Chiari malformations (CMs) are structural defects in the cerebellum. The cerebellum is the part of the brain that controls balance. With CM, brain tissue extends into the spinal canal. It can happen when part of the skull is too small, which pushes the brain tissue down. There are several types of CM. One type often happens in children who have neural tube defects. Some types cause no symptoms and don't need treatment. If you have symptoms, they may include
- Neck pain
- Balance problems
- Numbness or other abnormal feelings in the arms or legs
- Vision problems
- Difficulty swallowing
- Poor hand coordination
Doctors diagnose CM using imaging tests. Medicines may ease some symptoms, such as pain. Surgery is the only treatment available to correct or stop the progression of nerve damage.
NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
- Chiari Malformation (American Syringomyelia & Chiari Alliance Project)
- Chiari Malformation (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Chiari Malformation (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) - Short Summary
- Chiari Malformation (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Also in Spanish
- Chiari Malformation (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish
- Chiari Malformation: Diagnosis (C&S Patient Education Foundation) - PDF
- Chiari Malformation: Symptoms (C&S Patient Education Foundation) - PDF
- Chiari Malformation: Treatment (C&S Patient Education Foundation) - PDF
- Finding a Neurosurgeon (C&S Patient Education Foundation) - PDF
- Taking Chiari to School: A Guide for Parents (C&S Patient Education Foundation) - PDF
- Genetics Home Reference: spondylocostal dysostosis (National Library of Medicine)
- ClinicalTrials.gov: Arnold-Chiari Malformation (National Institutes of Health)
Journal ArticlesReferences and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Lambdoid Craniosynostosis: The Relationship with Chiari Deformations and an Analysis...
- Article: A Systematic Review of Chiari I Malformation: Techniques and Outcomes.
- Article: Cerebellar and hindbrain motion in Chiari malformation with and without...
- Chiari Malformation -- see more articles