater, R. A. Resistance training exercise and creatine in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Muscle Nerve 2004;30:69-76. View abstract.
  285. Tarnopolsky, M. A., Mahoney, D. J., Vajsar, J., Rodriguez, C., Doherty, T. J., Roy, B. D., and Biggar, D. Creatine monohydrate enhances strength and body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neurology 5-25-2004;62:1771-1777. View abstract.
  286. Selsby, J. T., DiSilvestro, R. A., and Devor, S. T. Mg2+-creatine chelate and a low-dose creatine supplementation regimen improve exercise performance. J Strength.Cond.Res 2004;18:311-315. View abstract.
  287. Gill, N. D., Hall, R. D., and Blazevich, A. J. Creatine serum is not as effective as creatine powder for improving cycle sprint performance in competitive male team-sport athletes. J Strength.Cond.Res 2004;18:272-275. View abstract.
  288. Ostojic, S. M. Creatine supplementation in young soccer players. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2004;14:95-103. View abstract.
  289. Item, C. B., Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, S., Battini, R., Edlinger-Horvat, C., Stromberger, C., Bodamer, O., Muhl, A., Vilaseca, M. A., Korall, H., and Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S. Characterization of seven novel mutations in seven patients with GAMT deficiency. Hum.Mutat. 2004;23:524. View abstract.
  290. Bohnhorst, B., Geuting, T., Peter, C. S., Dordelmann, M., Wilken, B., and Poets, C. F. Randomized, controlled trial of oral creatine supplementation (not effective) for apnea of prematurity. Pediatrics 2004;113:e303-e307. View abstract.
  291. Tyler, T. F., Nicholas, S. J., Hershman, E. B., Glace, B. W., Mullaney, M. J., and McHugh, M. P. The effect of creatine supplementation on strength recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am.J.Sports Med. 2004;32:383-388. View abstract.
  292. Eckerson, J. M., Stout, J. R., Moore, G. A., Stone, N. J., Nishimura, K., and Tamura, K. Effect of two and five days of creatine loading on anaerobic working capacity in women. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2004;18:168-173. View abstract.
  293. Kilduff, L. P., Pitsiladis, Y. P., Tasker, L., Attwood, J., Hyslop, P., Dailly, A., Dickson, I., and Grant, S. Effects of creatine on body composition and strength gains after 4 weeks of resistance training in previously nonresistance-trained humans. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2003;13:504-520. View abstract.
  294. Kocak, S. and Karli, U. Effects of high dose oral creatine supplementation on anaerobic capacity of elite wrestlers. J.Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 2003;43:488-492. View abstract.
  295. Ayoama, R., Hiruma, E., and Sasaki, H. Effects of creatine loading on muscular strength and endurance of female softball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003;43:481-487. View abstract.
  296. Tarnopolsky, M., Mahoney, D., Thompson, T., Naylor, H., and Doherty, T. J. Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not increase muscle strength, lean body mass, or muscle phosphocreatine in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Muscle Nerve 2004;29:51-58. View abstract.
  297. Volek, J. S., Ratamess, N. A., Rubin, M. R., Gomez, A. L., French, D. N., McGuigan, M. M., Scheett, T. P., Sharman, M. J., Hakkinen, K., and Kraemer, W. J. The effects of creatine supplementation on muscular performance and body composition responses to short-term resistance training overreaching. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2004;91(5-6):628-637. View abstract.
  298. Havenetidis, K. and Bourdas, D. Creatine supplementation: effects on urinary excretion and anaerobic performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003;43:347-355. View abstract.
  299. Burke, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Parise, G., Candow, D. G., Mahoney, D., and Tarnopolsky, M. Effect of creatine and weight training on muscle creatine and performance in vegetarians. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2003;35:1946-1955. View abstract.
  300. Renema, W. K., Schmidt, A., van Asten, J. J., Oerlemans, F., Ullrich, K., Wieringa, B., Isbrandt, D., and Heerschap, A. MR spectroscopy of muscle and brain in guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT)-deficient mice: validation of an animal model to study creatine deficiency. Magn Reson.Med 2003;50:936-943. View abstract.
  301. Kinugasa, R., Akima, H., Ota, A., Ohta, A., Sugiura, K., and Kuno, S. Y. Short-term creatine supplementation does not improve muscle activation or sprint performance in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 2004;91(2-3):230-237. View abstract.
  302. Rae, C., Digney, A. L., McEwan, S. R., and Bates, T. C. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proc Biol Sci 10-22-2003;270:2147-2150. View abstract.
  303. Verbessem, P., Lemiere, J., Eijnde, B. O., Swinnen, S., Vanhees, L., Van Leemputte, M., Hespel, P., and Dom, R. Creatine supplementation in Huntington's disease: a placebo-controlled pilot trial. Neurology 10-14-2003;61:925-930. View abstract.
  304. van Loon, L. J., Murphy, R., Oosterlaar, A. M., Cameron-Smith, D., Hargreaves, M., Wagenmakers, A. J., and Snow, R. Creatine supplementation increases glycogen storage but not GLUT-4 expression in human skeletal muscle. Clin Sci (Lond) 2004;106:99-106. View abstract.
  305. Chwalbinska-Moneta, J. Effect of creatine supplementation on aerobic performance and anaerobic capacity in elite rowers in the course of endurance training. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2003;13:173-183. View abstract.
  306. Powers, M. E., Arnold, B. L., Weltman, A. L., Perrin, D. H., Mistry, D., Kahler, D. M., Kraemer, W., and Volek, J. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution. J Athl.Train. 2003;38:44-50. View abstract.
  307. Delecluse, C., Diels, R., and Goris, M. Effect of creatine supplementation on intermittent sprint running performance in highly trained athletes. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17:446-454. View abstract.
  308. Biwer, C. J., Jensen, R. L., Schmidt, W. D., and Watts, P. B. The effect of creatine on treadmill running with high-intensity intervals. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17:439-445. View abstract.
