Czech dysplasia is an inherited condition that affects joint function and bone development. People with this condition have joint pain (osteoarthritis) that begins in adolescence or early adulthood. The joint pain mainly affects the hips, knees, shoulders, and spine and may impair mobility. People with Czech dysplasia often have shortened bones in their third and fourth toes, which make their first two toes appear unusually long. Affected individuals may have flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly) or an abnormal spinal curvature, such as a rounded upper back that also curves to the side (kyphoscoliosis). Some people with Czech dysplasia have progressive hearing loss.
The prevalence of Czech dysplasia is unknown; at least 11 families have been affected. Most of these families reside in the Czech Republic.
Czech dysplasia is caused by a particular mutation in the COL2A1 gene. The COL2A1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that forms type II collagen. This type of collagen is found mostly in the clear gel that fills the eyeball (the vitreous) and in cartilage. Cartilage is a tough, flexible tissue that makes up much of the skeleton during early development. Most cartilage is later converted to bone, except for the cartilage that continues to cover and protect the ends of bones and is present in the nose and external ears. Type II collagen is essential for the normal development of bones and other connective tissues that form the body's supportive framework. Mutations in the COL2A1 gene interfere with the assembly of type II collagen molecules, which prevents bones and other connective tissues from developing properly.
Other Names for This Condition
- Czech dysplasia, metatarsal type
- Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia with hypoplastic toes
- SED with metatarsal shortening
- Spondyloarthropathy with short third and fourth toes
- Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with metatarsal shortening
Additional Information & Resources
Genetic Testing Information
Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center
Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM
Scientific Articles on PubMed
- Hoornaert KP, Marik I, Kozlowski K, Cole T, Le Merrer M, Leroy JG, Coucke PJ, Sillence D, Mortier GR. Czech dysplasia metatarsal type: another type II collagen disorder. Eur J Hum Genet. 2007 Dec;15(12):1269-75. Epub 2007 Aug 29. Citation on PubMed
- Kozlowski K, Marik I, Marikova O, Zemkova D, Kuklik M. Czech dysplasia metatarsal type. Am J Med Genet A. 2004 Aug 15;129A(1):87-91. Citation on PubMed
- Marik I, Marikova O, Zemkova D, Kuklik M, Kozlowski K. Dominantly inherited progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia with hypoplastic toes. Skeletal Radiol. 2004 Mar;33(3):157-64. Epub 2004 Jan 17. Citation on PubMed
- Tzschach A, Tinschert S, Kaminsky E, Lusga E, Mundlos S, Graul-Neumann LM. Czech dysplasia: report of a large family and further delineation of the phenotype. Am J Med Genet A. 2008 Jul 15;146A(14):1859-64. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32389. Citation on PubMed