A scleroma is a hardened patch of tissue in the skin or mucous membranes. It most often forms in the head and neck. The nose is the most common location for scleromas, but they can also form in the throat and upper lungs.
A scleroma can form when a chronic bacterial infection causes inflammation, swelling, and scarring in the tissues. They are most common in Central and South America, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, India, and Indonesia. Scleromas are rare in the United States and Western Europe. Treatment may require surgery and a long course of antibiotics.
Donnenberg MS. Enterobacteriaceae. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 220.
Grayson W, Calonje E. Infectious diseases of the skin. In: Calonje E, Brenn T, Lazar AJ, Billings SD, eds. McKee's Pathology of the Skin. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 18.
James WD, Elston DM, Treat JR, Rosenbach MA, Neuhaus IM. Bacterial infections. In: James WD, Elston DM, Treat JR, Rosenbach MA, Neuhaus IM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 14.
Review Date 5/13/2019
Updated by: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.