What is it?
Capsicum is taken by mouth for various problems with digestion including upset stomach, intestinal gas, stomach pain, diarrhea, and cramps. It is also used for conditions of the heart and blood vessels including poor circulation, excessive blood clotting, high cholesterol, and preventing heart disease. Some people use capsicum for burning mouth syndrome, improving exercise performance, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), joint pain, stomach ulcers, weight loss, seasickness, toothaches, difficulty swallowing, alcoholism, malaria, and fever.
Some people apply capsicum to the skin for pain caused by shingles, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, diabetes, HIV, and a certain condition that causes facial pain (trigeminal neuralgia). It is also used for muscular pain, back pain, and pain after surgery.
Some people apply capsicum to relieve muscle spasms, for skin eruptions (prurigo nodularis), to prevent nausea and vomiting after surgery, as a gargle for laryngitis, and to discourage thumb-sucking or nail-biting.
Some people put capsicum inside the nose to treat hay fever, migraine headache, cluster headache, and sinus infections (sinusitis).
One form of capsicum is currently being studied as a drug for migraine, osteoarthritis, and other painful conditions.
A particular form of capsicum causes intense eye pain and other unpleasant effects when it comes in contact with the face. This form is used in self-defense pepper sprays.
How effective is it?
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.
The effectiveness ratings for CAPSICUM are as follows:
Likely effective for...
- Nerve damage related to diabetes. Some research shows that applying a cream or using a skin patch containing capsaicin, the active chemical found in capsicum, reduces pain in people with nerve damage caused by diabetes. A specific cream containing 0.075% capsaicin (Zostrix-HP, Link Medical Products Pty Ltd.) is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating this condition. Creams or gels that contain less capsaicin don't seem to work.
- Pain. Applying creams and lotions containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, can temporarily relieve chronic pain from several conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, back pain, jaw pain, psoriasis, and other conditions.
- Nerve damage caused by shingles. Applying a patch containing 8% capsaicin (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.), the active chemical in capsicum reduces pain over 24 hours by 27% to 37% for in people with nerve damage caused by shingles. This capsaicin patch is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for this use. It is only available by prescription.
Possibly effective for...
- Back pain. Some research shows that applying a plaster that contains capsicum to the back can reduce low back pain.
- Cluster headache. Some research shows that applying capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, inside the nose reduces the number and severity of cluster headaches. It's best to apply capsicum to the nostril that is on the same side of the head as the headache.
- Runny nose not caused by allergies or infection (perennial rhinitis). Research shows that applying capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, inside the nose can reduce runny nose in people without allergies or an infection. The benefits might last for 6-9 months.
- Preventing nausea and vomiting after surgery. Research shows that applying a plaster containing capsicum to specific points on the hand and forearm 30 minutes before anesthesia and leaving it in place for 6-8 hour daily for up to 3 days after surgery reduces nausea and vomiting after surgery.
- Pain after surgery. Research shows that applying a plaster containing capsicum to specific points on the hand and forearm 30 minutes before anesthesia and leaving it in place for 6-8 hour daily for up to 3 days after surgery reduces the need for painkillers within the first 24 hours after surgery.
Possibly ineffective for...
- Exercise performance. Research shows that taking a supplement containing capsicum and other ingredients before exercise does not improve performance in men.
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...
- Hay fever (allergic rhinitis). Early research suggests that inserting cotton wads in the nose that have been soaked in the capsicum active chemical capsaicin for 15 minutes and repeated over two days might reduce hay fever symptoms. But there is conflicting evidence that this might not improve symptoms.
- Burning mouth syndrome. Early research shows that using a mouth rinse containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, daily for 7 days slightly decreases burning discomfort in people with burning mouth syndrome.
- Heartburn. Early research suggests that red pepper powder (containing capsicum) in capsules taken 3 times daily before meals reduces symptoms of heartburn. But in some people, symptoms get worse before they get better.
