What is it?
Blue-green algae products are used for treating high blood pressure. They are also used as a protein supplement and for high levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia), diabetes, obesity, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
Some blue-green algae products are grown under controlled conditions. Others are grown in a natural setting, where they are more likely to be contaminated by bacteria, liver poisons (microcystins) produced by certain bacteria, and heavy metals. Choose only products that have been tested and found to be free of these contaminants.
You may have been told that blue-green algae are an excellent source of protein. But, in reality, blue-green algae are no better than meat or milk as a protein source and cost about 30 times as much per gram.
Don't confuse blue-green algae with algin, Ascophyllum nodosum, Ecklonia cava, Fucus Vesiculosis, or Laminaria.
How effective is it?
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.
The effectiveness ratings for BLUE-GREEN ALGAE are as follows:
Possibly effective for...
- High blood pressure. Taking blue-green algae by mouth seems to reduce blood pressure in some people with high blood pressure.
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...
- Hay fever. Early research shows that taking blue-green algae by mouth might relieve some allergy symptoms in adults.
- Insulin resistance caused by drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS (antiretroviral-induced insulin resistance). Early research shows that taking blue-green algae by mouth increases insulin sensitivity in people with insulin resistance due to HIV/AIDS medication.
- Athletic performance. The effect of blue-green algae on athletic performance is unclear. Most early research shows that taking blue-green algae does not improve athletic performance. But not all research agrees.
- A blood disorder that reduces levels of protein in the blood called hemoglobin (beta-thalassemia). Early research shows that taking blue-green algae by mouth might reduce the need for blood transfusion and improve heart and liver health in children with this condition.
- Tics or twitching of the eyelids (blepharospasm). Early research shows that taking blue-green algae does not reduce eyelid spasms in people with blepharospasm.
- Diabetes. Early research shows that taking blue-green algae by mouth might improve cholesterol levels by a small amount in people with type 2 diabetes.
- Hepatitis C. Some early research shows that blue-green algae might improve liver function in people with hepatitis C. But other research shows that it might actually worsen liver function.
- HIV/AIDS. Early research shows that blue-green algae does not improve CD4 cell counts or reduce viral load in people with HIV. But it might reduce infections, stomach and intestinal problems, feelings of tiredness, and breathing problems in some people.
- High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Early research shows that blue-green algae lowers cholesterol in people with normal or slightly elevated cholesterol levels. But not all research agrees.
- A condition caused by a poor diet or the body's inability to absorb nutrients. Some early research shows that giving blue-green algae to undernourished children along with a nutritious diet can increase weight gain. But not all research agrees.
- Symptoms of menopause. An early study shows that taking blue-green algae by mouth lowers anxiety and depression in women going through menopause. However, it doesn't appear to reduce symptoms such as hot flashes.
- Mental alertness. An early study shows that taking blue-green algae improves feelings of mental tiredness and scores on a mental math test.
- Obesity. Some early research shows that taking blue-green algae by mouth slightly improves weight loss. In addition, some early research shows that taking blue-green algae might improve levels of cholesterol in adults with obesity. But other studies show no weight loss with blue-green algae.
- White patches inside the mouth that are usually caused by smoking (oral leukoplakia). Early research shows that taking blue-green algae by mouth reduces mouth sores in people who chew tobacco.
- A serious gum infection (periodontitis). Early research shows that injecting a gel containing blue-green algae into the gums of adults with gum disease improves gum health.
- A grouping of symptoms that increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke (metabolic syndrome).
- Arsenic poisoning.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
- Low levels of healthy red blood cells (anemia) due to iron deficiency.
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
- Build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD).
- Indigestion (dyspepsia).
- Heart disease.
- Wound healing.
- Other conditions.
How does it work?
Are there safety concerns?
But blue-green algae products that are contaminated are POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Contaminated blue-green algae can cause liver damage, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, weakness, thirst, rapid heartbeat, shock, and death. Don't use any blue-green algae product that hasn't been tested and found to be free of microcystins and other contamination.
Special precautions & warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough information available to know if it is safe to use blue-green algae when pregnant or breast-feeding. Contaminated blue-green algae products contain harmful toxins that might be transferred to an infant during pregnancy or through breast milk. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Children: Blue-green algae are POSSIBLY UNSAFE for children. Children are more sensitive to contaminated blue-green algae products than adults.
Auto-immune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), pemphigus vulgaris (a skin condition), and others: Blue-green algae might cause the immune system to become more active, and this could increase the symptoms of auto-immune diseases. If you have one of these conditions, it's best to avoid using blue-green algae.
Surgery: Blue-green algae might lower blood sugar levels. There is some concern that it might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop using blue-green algae at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Are there interactions with medications?
- Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
- Blue-green algae might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking blue-green algae along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
- Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)
- Blue-green algae might increase the immune system. By increasing the immune system, blue-green algae might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.
Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.
- Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
- Blue-green algae might slow blood clotting. Taking blue-green algae along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin; clopidogrel (Plavix); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), and naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others); dalteparin (Fragmin); enoxaparin (Lovenox); heparin; warfarin (Coumadin); and others.
Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?
- Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar
- Blue-green algae might lower blood sugar. There is some concern that using blue-green algae along with other herbs and supplements that have this same effect might lower blood sugar too much. Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar include alpha-lipoic acid, devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, Panax ginseng, psyllium, and Siberian ginseng.
- Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
- Blue-green algae might slow blood clotting. Taking blue-green algae along with herbs that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some of these herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, red clover, turmeric, and others.
- Blue-green algae can decrease the amount of iron the body can absorb. Taking blue-green algae with iron supplements might decrease the effectiveness of iron.
Are there interactions with foods?
- Iron-containing foods
- Blue-green algae can decrease the amount of iron the body can absorb from food.
What dose is used?
- For high blood pressure: 2-4.5 grams of blue-green algae per day has been used.
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.
- El-Shanshory M, Tolba O, El-Shafiey R, Mawlana W, Ibrahim M, El-Gamasy M. Cardioprotective effects of spirulina therapy in children with beta-thalassemia major. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2019;41:202-206. View abstract.
- Sandhu JS, Dheera B, Shweta S. Efficacy of spirulina supplementation on isometric strength and isometric endurance of quadriceps in trained and untrained individuals--a comparative study. Ibnosina J. Med. & Biomed. Sci. 2010;2.
- Chaouachi M, Gautier S, Carnot Y, et al. Spirulina platensis provides a small advantage in vertical jump and sprint performance but does not improve elite rugby players' body composition. J Diet Suppl. 2020:1-16. View abstract.
- Gurney T, Spendiff O. Spirulina supplementation improves oxygen uptake in arm cycling exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2020;120:2657-2664. View abstract.
- Zarezadeh M, Faghfouri AH, Radkhah N, et al. Spirulina supplementation and anthropometric indices: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Phytother Res. 2020. View abstract.
- Moradi S, Ziaei R, Foshati S, Mohammadi H, Nachvak SM, Rouhani MH. Effects of Spirulina supplementation on obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Complement Ther Med. 2019;47:102211. View abstract.
- Hamedifard Z, Milajerdi A, Reiner Z, Taghizadeh M, Kolahdooz F, Asemi Z. The effects of spirulina on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins in patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res. 2019;33:2609-2621. View abstract.
- Hernández-Lepe MA, Olivas-Aguirre FJ, Gómez-Miranda LM, Hernández-Torres RP, Manríquez-Torres JJ, Ramos-Jiménez A. Systematic physical exercise and Spirulina maxima supplementation improve body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lipid profile: Correlations of a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019;8:507. View abstract.
- Yousefi R, Mottaghi A, Saidpour A. Spirulina platensis effectively ameliorates anthropometric measurements and obesity-related metabolic disorders in obese or overweight healthy individuals: A randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2018;40:106-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2018.08.003. View abstract.
- Vidé J, Bonafos B, Fouret G, et al. Spirulina platensis and silicon-enriched spirulina equally improve glucose tolerance and decrease the enzymatic activity of hepatic NADPH oxidase in obesogenic diet-fed rats. Food Funct 2018;9:6165-78. doi: 10.1039/c8fo02037j. View abstract.
- Hernández-Lepe MA, López-Díaz JA, Juárez-Oropeza MA, et al. Effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima supplementation and a systematic physical exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness of overweight or obese subjects: a double-blind, randomized, and crossover controlled trial. Mar Drugs 2018;16. pii: E364. doi: 10.3390/md16100364. View abstract.
- Martínez-Sámano J, Torres-Montes de Oca A, Luqueño-Bocardo OI, et al. Spirulina maxima decreases endothelial damage and oxidative stress indicators in patients with systemic arterial hypertension: results from exploratory controlled clinical trial. Mar Drugs 2018;16. pii: E496. doi: 10.3390/md16120496. View abstract.
- Miczke A, Szulinska M, Hansdorfer-Korzon R, et al. Effects of spirulina consumption on body weight, blood pressure, and endothelial function in overweight hypertensive Caucasians: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2016;20:150-6. View abstract.
- Zeinalian R, Farhangi MA, Shariat A, Saghafi-Asl M. The effects of Spirulina platensis on anthropometric indices, appetite, lipid profile and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in obese individuals: a randomized double blinded placebo controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2017;17:225. View abstract.
- Suliburska J, Szulinska M, Tinkov AA, Bogdanski P. Effect of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status in obese patients with treated hypertension. Biol Trace Elem Res 2016;173:1-6. View abstract.
- Johnson M, Hassinger L, Davis J, Devor ST, DiSilvestro RA. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of spirulina supplementation on indices of mental and physical fatigue in men. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2016;67:203-6. View abstract.
- Jensen GS, Drapeau C, Lenninger M, Benson KF. Clinical safety of a high dose of phycocyanin-enriched aqueous extract from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis: results from a randomized, double-Blind, placebo-controlled study with a focus on anticoagulant activity and platelet activation. J Med Food 2016;19:645-53. View abstract.