  309. Lehmkuhl, M., Malone, M., Justice, B., Trone, G., Pistilli, E., Vinci, D., Haff, E. E., Kilgore, J. L., and Haff, G. G. The effects of 8 weeks of creatine monohydrate and glutamine supplementation on body composition and performance measures. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17:425-438. View abstract.
  310. Selsby, J. T., Beckett, K. D., Kern, M., and Devor, S. T. Swim performance following creatine supplementation in Division III athletes. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17:421-424. View abstract.
  311. Lambert, C. P., Archer, R. L., Carrithers, J. A., Fink, W. J., Evans, W. J., and Trappe, T. A. Influence of creatine monohydrate ingestion on muscle metabolites and intense exercise capacity in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84:1206-1210. View abstract.
  312. Tabrizi, S. J., Blamire, A. M., Manners, D. N., Rajagopalan, B., Styles, P., Schapira, A. H., and Warner, T. T. Creatine therapy for Huntington's disease: Clinical and MRS findings in a 1-year pilot study. Neurology 7-8-2003;61:141-142. View abstract.
  313. Louis, M., Lebacq, J., Poortmans, J. R., Belpaire-Dethiou, M. C., Devogelaer, J. P., Van Hecke, P., Goubel, F., and Francaux, M. Beneficial effects of creatine supplementation in dystrophic patients. Muscle Nerve 2003;27:604-610. View abstract.
  314. Eijnde, B. O., Van Leemputte, M., Goris, M., Labarque, V., Taes, Y., Verbessem, P., Vanhees, L., Ramaekers, M., Vanden Eynde, B., Van Schuylenbergh, R., Dom, R., Richter, E. A., and Hespel, P. Effects of creatine supplementation and exercise training on fitness in men 55-75 yr old. J Appl.Physiol 2003;95:818-828. View abstract.
  315. Preen, D., Dawson, B., Goodman, C., Beilby, J., and Ching, S. Creatine supplementation: a comparison of loading and maintenance protocols on creatine uptake by human skeletal muscle. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2003;13:97-111. View abstract.
  316. Kambis, K. W. and Pizzedaz, S. K. Short-term creatine supplementation improves maximum quadriceps contraction in women. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2003;13:87-96. View abstract.
  317. Watsford, M. L., Murphy, A. J., Spinks, W. L., and Walshe, A. D. Creatine supplementation and its effect on musculotendinous stiffness and performance. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17:26-33. View abstract.
  318. Brose, A., Parise, G., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol.Sci.Med Sci. 2003;58:11-19. View abstract.
  319. Newman, J. E., Hargreaves, M., Garnham, A., and Snow, R. J. Effect of creatine ingestion on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in men. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2003;35:69-74. View abstract.
  320. Walter, M. C., Reilich, P., Lochmuller, H., Kohnen, R., Schlotter, B., Hautmann, H., Dunkl, E., Pongratz, D., and Muller-Felber, W. Creatine monohydrate in myotonic dystrophy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. J Neurol. 2002;249:1717-1722. View abstract.
  321. Derave, W., Eijnde, B. O., Verbessem, P., Ramaekers, M., Van Leemputte, M., Richter, E. A., and Hespel, P. Combined creatine and protein supplementation in conjunction with resistance training promotes muscle GLUT-4 content and glucose tolerance in humans. J Appl.Physiol 2003;94:1910-1916. View abstract.
  322. Battini, R., Leuzzi, V., Carducci, C., Tosetti, M., Bianchi, M. C., Item, C. B., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S., and Cioni, G. Creatine depletion in a new case with AGAT deficiency: clinical and genetic study in a large pedigree. Mol.Genet.Metab 2002;77:326-331. View abstract.
  323. Chang, C. T., Wu, C. H., Yang, C. W., Huang, J. Y., and Wu, M. S. Creatine monohydrate treatment alleviates muscle cramps associated with haemodialysis. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2002;17:1978-1981. View abstract.
  324. Huso, M. E., Hampl, J. S., Johnston, C. S., and Swan, P. D. Creatine supplementation influences substrate utilization at rest. J Appl.Physiol 2002;93:2018-2022. View abstract.
  325. Carducci, C., Birarelli, M., Leuzzi, V., Carducci, C., Battini, R., Cioni, G., and Antonozzi, I. Guanidinoacetate and creatine plus creatinine assessment in physiologic fluids: an effective diagnostic tool for the biochemical diagnosis of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencies. Clin Chem 2002;48:1772-1778. View abstract.
  326. Wilder, N., Gilders, R., Hagerman, F., and Deivert, R. G. The effects of a 10-week, periodized, off-season resistance-training program and creatine supplementation among collegiate football players. J Strength.Cond.Res 2002;16:343-352. View abstract.
  327. Kilduff, L. P., Vidakovic, P., Cooney, G., Twycross-Lewis, R., Amuna, P., Parker, M., Paul, L., and Pitsiladis, Y. P. Effects of creatine on isometric bench-press performance in resistance-trained humans. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2002;34:1176-1183. View abstract.
  328. Preen, D., Dawson, B., Goodman, C., Lawrence, S., Beilby, J., and Ching, S. Pre-exercise oral creatine ingestion does not improve prolonged intermittent sprint exercise in humans. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2002;42:320-329. View abstract.
  329. Drory, V. E. and Gross, D. No effect of creatine on respiratory distress in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Amyotroph.Lateral.Scler.Other Motor Neuron Disord. 2002;3:43-46. View abstract.
  330. Cox, G., Mujika, I., Tumilty, D., and Burke, L. Acute creatine supplementation and performance during a field test simulating match play in elite female soccer players. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2002;12:33-46. View abstract.