- Exercise performance. Research shows that taking a supplement containing capsicum and other ingredients before exercise does not improve exercise performance in men.
- Fibromyalgia. Applying a cream containing 0.025% to 0.075% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, 4 times daily to tender points might reduce tenderness in people with fibromyalgia. However, it doesn't seem to reduce overall pain or improve physical function.
- Nerve damage caused by HIV. Some research suggest that applying a patch containing 8% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, to the skin for 30-90 minutes reduce pain for up to 12 weeks in people with nerve damage caused by HIV. But other research suggests it might not provide any benefits. Applying cream containing 0.075% capsaicin does not seem to work.
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early research shows that capsicum fruit taken by mouth does not help symptoms of IBS.
- Joint pain. Early research shows that taking capsules of a specific combination product containing capsaicin, the active ingredient in capsicum, and many other ingredients (Instaflex Joint Support) daily for 8 weeks reduces joint pain by about 21% compared to placebo. The effects of capsicum alone cannot be determined from this study.
- Migraine headache. Some reports suggest that using the active chemical in capsicum in the nose might help migraine headaches.
- Muscular pain. Early research shows that using a specific cream (Dipental Cream) that contains capsaicin, an active chemical in capsicum, in addition to a ketoprofen patch does not further relieve pain in people with muscular pain in the upper back.
- Stomach ulcers. People who eat capsicum fruit (chili) an average of 24 times per month appear to be less likely to have an ulcer than people who eat chili an average of 8 times per month. This applies to chili in the form of chili powder, chili sauce, curry powder, and other chili-containing foods. But there is other evidence that suggests eating chili peppers does not help heal ulcers.
- A skin condition called prurigo nodularis. Applying a cream containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, 4-6 times daily seems to relieve burning sensations, itching and other symptoms. But it may take 22 weeks to 33 months of treatment to see a benefit, and symptoms may return after stopping use cream.
- Polyps in the nose. Early research shows that putting capsicum in the nose improves symptoms and airflow in people with polyps.
- Swallowing difficulties. Some people, especially elderly people or those who have suffered a stroke, are more likely than other people to develop "aspiration pneumonia." This is a kind of pneumonia that develops after food or saliva is sucked into the airways because the person couldn't swallow properly. There is some evidence that dissolving a capsaicin-containing lozenge in the mouth of elderly people with swallowing problems before each meal can improve their ability to swallow.
- Weight loss. Some research shows that taking capsules containing capsicum twice daily 30 minutes before eating for 12 weeks reduces stomach fat but not weight in overweight and obese people. But other research shows that taking a combination supplement (Prograde Metabolism) containing capsicum extract (Capsimax, OmniActive Health Technologies) twice daily for 8 weeks reduces body weight, fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference when used along with a diet.
- Blood clots.
- Heart disease.
- High cholesterol.
- Muscle spasms.
- Other conditions.
How does it work?
Are there safety concerns?
Capsicum is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as medicine, short-term, when applied to the skin appropriately, and when used in the nose. No serious side effects have been reported, but application in the nose can be very painful. Nasal application can cause burning pain, sneezing, watery eyes, and runny nose. These side effects tend to decrease and go away after 5 or more days of repeated use.
Capsicum is POSSIBLY UNSAFE to take by mouth in large doses or for long periods of time. In rare cases, this can lead to more serious side effects like liver or kidney damage, as well as severe spikes in blood pressure.
Special precautions & warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Capsicum is LIKELY SAFE when applied to the skin during pregnancy. But not enough is known about its safety when taken by mouth. Stay on the safe side and don't use capsicum if you are pregnant.
If you are breast-feeding, using capsicum on your skin is LIKELY SAFE. But it is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for your baby if you take capsicum by mouth. Skin problems (dermatitis) have been reported in breast-fed infants when mothers eat foods heavily spiced with capsicum peppers.
