Hemolytic anemia caused by chemicals and toxins is a lack of red blood cells that occurs when red blood cells are excessively damaged by certain chemicals or toxins.
Possible substances that can cause hemolytic anemia include:
- Anti-malaria drugs (quinine compounds)
- Intravenous water infusion (not half-normal saline or normal saline)
- Metals (chromium/chromates, platinum salts, nickel compounds, copper, lead, cis-platinum)
- Phenazopyridine (Pyridium)
- Rho immune globulin (WinRho)
- Snake bites (some snake venom contains hemolytic toxins)
This list is not all-inclusive.
Anemia - hemolytic - caused by chemicals or toxins
Little M. Anaemia. In: Cameron P, Little M, Mitra B, Deasy C, eds. Textbook of Adult Emergency Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 13.1.
Mentzer WC, Schrier SL. Extrinsic nonimmune hemolytic anemias. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 47.
Michel M. Autoimmune and intravascular hemolytic anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 151.
Review Date 1/25/2022
Updated by: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.