  331. Ziegenfuss, T. N., Rogers, M., Lowery, L., Mullins, N., Mendel, R., Antonio, J., and Lemon, P. Effect of creatine loading on anaerobic performance and skeletal muscle volume in NCAA Division I athletes. Nutrition 2002;18:397-402. View abstract.
  332. Watanabe, A., Kato, N., and Kato, T. Effects of creatine on mental fatigue and cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation. Neurosci.Res 2002;42:279-285. View abstract.
  333. Gotshalk, L. A., Volek, J. S., Staron, R. S., Denegar, C. R., Hagerman, F. C., and Kraemer, W. J. Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older men. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2002;34:537-543. View abstract.
  334. Syrotuik, D. G., Game, A. B., Gillies, E. M., and Bell, G. J. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation during combined strength and high intensity rowing training on performance. Can J Appl.Physiol 2001;26:527-542. View abstract.
  335. Cottrell, G. T., Coast, J. R., and Herb, R. A. Effect of recovery interval on multiple-bout sprint cycling performance after acute creatine supplementation. J Strength.Cond.Res 2002;16:109-116. View abstract.
  336. Izquierdo, M., Ibanez, J., Gonzalez-Badillo, J. J., and Gorostiaga, E. M. Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle power, endurance, and sprint performance. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2002;34:332-343. View abstract.
  337. Harris, R. C., Nevill, M., Harris, D. B., Fallowfield, J. L., Bogdanis, G. C., and Wise, J. A. Absorption of creatine supplied as a drink, in meat or in solid form. J Sports Sci. 2002;20:147-151. View abstract.
  338. Hespel, P., Op't, Eijnde B., and Van Leemputte, M. Opposite actions of caffeine and creatine on muscle relaxation time in humans. J.Appl.Physiol 2002;92:513-518. View abstract.
  339. Vorgerd, M., Zange, J., Kley, R., Grehl, T., Husing, A., Jager, M., Muller, K., Schroder, R., Mortier, W., Fabian, K., Malin, J. P., and Luttmann, A. Effect of high-dose creatine therapy on symptoms of exercise intolerance in McArdle disease: Double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Arch Neurol 2002;59:97-101. View abstract.
  340. Jacobs, P. L., Mahoney, E. T., Cohn, K. A., Sheradsky, L. F., and Green, B. A. Oral creatine supplementation enhances upper extremity work capacity in persons with cervical-level spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83:19-23. View abstract.
  341. Chrusch, M. J., Chilibeck, P. D., Chad, K. E., Davison, K. S., and Burke, D. G. Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33:2111-2117. View abstract.
  342. Arciero, P. J., Hannibal, N. S., III, Nindl, B. C., Gentile, C. L., Hamed, J., and Vukovich, M. D. Comparison of creatine ingestion and resistance training on energy expenditure and limb blood flow. Metabolism 2001;50:1429-1434. View abstract.
  343. Stevenson, S. W. and Dudley, G. A. Creatine loading, resistance exercise performance, and muscle mechanics. J Strength.Cond.Res 2001;15:413-419. View abstract.
  344. Bennett, T., Bathalon, G., Armstrong, D., III, Martin, B., Coll, R., Beck, R., Barkdull, T., O'Brien, K., and Deuster, P. A. Effect of creatine on performance of militarily relevant tasks and soldier health. Mil.Med 2001;166:996-1002. View abstract.
  345. Romer, L. M., Barrington, J. P., and Jeukendrup, A. E. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on high intensity, intermittent exercise performance in competitive squash players. Int J Sports Med 2001;22:546-552. View abstract.
  346. Green, J. M., McLester, J. R., Smith, J. E., and Mansfield, E. R. The effects of creatine supplementation on repeated upper- and lower-body Wingate performance. J Strength.Cond.Res 2001;15:36-41. View abstract.
  347. Bemben, M. G., Tuttle, T. D., Bemben, D. A., and Knehans, A. W. Effects of creatine supplementation on isometric force-time curve characteristics. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1876-1881. View abstract.
  348. Mazzini, L., Balzarini, C., Colombo, R., Mora, G., Pastore, I., De Ambrogio, R., and Caligari, M. Effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and muscular strength in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: preliminary results. J Neurol.Sci. 10-15-2001;191(1-2):139-144. View abstract.
  349. Burke, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Davidson, K. S., Candow, D. G., Farthing, J., and Smith-Palmer, T. The effect of whey protein supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate combined with resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscle strength. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2001;11:349-364. View abstract.
  350. Willoughby, D. S. and Rosene, J. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myosin heavy chain expression. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1674-1681. View abstract.
  351. Bemben, M. G., Bemben, D. A., Loftiss, D. D., and Knehans, A. W. Creatine supplementation during resistance training in college football athletes. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1667-1673. View abstract.
  352. Doherty, T. J., Lougheed, K., Markez, J., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Creatine monohydrate does not increase strength in patients with hereditary neuropathy. Neurology 8-14-2001;57:559-560. View abstract.
  353. Wiroth, J. B., Bermon, S., Andrei, S., Dalloz, E., Hebuterne, X., and Dolisi, C. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on maximal pedalling performance in older adults. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2001;84:533-539. View abstract.
  354. Stevenson, S. W. and Dudley, G. A. Dietary creatine supplementation and muscular adaptation to resistive overload. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1304-1310. View abstract.
  355. Volek, J. S., Mazzetti, S. A., Farquhar, W. B., Barnes, B. R., GOMEZ And AL, and Kraemer, W. J. Physiological responses to short-term exercise in the heat after creatine loading. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1101-1108. View abstract.
  356. Bodamer, O. A., Bloesch, S. M., Gregg, A. R., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S., and O'Brien, W. E. Analysis of guanidinoacetate and creatine by isotope dilution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chim.Acta 2001;308(1-2):173-178. View abstract.
  357. Steenge, G. R., Verhoef, P., and Greenhaff, P. L. The effect of creatine and resistance training on plasma homocysteine concentration in healthy volunteers. Arch Intern Med 6-11-2001;161:1455-1456. View abstract.
