Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of pregnancy-related conditions that develop inside a woman's uterus (womb). The abnormal cells start in the tissue that would normally become the placenta. The placenta is the organ that develops during pregnancy to feed the fetus.
In most cases, only placental tissue forms with gestational trophoblastic disease. In rare circumstances a fetus may also form.
There are several types of GTD.
- Choriocarcinoma (a type of cancer)
- Hydatiform mole (also called a molar pregnancy)
Goldstein DP, Berkowitz RS, Horowitz NS. Gestational trophoblastic disease. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Kastan MB, Doroshow JH, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 87.
Nica A, Bouchard-Fortier G, Covens A. Gestational trophoblastic disease: hydatidiform mole, nonmetastatic and metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumor: diagnosis and management. In: Gershenson DM, Lentz GM, Valea FA, Lobo RA, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 34.
Salani R, Bixel K, Copeland LJ. Malignant diseases and pregnancy. In: Landon MB, Galan HL, Jauniaux ERM, et al, eds. Gabbe's Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 55.
Review Date 4/19/2022
Updated by: John D. Jacobson, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.