Children: Applying capsicum to the skin of children under two years of age is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Not enough is known about the safety of giving capsicum to children by mouth. Don't do it.
Bleeding disorders: While conflicting results exist, capsicum might increase the risk of bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.
Damaged or broken skin: Don't use capsicum on damaged or broken skin.
Diabetes: In theory, capsicum might affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Until more is known, monitor your blood sugar closely if you take capsicum. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
High blood pressure: Taking capsicum or eating a large amount of chili peppers might cause a spike in blood pressure. In theory, this might worsen the condition for people who already have high blood pressure.
Surgery: Capsicum might increase bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using capsicum at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Are there interactions with medications?
- Capsicum might decrease how much aspirin the body can absorb. Taking capsicum along with aspirin might reduce the effectiveness of aspirin.
- Capsicum might increase how much cefazolin the body can absorb. Taking capsicum along with cefazolin might increase the effects and side effects of cefazolin.
- Capsicum might increase how much ciprofloxacin the body can absorb. Taking capsicum along with ciprofloxacin might increase the effects and side effects of ciprofloxacin.
- Cocaine has many dangerous side effects. Using capsicum along with cocaine might increase the side effects of cocaine, including heart attack and death.
- Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
- Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. Capsicum might also decrease blood sugar. Taking capsicum along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.
- Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
- Some research shows that capsicum might increase blood pressure. In theory, taking capsicum along with medications used for lowering high blood pressure might reduce the effectiveness of these drugs.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
- Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
- Capsicum might slow blood clotting. Taking capsicum along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
- Capsicum can increase how much theophylline the body can absorb. Taking capsicum along with theophylline might increase the effects and side effects of theophylline.
- Warfarin (Coumadin)
- Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Capsicum might increase the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Taking capsicum along with warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
- Medications for high blood pressure (ACE inhibitors)
- Some medications for high blood pressure might cause a cough. There is one report of someone whose cough worsened when using a cream with capsicum along with these medications for high blood pressure. But is it not clear if this interaction is a big concern.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), ramipril (Altace), and others.
Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?
- Using capsicum (including exposure to the capsicum in pepper spray) and coca might increase the effects and risk of adverse effects of the cocaine in coca.
- Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar
- Capsicum might affect blood sugar. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that also affect blood sugar might cause blood sugar to drop too low in some people. Some of these products include bitter melon, ginger, goat's rue, fenugreek, kudzu, willow bark, and others.
- Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
- Capsicum might slow blood clotting. Taking capsicum with herbs and supplements that also slow clotting might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in some people. Some herbs that slow blood clotting are angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.
- Using capsicum might reduce the ability for the body to absorb iron.
Are there interactions with foods?
- There are no known interactions with foods.
What dose is used?
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
- For nerve damage related to diabetes: A specific cream (Zostrix-HP, Link Medical Products Pty Ltd.) containing 0.075% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, has been used 4 times daily for 8 weeks. Also, a specific patch (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.) containing 8% capsaicin has been applied once for 60-90 minutes.
- For nerve damage caused by shingles: A specific patch (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.) containing 8% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, has been applied once for 60-90 minutes.
- For low back pain: Capsicum-containing plasters providing 11 mg of capsaicin per plaster or 22 mcg of capsaicin per square centimeter of plaster have been used. The plaster is applied once daily in the morning and left in place for 4-8 hours.
- For preventing nausea and vomiting after surgery: Capsicum-containing plasters have been used on acupoints on the hand and forearm for 30 minutes before anesthesia and left in place for 6-8 hours daily for up to 3 days.
- Preventing pain after surgery: Capsicum-containing plasters have been used on acupoints on the hand and forearm for 30 minutes before anesthesia and left in place for 6-8 hours daily for up to 3 days.
INSIDE THE NOSE:
- For cluster headache: 0.1 mL of a 10 mM capsaicin suspension, providing 300 mcg/day of capsaicin, applied to the nostril on the painful side of the head. Apply the suspension once daily until the burning sensation disappears. A capsaicin 0.025% cream (Zostrix, Rodlen Laboratories) applied daily for 7 days has been used to treat acute cluster headache attacks.