  358. Jakobi, J. M., Rice, C. L., Curtin, S. V., and Marsh, G. D. Neuromuscular properties and fatigue in older men following acute creatine supplementation. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2001;84:321-328. View abstract.
  359. Finn, J. P., Ebert, T. R., Withers, R. T., Carey, M. F., Mackay, M., Phillips, J. W., and Febbraio, M. A. Effect of creatine supplementation on metabolism and performance in humans during intermittent sprint cycling. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2001;84:238-243. View abstract.
  360. Op 't, Eijnde B., Vergauwen, L., and Hespel, P. Creatine loading does not impact on stroke performance in tennis. Int J Sports Med 2001;22:76-80. View abstract.
  361. Skare, O. C., Skadberg, and Wisnes, A. R. Creatine supplementation improves sprint performance in male sprinters. Scand.J Med Sci.Sports 2001;11:96-102. View abstract.
  362. Verhoeven, N. M., Guerand, W. S., Struys, E. A., Bouman, A. A., van der Knaap, M. S., and Jakobs, C. Plasma creatinine assessment in creatine deficiency: A diagnostic pitfall. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 2000;23:835-840. View abstract.
  363. Rockwell, J. A., Rankin, J. W., and Toderico, B. Creatine supplementation affects muscle creatine during energy restriction. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33:61-68. View abstract.
  364. Bellinger, B. M., Bold, A., Wilson, G. R., Noakes, T. D., and Myburgh, K. H. Oral creatine supplementation decreases plasma markers of adenine nucleotide degradation during a 1-h cycle test. Acta Physiol Scand. 2000;170:217-224. View abstract.
  365. Eijnde BO, Urso, B., Richter, E. A., Greenhaff, P. L., and Hespel, P. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on human muscle GLUT4 protein content after immobilization. Diabetes 2001;50:18-23. View abstract.
  366. Crim, M. C., Calloway, D. H., and Margen, S. Creatine metabolism in men: urinary creatine and creatinine excretions with creatine feeding. J Nutr. 1975;105:428-438. View abstract.
  367. Klopstock, T., Querner, V., Schmidt, F., Gekeler, F., Walter, M., Hartard, M., Henning, M., Gasser, T., Pongratz, D., Straube, A., Dieterich, M., and Muller-Felber, W. A placebo-controlled crossover trial of creatine in mitochondrial diseases. Neurology 12-12-2000;55:1748-1751. View abstract.
  368. Tarnopolsky, M. A. and MacLennan, D. P. Creatine monohydrate supplementation enhances high-intensity exercise performance in males and females. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2000;10:452-463. View abstract.
  369. Tarnopolsky, M. A. Potential benefits of creatine monohydrate supplementation in the elderly. Curr.Opin.Clin Nutr.Metab Care 2000;3:497-502. View abstract.
  370. Sullivan, P. G., Geiger, J. D., Mattson, M. P., and Scheff, S. W. Dietary supplement creatine protects against traumatic brain injury. Ann.Neurol. 2000;48:723-729. View abstract.
  371. Nelson, A. G., Day, R., Glickman-Weiss, E. L., Hegsted, M., Kokkonen, J., and Sampson, B. Creatine supplementation alters the response to a graded cycle ergometer test. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2000;83:89-94. View abstract.
  372. Hamilton, K. L., Meyers, M. C., Skelly, W. A., and Marley, R. J. Oral creatine supplementation and upper extremity anaerobic response in females. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2000;10:277-289. View abstract.
  373. Burke, D. G., Silver, S., Holt, L. E., Smith, Palmer T., Culligan, C. J., and Chilibeck, P. D. The effect of continuous low dose creatine supplementation on force, power, and total work. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2000;10:235-244. View abstract.
  374. Shomrat, A., Weinstein, Y., and Katz, A. Effect of creatine feeding on maximal exercise performance in vegetarians. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2000;82:321-325. View abstract.
  375. Robinson, T. M., Sewell, D. A., Casey, A., Steenge, G., and Greenhaff, P. L. Dietary creatine supplementation does not affect some haematological indices, or indices of muscle damage and hepatic and renal function. Br.J Sports Med 2000;34:284-288. View abstract.
  376. Deutekom, M., Beltman, J. G., de Ruiter, C. J., de Koning, J. J., and de Haan, A. No acute effects of short-term creatine supplementation on muscle properties and sprint performance. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2000;82:223-229. View abstract.
  377. Volek, J. S., Duncan, N. D., Mazzetti, S. A., Putukian, M., Gomez, A. L., and Kraemer, W. J. No effect of heavy resistance training and creatine supplementation on blood lipids. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2000;10:144-156. View abstract.
  378. Ilas, J., Muhl, A., and Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency: non-invasive enzymatic diagnosis of a newly recognized inborn error of metabolism. Clin Chim.Acta 1-5-2000;290:179-188. View abstract.
  379. Schedel, J. M., Tanaka, H., Kiyonaga, A., Shindo, M., and Schutz, Y. Acute creatine ingestion in human: consequences on serum creatine and creatinine concentrations. Life Sci. 10-29-1999;65:2463-2470. View abstract.
  380. Volek, J. S., Duncan, N. D., Mazzetti, S. A., Staron, R. S., Putukian, M., Gomez, A. L., Pearson, D. R., Fink, W. J., and Kraemer, W. J. Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 1999;31:1147-1156. View abstract.
  381. Nanto-Salonen, K., Komu, M., Lundbom, N., Heinanen, K., Alanen, A., Sipila, I., and Simell, O. Reduced brain creatine in gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyperornithinemia. Neurology 7-22-1999;53:303-307. View abstract.
  382. Urbanski, R. L., Vincent, W. J., and Yaspelkis, B. B., III. Creatine supplementation differentially affects maximal isometric strength and time to fatigue in large and small muscle groups. Int J Sport Nutr. 1999;9:136-145. View abstract.
