A troponin test measures the levels of troponin T or troponin I proteins in the blood. These proteins are released when the heart muscle has been damaged, such as occurs with a heart attack. The more damage there is to the heart, the greater the amount of troponin T and I there will be in the blood.
How the Test is Performed
A blood sample is needed.
How to Prepare for the Test
No special steps are needed to prepare, most of the time.
How the Test will Feel
You may feel slight pain or a sting when the needle is inserted. You may also feel some throbbing at the site after the blood is drawn.
Why the Test is Performed
The most common reason to perform this test is to see if a heart attack has occurred. Your health care provider will order this test if you have chest pain and other signs of a heart attack. The test is usually repeated two more times over the next 6 to 24 hours.
Your provider may also order this test if you have angina that is getting worse, but no other signs of a heart attack. (Angina is chest pain thought to be from a part of your heart not getting enough blood flow.)
The troponin test may also be done to help detect and evaluate other causes of heart injury.
Cardiac troponin levels are normally so low they cannot be detected with most blood tests.
Having normal troponin levels 12 hours after chest pain has started means a heart attack is unlikely.
A normal value range may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements (for example, "high sensitivity troponin test") or test different samples. Also, some labs have different cutoff points for "normal" and "probable myocardial infarction." Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
What Abnormal Results Mean
Even a slight increase in the troponin level will often mean there has been some damage to the heart. Very high levels of troponin are a sign that a heart attack has occurred.
Most patients who have had a heart attack have increased troponin levels within 6 hours. After 12 hours, almost everyone who has had a heart attack will have raised levels.
Troponin levels may remain high for 1 to 2 weeks after a heart attack.
Increased troponin levels may also be due to:
- Abnormally fast heartbeat
- High blood pressure in lung arteries (pulmonary hypertension)
- Blockage of a lung artery by a blood clot, fat, or tumor cells (pulmonary embolus)
- Congestive heart failure
- Coronary artery spasm
- Inflammation of the heart muscle usually due to a virus (myocarditis)
- Prolonged exercise (for example, due to marathons or triathlons)
- Trauma that injures the heart, such as a car accident
- Weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
- Long-term kidney disease
Increased troponin levels may also result from certain medical procedures such as:
- Cardiac angioplasty/stenting
- Heart defibrillation or electrical cardioversion (purposeful shocking of the heart by medical personnel to correct an abnormal heart rhythm)
- Open heart surgery
- Radiofrequency ablation of the heart
TroponinI; TnI; TroponinT; TnT; Cardiac-specific troponin I; Cardiac-specific troponin T; cTnl; cTnT
Bohula EA, Morrow DA. ST-Elevation myocardial infarction: management. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 59.
Bonaca, MP, Sabatine MS. Approach to the patient with chest pain. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 56.
Levine GN, Bates ER, Blankenship JC, et al. 2015 ACC/AHA/SCAI Focused update on primary percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with ST-Elevation myocardial infarction: an update of the 2011 ACCF/AHA/SCAI guideline for percutaneous coronary intervention and the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-Elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on clinical practice guidelines and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. Circulation. 2016;133(11):1135-1147. PMID: 26490017 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26490017.
Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS, Chaitman BR, Bax JJ, Morrow DA, White HD; Executive Group on behalf of the Joint European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA)/World Heart Federation (WHF) Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (2018). Circulation. 2018;138(20):e618-e651 PMID: 30571511 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30571511.
Review Date 10/22/2019
Updated by: Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.