- For runny nose not caused by allergies or infection (perennial rhinitis): Solutions containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, have been applied inside the nose 3 times per day for 3 days, every other day for 2 weeks, or once weekly for 5 weeks.
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.
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- Kobata, K., Tate, H., Iwasaki, Y., Tanaka, Y., Ohtsu, K., Yazawa, S., and Watanabe, T. Isolation of coniferyl esters from Capsicum baccatum L., and their enzymatic preparation and agonist activity for TRPV1. Phytochemistry 2008;69:1179-1184. View abstract.
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- Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin. Int.J.Toxicol. 2007;26 Suppl 1:3-106. View abstract.
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- Sharpe, P. A., Granner, M. L., Conway, J. M., Ainsworth, B. E., and Dobre, M. Availability of weight-loss supplements: Results of an audit of retail outlets in a southeastern city. J Am.Diet.Assoc. 2006;106:2045-2051. View abstract.
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- de Jong, N. W., van der Steen, J. J., Smeekens, C. C., Blacquiere, T., Mulder, P. G., van Wijk, R. G., and de Groot, H. Honeybee interference as a novel aid to reduce pollen exposure and nasal symptoms among greenhouse workers allergic to sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) pollen. Int.Arch.Allergy Immunol. 2006;141:390-395. View abstract.
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- Grossi, L., Cappello, G., and Marzio, L. Effect of an acute intraluminal administration of capsaicin on oesophageal motor pattern in GORD patients with ineffective oesophageal motility. Neurogastroenterol.Motil. 2006;18:632-636. View abstract.
- Ahuja, K. D., Kunde, D. A., Ball, M. J., and Geraghty, D. P. Effects of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and curcumin on copper-induced oxidation of human serum lipids. J Agric.Food Chem. 8-23-2006;54:6436-6439. View abstract.
- Ahuja, K. D., Robertson, I. K., Geraghty, D. P., and Ball, M. J. Effects of chili consumption on postprandial glucose, insulin, and energy metabolism. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2006;84:63-69. View abstract.
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- Chanda, S., Sharper, V., Hoberman, A., and Bley, K. Developmental toxicity study of pure trans-capsaicin in rats and rabbits. Int.J.Toxicol. 2006;25:205-217. View abstract.
- De Lucca, A. J., Boue, S., Palmgren, M. S., Maskos, K., and Cleveland, T. E. Fungicidal properties of two saponins from Capsicum frutescens and the relationship of structure and fungicidal activity. Can.J Microbiol. 2006;52:336-342. View abstract.
- Jamroz, D., Wertelecki, T., Houszka, M., and Kamel, C. Influence of diet type on the inclusion of plant origin active substances on morphological and histochemical characteristics of the stomach and jejunum walls in chicken. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr.(Berl) 2006;90(5-6):255-268. View abstract.
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- Mori, A., Lehmann, S., O'Kelly, J., Kumagai, T., Desmond, J. C., Pervan, M., McBride, W. H., Kizaki, M., and Koeffler, H. P. Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen-independent, p53 mutant prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 3-15-2006;66:3222-3229. View abstract.
- Kang, S., Kang, K., Chung, G. C., Choi, D., Ishihara, A., Lee, D. S., and Back, K. Functional analysis of the amine substrate specificity domain of pepper tyramine and serotonin N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferases. Plant Physiol 2006;140:704-715. View abstract.
- Schweiggert, U., Kammerer, D. R., Carle, R., and Schieber, A. Characterization of carotenoids and carotenoid esters in red pepper pods (Capsicum annuum L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun.Mass Spectrom. 2005;19:2617-2628. View abstract.
- Chanda, S., Mould, A., Esmail, A., and Bley, K. Toxicity studies with pure trans-capsaicin delivered to dogs via intravenous administration. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 2005;43:66-75. View abstract.