  383. Juhn, M. S., O'Kane, J. W., and Vinci, D. M. Oral creatine supplementation in male collegiate athletes: a survey of dosing habits and side effects. J Am.Diet.Assoc 1999;99:593-595. View abstract.
  384. Kreider, R. B. Dietary supplements and the promotion of muscle growth with resistance exercise. Sports Med 1999;27:97-110. View abstract.
  385. Van Leemputte, M., Vandenberghe, K., and Hespel, P. Shortening of muscle relaxation time after creatine loading. J Appl.Physiol 1999;86:840-844. View abstract.
  386. Cornish, S. M., Candow, D. G., Jantz, N. T., Chilibeck, P. D., Little, J. P., Forbes, S., Abeysekara, S., and Zello, G. A. Conjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation during strength training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2009;19:79-96. View abstract.
  387. Armstrong, M. J. and Miyasaki, J. M. Evidence-based guideline: pharmacologic treatment of chorea in Huntington disease: report of the guideline development subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 8-7-2012;79:597-603. View abstract.
  388. Fumagalli, S., Fattirolli, F., Guarducci, L., Cellai, T., Baldasseroni, S., Tarantini, F., Di, Bari M., Masotti, G., and Marchionni, N. Coenzyme Q10 terclatrate and creatine in chronic heart failure: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Clin Cardiol. 2011;34:211-217. View abstract.
  389. Parashos, S. A., Swearingen, C. J., Biglan, K. M., Bodis-Wollner, I., Liang, G. S., Ross, G. W., Tilley, B. C., and Shulman, L. M. Determinants of the timing of symptomatic treatment in early Parkinson disease: The National Institutes of Health Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease (NET-PD) Experience. Arch Neurol. 2009;66:1099-1104. View abstract.
  390. Mestre, T., Ferreira, J., Coelho, M. M., Rosa, M., and Sampaio, C. Therapeutic interventions for disease progression in Huntington's disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;:CD006455. View abstract.
  391. Rodriguez, M. C., MacDonald, J. R., Mahoney, D. J., Parise, G., Beal, M. F., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Beneficial effects of creatine, CoQ10, and lipoic acid in mitochondrial disorders. Muscle Nerve 2007;35:235-242. View abstract.
  392. Strong, M. J. and Pattee, G. L. Creatine and coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of ALS. Amyotroph.Lateral.Scler.Other Motor Neuron Disord 2000;1(suppl 4):17-20. View abstract.
  393. Inglese, M., Li, B. S., Rusinek, H., Babb, J. S., Grossman, R. I., and Gonen, O. Diffusely elevated cerebral choline and creatine in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Magn Reson.Med. 2003;50:190-195. View abstract.
  394. Lee, C. L., Lin, J. C., and Cheng, C. F. Effect of caffeine ingestion after creatine supplementation on intermittent high-intensity sprint performance. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2011;111:1669-1677. View abstract.
  395. Boos, C. J., White, S. H., Bland, S. A., and McAllister, P. D. Dietary supplements and military operations: caution is advised. J R.Army Med Corps 2010;156:41-43. View abstract.
  396. Bird, L. M., Tan, W. H., Bacino, C. A., Peters, S. U., Skinner, S. A., Anselm, I., Barbieri-Welge, R., Bauer-Carlin, A., Gentile, J. K., Glaze, D. G., Horowitz, L. T., Mohan, K. N., Nespeca, M. P., Sahoo, T., Sarco, D., Waisbren, S. E., and Beaudet, A. L. A therapeutic trial of pro-methylation dietary supplements in Angelman syndrome. Am J Med Genet.A 2011;155A:2956-2963. View abstract.
  397. Jahangir, E., Vita, J. A., Handy, D., Holbrook, M., Palmisano, J., Beal, R., Loscalzo, J., and Eberhardt, R. T. The effect of L-arginine and creatine on vascular function and homocysteine metabolism. Vasc.Med. 2009;14:239-248. View abstract.
  398. Pfeffer, G., Majamaa, K., Turnbull, D. M., Thorburn, D., and Chinnery, P. F. Treatment for mitochondrial disorders. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;4:CD004426. View abstract.
  399. Gualano B, Ugrinowitsch C, Novaes RB, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on renal function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Appl Physiol 2008;103:33-40. View abstract.
  400. Kaptsan A, Odessky A, Osher Y, Levine J. Lack of efficacy of 5 grams daily of creatine in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2007;68:881-4. View abstract.
  401. Shefner JM, Cudkowicz ME, Schoenfeld D, et al. A clinical trial of creatine in ALS. Neurology 2004;63:1656-61. View abstract.
  402. Chung Y, Alexanderson H, Pipitone N, et al. Creatine supplements in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies who are clinically weak after conventional pharmacologic treatment: six-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2007;57:694-702. View abstract.
  403. Chorney JA, Cohen J. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis associated with creatine supplementation (letter). Arch Dermatol 2006;142:1662-3. View abstract.
  404. Hass CJ, Collins MA, Juncos JL. Resistance training with creatine monohydrate improves upper-body strength in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2007;21:107-15. View abstract.
  405. Bender A, Koch W, Elstner M, et al. Creatine supplementation in Parkinson disease: a placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial. Neurology 2006;67:1262-4. View abstract.
  406. NINDS NET-PD Investigators. A randomized, double-blind, futility clinical trial of creatine and minocycline in early Parkinson disease. Neurology 2006;66:664-71. View abstract.
  407. Vierck JL, Icenoggle DL, Bucci L, Dodson MV. The effects of ergogenic compounds on myogenic satellite cells. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:769-76. View abstract.
  408. Stone MH, Sanborn K, Smith LL, et al. Effects of in-season (5 weeks) creatine and pyruvate supplementation on anaerobic performance and body composition in American football players. Int J Sport Nutr 1999;9:146-65. . View abstract.
