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Stingray

A stingray is a sea animal with a whip-like tail. The tail has sharp spines that contain venom (poison). This article describes the effects of a stingray sting. Stingrays are the most common group of fish that sting humans.

This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual stingray sting. If you or someone you are with is stung, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

Poisonous Ingredient

Stingray venom is poisonous.

Where Found

Stingrays and related species that carry poisonous venom live in oceans all over the world.

Symptoms

Below are symptoms of a stingray sting in different parts of the body.

Airways and lungs

  • Breathing difficulty

Heart and blood

  • No heartbeat
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Low blood pressure
  • Collapse (shock)

Nervous system

  • Fainting
  • Body cramps
  • Headache
  • Paralysis
  • Weakness

Skin

  • Bleeding
  • Pain and swelling of lymph nodes near the area of the sting
  • Severe pain at site of sting
  • Sweating
  • Swelling

Stomach and intestines

  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea and vomiting

Home Care

Seek medical help right away. Contact your local emergency services. Wash the area with salt water. Remove any debris, such as sand, from the wound site. Soak the wound in the hottest water the person can tolerate for 30 to 90 minutes.

Before Calling Emergency

Have this information ready:

  • Person's age, weight, and condition
  • Type of sea animal
  • Time of the sting
  • Location of the sting

Poison Control

Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. They will give you further instructions.

They will tell you if you should take the person to the hospital. They will also tell you how to do any first aid that can be given before you get to the hospital.

This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

What to Expect at the Emergency Room

The health care provider will measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The wound will be soaked in a cleaning solution and any remaining debris will be removed. Symptoms will be treated. Some or all of these procedures may be performed:

  • Blood and urine tests
  • Breathing support, including oxygen, tube through the mouth into the throat, and breathing machine
  • EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing)
  • Intravenous fluids (through a vein)
  • Medicine called an antiserum to reverse the effect of the venom
  • Medicine to treat symptoms
  • Tetanus shot, if necessary
  • X-rays

Outlook (Prognosis)

The outcome often depends on how much poisonous venom entered the body, the location of the sting, and how soon the person receives treatment. Numbness or tingling may last for several weeks after the sting. Skin breakdown is sometimes severe enough to require surgery.

A puncture in the person's chest or abdomen may lead to death.

References

Auerbach PS. Envenomation by aquatic vertebrates. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap 81.

Otten EJ. Venomous animal injuries. In: Marx JA, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 62.

Update Date 7/15/2015

Updated by: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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