Ichthyosis vulgaris is a skin disorder passed down through families that leads to dry, scaly skin.
Ichthyosis vulgaris is one of the most common inherited skin disorders. It may begin in early childhood. The condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. That means if you have the condition, your child has a 50% chance of getting the gene from you.
The condition is often more noticeable in the winter. It may occur along with other skin problems including atopic dermatitis, asthma, keratosis pilaris (small bumps on the back of the arms and legs), or other skin disorders.
Symptoms may include any of the following:
The dry, scaly skin is usually most severe on the legs. But it can also involve the arms, hands, and middle of the body. People with this condition may also have many fine lines on their palms.
In infants, the skin changes usually appear in the first year of life. Early on, the skin is only slightly rough, but by the time a baby is about 3 months old, they begin appearing on the shins and back of the arms.
Exams and Tests
Your health care provider can usually diagnose this condition by looking at your skin. Tests may be done to rule out other possible causes of dry, scaly skin.
Your provider will ask if you have a family history of similar skin dryness.
A skin biopsy may be performed.
Your provider may ask you to use heavy-duty moisturizers. Creams and ointments work better than lotions. Apply these to moist skin immediately after bathing. You should use mild, non-drying soaps.
Your provider may tell you to use hydrating-moisturizing creams that contain keratolytic chemicals such as lactic acid, salicylic acid, and urea. These chemicals help skin shed normally while retaining moisture.
Ichthyosis vulgaris can be bothersome, but it rarely affects your overall health. The condition usually disappears during adulthood but may return years later as people age.
A bacterial skin infection may develop if scratching causes openings in the skin.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call for an appointment with your provider if:
- Symptoms continue despite treatment
- Symptoms get worse
- Skin lesions spread
- New symptoms develop
American Academy of Dermatology Association website. Ichthyosis vulgaris overview. www.aad.org/public/diseases/a-z/ichthyosis-vulgaris-overview. Accessed June 08, 2021.
Martin KL. Disorders of keratinization. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 677.
Metze D, Oji V. Disorders of keratinization. In: Calonje E, Brenn T, Lazar AJ, Billings SD, eds. McKee's Pathology of the Skin. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 3.
Review Date 4/14/2021
Updated by: Elika Hoss, MD, Senior Associate Consultant, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.