  409. Kammer RT. Lone atrial fibrillation associated with creatine monohydrate supplementation. Pharmacotherapy 2005;25:762-4. View abstract.
  410. Kuklo TR, Tis JE, Moores LK, Schaefer RA. Fatal rhabdomyolysis with bilateral gluteal, thigh, and leg compartment syndrome after the Army Physical Fitness Test. A case report. Am J Sports Med 2000;28:112-6. View abstract.
  411. Robinson SJ. Acute quadriceps compartment syndrome and rhabdomyolysis in a weight lifter using high-dose creatine supplementation. J Am Board Fam Pract 2000;13:134-7. View abstract.
  412. Sandhu RS, Como JJ, Scalea TS, Betts JM. Renal failure and exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients taking performance-enhancing compounds. J Trauma 2002;53:761-3. View abstract.
  413. Groeneveld GJ, Veldink JH, van der Tweel I, et al. A randomized sequential trial of creatine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2003;53:437-45. . View abstract.
  414. Bosco C, Tihanyi J, Pucspk J, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on jumping and running performance. Int J Sports Med 1997;18:369-72.. View abstract.
  415. Benzi G. Is there a rationale for the use of creatine either as nutritional supplementation or drug administration in humans participating in a sport? Pharmacol Res 2000;41:255-64. View abstract.
  416. Schneider-Gold C, Beck M, Wessig C, et al. Creatine monohydrate in DM2/PROMM. A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study. Neurology 2003;60:500-2.. View abstract.
  417. Persky AM, Muller M, Derendorf H, et al. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of oral creatine. J Clin Pharmacol 2003;43:29-37. . View abstract.
  418. Preen D, Dawson B, Goodman C, et al. Effect of creatine loading on long-term sprint exercise performance and metabolism. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:814-21. View abstract.
  419. Green AL, Simpson EJ, Littlewood JJ, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1996;158:195-202. . View abstract.
  420. Jowko E, Ostaszewski P, Jank M, et al. Creatine and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program. Nutrition 2001;17:558-66.. View abstract.
  421. Anabolic Steroid Act, Public Law No. 108-358, 2004.
  422. Willer B, Stucki G, Hoppeler H, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle weakness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000;39:293-8. View abstract.
  423. Becque MD, Lochmann JD, Melrose DR. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:654-8. View abstract.
  424. Rico-Sanz J. Creatine reduces human muscle PCr and pH decrements and P(i) accumulation during low-intensity exercise. J Appl Physiol 2000;88:1181-91. View abstract.
  425. Rico-Sanz J, Mendez Marco MT. Creatine enhances oxygen uptake and performance during alternating intensity exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:379-85. View abstract.
  426. Francaux M, Demeure R, Goudemant JF, Poortmans JR. Effect of exogenous creatine supplementation on muscle PCr metabolism. Int J Sports Med 2000;21:139-45. View abstract.
  427. Mujika I, Padilla S, Ibanez J, et al. Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:518-25. View abstract.
  428. Gilliam JD, Hohzorn C, Martin D, Trimble MH. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on isokinetic torque production. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:993-6. View abstract.
  429. Walter MC, Lochmuller H, Reilich P, et al. Creatine monohydrate in muscular dystrophies: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Neurology 2000;54:1848-50. View abstract.
  430. NCAA prohibits schools from supplying creatine to students. Reuters Health 2000;Jun 13. Available at: 2000/06/06.13/20000613publ004.html (Accessed 13 June 2000).
  431. Stricker PR. Other ergogenic agents. Clin Sports Med 1998;17:283-97. View abstract.
  432. Terjung RL, Clarkson P, Eichner ER, et al. The American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on the physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:706-17. View abstract.
  433. Rossouw F, Kruger PE, Rossouw J. The effect of creatine monohydrate loading on maximal intermittent exercise and sport-specific strength in well trained power-lifters. Nutr Res 2000;20:505-14.
  434. Rossiter HB, Cannell ER, Jakeman PM. The effect of oral creatine supplementation on the 1000-m performance of competitive rowers. J Sports Sci 1996;14:175-9. View abstract.
  435. McKenna MJ, Morton J, Selig SE, Snow RJ. Creatine supplementation increases muscle total creatine but not maximal intermittent exercise performance. J Appl Physiol 1999;87:2244-52. View abstract.
  436. McNaughton LR, Dalton B, Tarr J. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity exercise performance in elite performers. (abstract) Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998;78:236-40. View abstract.
  437. Kamber M, Koster M, Kreis R, et al. Creatine supplementation - part I: performance, clinical chemistry, and muscle volume. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1763-9. View abstract.
  438. Theodorou AS, Cooke CB, King RF, et al. The effect of longer-term creatine supplementation on elite swimming performance after an acute creatine loading. J Sports Sci 1999;17:853-9. View abstract.
  439. Jones AM, Atter T, Georg KP. Oral creatine supplementation improves multiple sprint performance in elite ice-hockey players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1999;39:189-96. View abstract.
  440. Leenders NM, Lamb DR, Nelson TE. Creatine supplementation and swimming performance. Int J Sport Nutr 1999;9:251-62. View abstract.
  441. Snow RJ, McKenna MJ, Selig SE, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on sprint exercise performance and muscle metabolism. (abstract) J Appl Physiol 1998;84:1667-73. View abstract.
  442. Odland LM, MacDougall JD, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on muscle [PCr] and short-term maximum power output. (abstract) Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29:216-9. View abstract.
  443. Cooke WH, Grandjean PW, Barnes WS. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on power output and fatigue during bicycle ergometry. (abstract) J Appl Physiol 1995;78:670-3. View abstract.
  444. Vanakoski J, Kosunen V, Meririnne E, Seppala T. Creatine and caffeine in anaerobic and aerobic exercise: effects on physical performance and pharmacokinetic considerations. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998;36:258-62. View abstract.