- Misra, M. N., Pullani, A. J., and Mohamed, Z. U. Prevention of PONV by acustimulation with capsicum plaster is comparable to ondansetron after middle ear surgery: [La prevention des NVPO par acustimulation avec un emplatre de Capsicum est comparable a celle de l'ondansetron apres une operation a l'oreille moyenne]. Can.J.Anaesth. 2005;52:485-489. View abstract.
- Calixto, J. B., Kassuya, C. A., Andre, E., and Ferreira, J. Contribution of natural products to the discovery of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels family and their functions. Pharmacol.Ther. 2005;106:179-208. View abstract.
- Reilly, C. A. and Yost, G. S. Structural and enzymatic parameters that determine alkyl dehydrogenation/hydroxylation of capsaicinoids by cytochrome p450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005;33:530-536. View abstract.
- Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., Smeets, A., and Lejeune, M. P. Sensory and gastrointestinal satiety effects of capsaicin on food intake. Int J Obes.(Lond) 2005;29:682-688. View abstract.
- Fragasso, G., Palloshi, A., Piatti, P. M., Monti, L., Rossetti, E., Setola, E., Montano, C., Bassanelli, G., Calori, G., and Margonato, A. Nitric-oxide mediated effects of transdermal capsaicin patches on the ischemic threshold in patients with stable coronary disease. J.Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 2004;44:340-347. View abstract.
- Pershing, L. K., Reilly, C. A., Corlett, J. L., and Crouch, D. J. Effects of vehicle on the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human skin in vivo. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 10-1-2004;200:73-81. View abstract.
- Kuda, T., Iwai, A., and Yano, T. Effect of red pepper Capsicum annuum var. conoides and garlic Allium sativum on plasma lipid levels and cecal microflora in mice fed beef tallow. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2004;42:1695-1700. View abstract.
- Park, H. S., Kim, K. S., Min, H. K., and Kim, D. W. Prevention of postoperative sore throat using capsicum plaster applied at the Korean hand acupuncture point. Anaesthesia 2004;59:647-651. View abstract.
- Lee, Y. S., Kang, Y. S., Lee, J. S., Nicolova, S., and Kim, J. A. Involvement of NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species in the apototic cell death by capsaicin in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Free Radic.Res 2004;38:405-412. View abstract.
- Yoshioka, M., Imanaga, M., Ueyama, H., Yamane, M., Kubo, Y., Boivin, A., St Amand, J., Tanaka, H., and Kiyonaga, A. Maximum tolerable dose of red pepper decreases fat intake independently of spicy sensation in the mouth. Br.J.Nutr. 2004;91:991-995. View abstract.
- Maoka, T., Akimoto, N., Fujiwara, Y., and Hashimoto, K. Structure of new carotenoids with the 6-oxo-kappa end group from the fruits of paprika, Capsicum annuum. J.Nat.Prod. 2004;67:115-117. View abstract.
- Chaiyata, P., Puttadechakum, S., and Komindr, S. Effect of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) ingestion on plasma glucose response and metabolic rate in Thai women. J.Med.Assoc.Thai. 2003;86:854-860. View abstract.
- Crimi, N., Polosa, R., Maccarrone, C., Palermo, B., Palermo, F., and Mistretta, A. Effect of topical application with capsaicin on skin responses to bradykinin and histamine in man. Clin.Exp.Allergy 1992;22:933-939. View abstract.
- Weller, P. and Breithaupt, D. E. Identification and quantification of zeaxanthin esters in plants using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J.Agric.Food Chem. 11-19-2003;51:7044-7049. View abstract.
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- Medvedeva, N. V., Andreenkov, V. A., Morozkin, A. D., Sergeeva, E. A., Prokof'ev, IuI, and Misharin, A. I. [Inhibition of oxidation of human blood low density lipoproteins by carotenoids from paprika]. Biomed.Khim. 2003;49:191-200. View abstract.
