Once you have assessed your patient's needs, concerns, readiness to learn, preferences, support, and possible barriers to learning, you will need to:
- Make a plan with your patient and his or her support person
- Agree with the patient on realistic learning objectives
- Select resources that fit the patient
The first step is to assess the patient's current knowledge about their condition. Some patients need time to adjust to new information, master new skills, or make short- or long-term lifestyle changes.
Your patient's preferences can guide your choice of education materials and methods.
- Find out how your patient likes to learn.
- Be realistic. Focus on what your patient needs to know, not on what is nice to know.
- Pay attention to the patient's concerns. The person may have to overcome a fear before being open to teaching.
- Respect the patient's limits. Offer the patient only the amount of information they can handle at one time.
- Organize the information for easier comprehension.
- Be aware that you may need to adjust your education plan based on the patient's health status and environmental factors.
With any type of patient education, you will likely need to cover:
- What your patient needs to do and why
- When your patient can expect results (if applicable)
- Warning signs (if any) your patient should watch for
- What your patient should do if a problem occurs
- Who your patient should contact for questions or concerns
Patient Education Resource Options
There are many ways to deliver patient education. Examples include one-on-one teaching, demonstrations, and analogies or word pictures to explain concepts.
You can also use one or more of the following teaching tools:
- Brochures or other printed materials
- YouTube videos
- Videos or DVDs
- PowerPoint presentations
- Posters or charts
- Models or props
- Group classes
- Trained peer educators
When selecting materials:
- The type of resources that a patient or support person responds to varies from person to person. Using a mixed media approach often works best.
- Keep your assessment of the patient in mind. Consider factors such as literacy and culture as you develop a plan.
- Avoid fear tactics. Focus instead on the benefits of education. Tell your patient what to pay special attention to.
- Be sure to review any materials you plan to use before sharing them with the patient. Keep in mind that no resource is a substitute for one-on-one patient teaching.
In some cases, it may not be possible to get the right materials for your patients' needs. For example, it may be hard to find materials on new treatments in certain languages or on sensitive topics. Instead, you may try having a discussion with the patient on sensitive topics or creating your own tools for the patient's needs.
Duffy FD. Counseling for behavior change. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 14.
Falvo DR. Communicating effectively in patient teaching: enhancing patient adherence. In: Falvo DR, ed. Effective Patient Education: A Guide to Increased Adherence. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 2010:chap 8.
Ghorob A. Health coaching: teaching patients how to fish. Fam Pract Manag. 2013;20(3):40-42. PMID: 23939739 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23939739.
Review Date 11/20/2017
Updated by: Laura J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.