  445. Cooke WH, Barnes WS. The influence of recovery duration on high-intensity exercise performance after oral creatine supplementation. Can J Appl Physiol 1997;22:454-67. View abstract.
  446. Barnett C, Hinds M, Jenkins DG. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on multiple sprint cycle performance. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1996;28:35-9. View abstract.
  447. Prevost MC, Nelson AG, Morris GS. Creatine supplementation enhances intermittent work performance. (abstract) Res Q Exerc Sport 1997;68:233-40. View abstract.
  448. Dawson B, Cutler M, Moody A, et al. Effects of oral creatine loading on single and repeated maximal short sprints. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1995;27:56-61. View abstract.
  449. Birch R, Noble D, Greenhaff PL. The influence of dietary creatine supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling in man. (abstract) Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1994;69:268-76. View abstract.
  450. Balsom PD, Soderlund K, Sjodin B, Ekblom B. Skeletal muscle metabolism during short duration high-intensity exercise: influence of creatine supplementation. Acta Physiol Scand 1995;154:303-10. View abstract.
  451. Green AL, Hultman E, Macdonald IA, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments skeletal muscle creatine accumulation during creatine supplementation in humans. Am J Physiol 1996;271:E821-6. View abstract.
  452. Francaux M, Poortmans JR. Effects of training and creatine supplement on muscle strength and body mass. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1999;80:165-8. View abstract.
  453. Chambers DJ, Haire K, Morley N, et al. St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegia: enhanced protection with exogenous creatine phosphate. Ann Thorac Surg 1996;61:67-75. View abstract.
  454. Cisowski M, Bochenek A, Kucewicz E, et al. The use of exogenous creatine phosphate for myocardial protection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1996;37:75-80. View abstract.
  455. Juhn MS, O'Kane JW, Vinci DM. Oral creatine supplementation in male collegiate athletes: a survey of dosing habits and side effects. J Am Diet Assoc 1999;99:593-5.
  456. Harris RC, Soderlund K, Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci (Lond) 1992;83:367-74. View abstract.
  457. Febbraio MA, Flanagan TR, Snow RJ, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on intramuscular TCr, metabolism and performance during intermittent, supramaximal exercise in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1995;155:387-95. View abstract.
  458. Vandenberghe K, Van Hecke P, Van Leemputte M, et al. Phosphocreatine resynthesis is not affected by creatine loading. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:236-42. View abstract.
  459. Ingwall JS, Morales MF, Stockdale FE, Wildenthal K. Creatine: a possible stimulus skeletal cardiac muscle hypertrophy. Recent Adv Stud Cardiac Struct Metab 1975;8:467-81. View abstract.
  460. Sipila I, Rapola J, Simell O, Vannas A. Supplementary creatine as a treatment for gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina. N Engl J Med 1981;304:867-70. View abstract.
  461. Heinanen K, Nanto-Salonen K, Komu M, et al. Creatine corrects muscle 31P spectrum in gyrate atrophy with hyperornithinaemia. Eur J Clin Invest 1999;29:1060-5. View abstract.
  462. Juhn MS. Oral creatine supplementation. Separating fact from hype. Phys Sportsmed 1999;27:47-50,53-54,56,61,89. View abstract.
  463. Williams MH, Branch JD. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:216-34. View abstract.
  464. Demant TW, Rhodes EC. Effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance. Sports Med 1999;28:49-60. View abstract.
  465. Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin Sci (Colch) 1996;91:113-8. View abstract.
  466. Rawson ES, Wehnert ML, Clarkson PM. Effects of 30 days of creatine ingestion in older men. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1999;80:139-44. View abstract.
  467. Bermon S, Venembre P, Sachet C, et al. Effects of creatine monohydrate ingestion in sedentary and weight-trained older adults. Acta Physiol Scand 1998;164:147-55. View abstract.
  468. Rawson ES, Clarkson PM. Acute creatine supplementation in older men. Int J Sports Med 2000;21:71-5. View abstract.
  469. Mihic S, MacDonald JR, McKenzie S, Tarnopolsky MA. Acute creatine loading increases fat-free mass, but does not affect blood pressure, plasma creatinine, or CK activity in men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:291-6. View abstract.
  470. Matthews RT, Ferrante RJ, Klivenyi P, et al. Creatine and cyclocreatine attenuate MPTP neurotoxicity. Exp Neurol 1999;157:142-9. View abstract.
  471. Matthews RT, Yang L, Jenkins BG, et al. Neuroprotective effects of creatine and cyclocreatine in animal models of Huntington's disease. J Neurosci 1998;18:156-63. View abstract.
  472. Klivenyi P, Ferrante RJ, Matthews RT, et al. Neuroprotective effects of creatine in a transgenic animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Med 1999;5:347-50. View abstract.
  473. Tarnopolsky MA, Roy BD, MacDonald JR. A randomized, controlled trial of creatine monohydrate in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies. Muscle Nerve 1997;20:1502-9. View abstract.
  474. Tarnopolsky M, Martin J. Creatine monohydrate increases strength in patients with neuromuscular disease. Neurology 1999;52:854-7. View abstract.
  475. Gordon A, Hultman E, Kaijser L, et al. Creatine supplementation in chronic heart failure increases skeletal muscle creatine phosphate and muscle performance. Cardiovasc Res 1995;30:413-8. View abstract.
  476. Andrews R, Greenhaff P, Curtis S, et al. The effect of dietary creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle metabolism in congestive heart failure. Eur Heart J 1998;19:617-22. View abstract.
  477. Pepping J. Creatine. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56:1608-10. View abstract.
  478. Graham AS, Hatton RC. Creatine: a review of efficacy and safety. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash) 1999;39:803-10. View abstract.