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- Lejeune, M. P., Kovacs, E. M., and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Effect of capsaicin on substrate oxidation and weight maintenance after modest body-weight loss in human subjects. Br.J.Nutr. 2003;90:651-659. View abstract.
- Materska, M., Piacente, S., Stochmal, A., Pizza, C., Oleszek, W., and Perucka, I. Isolation and structure elucidation of flavonoid and phenolic acid glycosides from pericarp of hot pepper fruit Capsicum annuum L. Phytochemistry 2003;63:893-898. View abstract.
- Lee, C. Y., Kim, M., Yoon, S. W., and Lee, C. H. Short-term control of capsaicin on blood and oxidative stress of rats in vivo. Phytother.Res. 2003;17:454-458. View abstract.
- Rashid, M. H., Inoue, M., Bakoshi, S., and Ueda, H. Increased expression of vanilloid receptor 1 on myelinated primary afferent neurons contributes to the antihyperalgesic effect of capsaicin cream in diabetic neuropathic pain in mice. J Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 2003;306:709-717. View abstract.
- Reilly, C. A., Ehlhardt, W. J., Jackson, D. A., Kulanthaivel, P., Mutlib, A. E., Espina, R. J., Moody, D. E., Crouch, D. J., and Yost, G. S. Metabolism of capsaicin by cytochrome P450 produces novel dehydrogenated metabolites and decreases cytotoxicity to lung and liver cells. Chem.Res Toxicol. 2003;16:336-349. View abstract.
- Kim, K. S., Koo, M. S., Jeon, J. W., Park, H. S., and Seung, I. S. Capsicum plaster at the korean hand acupuncture point reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth.Analg. 2002;95:1103-7, table. View abstract.
- Han, S. S., Keum, Y. S., Chun, K. S., and Surh, Y. J. Suppression of phorbol ester-induced NF-kappaB activation by capsaicin in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Arch.Pharm.Res. 2002;25:475-479. View abstract.
- Hail, N., Jr. and Lotan, R. Examining the role of mitochondrial respiration in vanilloid-induced apoptosis. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 9-4-2002;94:1281-1292. View abstract.
- Iorizzi, M., Lanzotti, V., Ranalli, G., De Marino, S., and Zollo, F. Antimicrobial furostanol saponins from the seeds of Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum. J.Agric.Food Chem. 7-17-2002;50:4310-4316. View abstract.
- Kahl, U. [TRP channels--sensitive for heat and cold, capsaicin and menthol]. Lakartidningen 5-16-2002;99:2302-2303. View abstract.
- De Lucca, A. J., Bland, J. M., Vigo, C. B., Cushion, M., Selitrennikoff, C. P., Peter, J., and Walsh, T. J. CAY-I, a fungicidal saponin from Capsicum sp. fruit. Med.Mycol. 2002;40:131-137. View abstract.
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- Olajos, E. J. and Salem, H. Riot control agents: pharmacology, toxicology, biochemistry and chemistry. J.Appl.Toxicol. 2001;21:355-391. View abstract.
- Barnouin, J., Verdura, Barrios T., Chassagne, M., Perez, Cristia R., Arnaud, J., Fleites, Mestre P., Montoya, M. E., and Favier, A. Nutritional and food protection against epidemic emerging neuropathy. Epidemiological findings in the unique disease-free urban area of Cuba. Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2001;71:274-285. View abstract.
- Yoshitani, S. I., Tanaka, T., Kohno, H., and Takashima, S. Chemoprevention of azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis by dietary capsaicin and rotenone. Int.J.Oncol. 2001;19:929-939. View abstract.
- Tolan, I., Ragoobirsingh, D., and Morrison, E. Y. The effect of capsaicin on blood glucose, plasma insulin levels and insulin binding in dog models. Phytother.Res. 2001;15:391-394. View abstract.
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