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Platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type


Platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type is a severe disorder of bone growth. People with this condition have very short arms and legs, underdeveloped pelvic bones, and unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly). This disorder is also characterized by flattened spinal bones (platyspondyly) and an exaggerated curvature of the lower back (lordosis). Infants with this condition are born with a small chest with short ribs that can restrict the growth and expansion of the lungs.

As a result of these serious health problems, some affected fetuses do not survive to term. Infants born with platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type usually die at birth or shortly thereafter from respiratory failure. A few affected people with milder signs and symptoms have lived into adulthood.


This condition is very rare; only a few affected individuals have been reported worldwide.


Platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type is one of a spectrum of skeletal disorders caused by mutations in the COL2A1 gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein that forms type II collagen. This type of collagen is found mostly in the clear gel that fills the eyeball (the vitreous) and in cartilage. Cartilage is a tough, flexible tissue that makes up much of the skeleton during early development. Most cartilage is later converted to bone, except for the cartilage that continues to cover and protect the ends of bones and is present in the nose and external ears. Type II collagen is essential for the normal development of bones and other connective tissues that form the body's supportive framework.

All of the COL2A1 mutations that have been found to cause platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type occur in a region of the protein called the C-propeptide domain. These mutations interfere with the assembly of type II collagen molecules, reducing the amount of this type of collagen in the body. Instead of forming collagen molecules, the abnormal COL2A1 protein builds up in cartilage cells (chondrocytes). These changes disrupt the normal development of bones and other connective tissues, leading to the skeletal abnormalities characteristic of platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type.


This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder.

Other Names for This Condition

  • Platyspondylic chondrodysplasia, Torrance-Luton type
  • Platyspondylic skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type
  • PLSD-T

Additional Information & Resources

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Scientific Articles on PubMed


  • Neumann L, Kunze J, Uhl M, Stover B, Zabel B, Spranger J. Survival to adulthood and dominant inheritance of platyspondylic skeletal dysplasia, Torrance-Luton type. Pediatr Radiol. 2003 Nov;33(11):786-90. doi: 10.1007/s00247-003-1055-x. Epub 2003 Sep 5. Citation on PubMed
  • Nishimura G, Nakashima E, Mabuchi A, Shimamoto K, Shimamoto T, Shimao Y, Nagai T, Yamaguchi T, Kosaki R, Ohashi H, Makita Y, Ikegawa S. Identification of COL2A1 mutations in platyspondylic skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type. J Med Genet. 2004 Jan;41(1):75-9. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2003.013722. No abstract available. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Zankl A, Neumann L, Ignatius J, Nikkels P, Schrander-Stumpel C, Mortier G, Omran H, Wright M, Hilbert K, Bonafe L, Spranger J, Zabel B, Superti-Furga A. Dominant negative mutations in the C-propeptide of COL2A1 cause platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, torrance type, and define a novel subfamily within the type 2 collagenopathies. Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Feb 15;133A(1):61-7. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.30531. Citation on PubMed

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