  479. Juhn MS, Tarnopolsky M. Potential side effects of oral creatine supplementation: a critical review. Clin J Sport Med 1998;8:298-304. View abstract.
  480. Poortmans JR, Francaux M. Long-term oral creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1108-10. View abstract.
  481. Poortmans JR, Auquier H, Renaut V, et al. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on renal responses in men (abstract). Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1997;76:566-7. View abstract.
  482. Pritchard NR, Kalra PA. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. Lancet 1998;351:1252-3. View abstract.
  483. Vandeberghe K, Gillis N, Van Leemputte M, et al. Caffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle creatine loading. J Appl Physiol 1996;80:452-7. View abstract.
  484. Mujika I, Chatard J, Lacoste L, et al. Creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:1435-41. View abstract.
  485. Hultman E, Soderlund K, Timmons JA, et al. Muscle creatine loading in men. J Appl Physiol 1996;81:232-7. View abstract.
  486. Balsom PD, Soderland K, Ekblom B. Creatine in humans with special reference to creatine supplementation. Sports Med 1994;18:268-80. View abstract.
  487. Vandenberghe K, Goris M, Van Hecke P, et al. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training (abstract). J Appl Physiol 1997;83:2055-63. View abstract.
  488. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. (abstract) Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:73-82. View abstract.
  489. Manabe S, Kurihara N, Wada O, et al. Formation of PhIP in a mixture of creatinine, phenylalanine and sugar or aldehyde by aqueous heating. Carcinogenesis 1992;13:827-830. View abstract.
  490. Laser Reutersward A, Skog K, Jagerstad M. Mutagenicity of pan-fried bovine tissues in relation to their content of creatine, creatinine, monosaccharides and free amino acids. Food Chem Toxicol 1987;25:755-62. View abstract.
  491. Lillie JW, O'Keefe M, Valinski H, et al. Cyclocreatine (1-carboxymethyl-2-iminoimidazolidine) inhibits growth of a broad spectrum of cancer cells derived from solid tumors. Cancer Res 1993;53:3172-8. View abstract.
  492. Bergnes G, Yuan W, Khandekar VS, et al. Creatine and phosphocreatine analogs: anticancer activity and enzymatic analysis. Oncol Res 1996;8:121-30. View abstract.
  493. Miller EE, Evans AE, Cohn M. Inhibition of rate of tumor growth by creatine and cyclocreatine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993;90:3304-8. View abstract.
  494. Martin KJ, Chen SF, Clark GM, et al. Evaluation of creatine analogues as a new class of anticancer agents using freshly explanted human tumor cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:608-13. View abstract.
  495. Ferraro S, Codella C, Palumbo F, et al. Hemodynamic effects of creatine phosphate in patients with congestive heart failure: a double-blind comparison trial versus placebo. Clin Cardiol 1996;19:699-703. View abstract.
  496. Greenhaff P. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. Lancet 1998;352:233-4. View abstract.
  497. Schilling BK, Stone MH, Utter A, et al. Creatine supplementation and health variables: a retrospective study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:183-8. View abstract.
  498. Vahedi K, Domingo V, Amarenco P, Bousser MG. Ischemic stroke in a sportsman who consumed MaHuang extract and creatine monohydrate for bodybuilding. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 2000;68:112-3. View abstract.
  499. Larkin JG, Capell HA, Sturrock RD. Seatone in rheumatoid arthritis: a six-month placebo-controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 1985;44:199-201. View abstract.
  500. Duke JA, Vasquez R. Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, LLC 1994.
  501. Chenoy R, Hussain S, Tayob Y, et al. Effect of oral gamolenic acid from evening primrose oil on menopausal flushing (abstract). BMJ 1994;308:501-3. View abstract.
  502. Huyzen RJ, Harder MP, Huet RC, et al. Alternative perioperative anticoagulation monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass in aprotinin-treated patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1994;8:153-6. View abstract.
  503. Tennekoon KH, Jeevathayaparan S, Kurukulasooriya AP, Karunanayake EH. Possible hepatotoxicity of Nigella sativa seeds and Dregea volubilis leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 1991;31:283-9. View abstract.
  504. Koshy KM, Griswold E, Schneeberger EE. Interstitial nephritis in a patient taking creatine. N Engl J Med 1999;340:814-5. View abstract.
  505. Hibbard MK, Sandri-Goldin, RM. Arginine-rich regions succeeding the nuclear localization region of the herpes simplex virus type 1 regulatory protein ICP27 are required for efficient nuclear localization and late gene expression. J Virol 1995;69:4656-7. View abstract.
  506. Devaraj S, Jialal I. Low-density lipoprotein postsecretory modification, monocyte function, and circulating adhesion molecules in type 2 diabetic patients with and without macrovascular complications: the effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Circulation 2000;102:191-6. View abstract.
  507. Fielder AR. A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa. Arch Ophthalmol 1993;111:1463;discussion 1463-6. View abstract.
  508. Naylor CD, O'Rourke K, Detsky AS, Baker JP. Parenteral nutrition with branched-chain amino acids in hepatic encephalopathy. A meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 1989;97:1033-42. View abstract.
  509. Vorgerd M, Grehl T, Jager M, et al. Creatine therapy in myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease): a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Arch Neurol 2000;57:956-63. View abstract.
  510. Shearer MJ, Bach A, Kohlmeier M. Chemistry, nutritional sources, tissue distribution and metabolism of vitamin K with special reference to bone health. J Nutr 1996;126:1181S-6S. View abstract.
  511. Nagasawa Y, Fujii M, Kajimoto Y, et al. Vitamin K2 and serum cholesterol in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Lancet 1998;351:724. View abstract.
  512. Tang G, Serfaty-Lacrosniere C, Camilo ME, et al. Gastric acidity influences the blood response to a beta-carotene dose in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:622-6. View abstract.
  513. Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK: European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.
Last reviewed - 02/01/2024