- Roy-Lachapelle A, Solliec M, Bouchard MF, Sauvé S. Detection of cyanotoxins in algae dietary supplements. Toxins (Basel) 2017;9. pii: E76. View abstract.
- Guidelines for drinking-water quality: fourth edition incorporating the first addendum. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
- Cha BG, Kwak HW, Park AR, et al. Structural characteristics and biological performance of silk fibroin nanofiber containing microalgae spirulina extract. Biopolymers 2014;101:307-18. View abstract.
- Majdoub H, Ben Mansour M, Chaubet F, et al. Anticoagulant activity of a sulfated polysaccharide from the green alga Arthrospira platensis. Biochim Biophys Acta 2009;1790:1377-81. View abstract.
- Watanabe F, Katsura H, Takenaka S, et al. Pseudovitamin B12 is the predominant cobamide of an algal health food, spirulina tablets. J Ag Food Chem 1999;47:4736-41. View abstract.
- Ramamoorthy A, Premakumari S. Effect of supplementation of spirulina on hypercholesterolemic patients. J Food Sci Technol 1996;33:124-8.
- Ciferri O. Spirulina, the edible microorganism. Microbiol Rev 1983;47:551-78. View abstract.
- Karkos PD, Leong SC, Karkos CD, et al. Spirulina in clinical practice: evidence-based human applications. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;531053. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nen058. Epub 2010 Oct 19. View abstract.
- Marles RJ, Barrett ML, Barnes J, et al. United States Pharmacopeia safety evaluation of spirulina. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2011;51:593-604. View abstract.
- Petrus M, Culerrier R, Campistron M, et al. First case report of anaphylaxis to spirulin: identification of phycocyanin as responsible allergen. Allergy 2010;65:924-5. View abstract.
- Rzymski P, Niedzielski P, Kaczmarek N, Jurczak T, Klimaszyk P. The multidisciplinary approach to safety and toxicity assessment of microalgae-based food supplements following clinical cases of poisoning. Harmful Algae 2015;46:34-42.
- Serban MC, Sahebkar A, Dragan S, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations. Clin Nutr 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2015.09.007. [Epub ahead of print] View abstract.
- Mahendra J, Mahendra L, Muthu J, John L, Romanos GE. Clinical effects of subgingivally delivered spirulina gel in chronic periodontitis cases: a placebo controlled clinical trial. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7:2330-3. View abstract.
- Mazokopakis EE, Starakis IK, Papadomanolaki MG, Mavroeidi NG, Ganotakis ES. The hypolipidaemic effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) supplementation in a Cretan population: a prospective study. J Sci Food Agric 2014;94:432-7. View abstract.
- Winter FS, Emakam F, Kfutwah A, et al. The effect of Arthrospira platensis capsules on CD4 T-cells and antioxidative capacity in a randomized pilot study of adult women infected with human immunodeficiency virus not under HAART in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Nutrients 2014;6:2973-86. View abstract.
- Le TM, Knulst AC, Röckmann H. Anaphylaxis to Spirulina confirmed by skin prick test with ingredients of Spirulina tablets. Food Chem Toxicol 2014;74:309-10. View abstract.
- Ngo-Matip ME, Pieme CA, Azabji-Kenfack M, et al. Effects of Spirulina platensis supplementation on lipid profile in HIV-infected antiretroviral naïve patients in Yaounde-Cameroon: a randomized trial study. Lipids Health Dis 2014;13:191. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-13-191. View abstract.
- Heussner AH, Mazija L, Fastner J, Dietrich DR. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2012;265:263-71. View abstract.
- Habou H, Degbey H Hamadou B. Évaluation de l'efficacité de la supplémentation en spiruline du régime habituel des enfants atteints de malnutrition proteinoénergétique sévère (à propos de 56 cas). Thèse de doctorat en médecine Niger 2003;1.
- Bucaille P. Intérêt et efficacité de l'algue spiruline dans l'alimentation des enfants présentant une malnutrition protéinoénergétique en milieu tropical. Thèse de doctorat en médecine.Toulouse-3 université Paul-Sabatier 1990;Thèse de doctorat en médecine. Toulouse-3 université Paul-Sabatier:1.
- Sall MG, Dankoko B Badiane M Ehua E. Résultats d'un essai de réhabilitation nutritionnelle avec la spiruline à Dakar. Med Afr Noire 1999;46:143-146.
- Venkatasubramanian K, Edwin N in collaboration with Antenna technologies Geneva and Antenna trust Madurai. A study on preschool nutrition supplementation family income booster by Spirulina. Madurai Medical College 1999;20.
- Ishii, K., Katoch, T., Okuwaki, Y., and Hayashi, O. Influence of dietary Spirulina platensis on IgA level in human saliva. J Kagawa Nutr Univ 1999;30:27-33.
- Kato T, Takemoto K, Katayama H, and et al. Effects of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on dietary hypercholesterolemia in rats. Nippon Eiyo Shokuryo Gakkaishi (J Jpn Soc Nutr Food Sci) 1984;37:323-332.
- Iwata K, Inayama T, and Kato T. Effects of spirulina platensis on fructose-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Nippon Eiyo Shokuryo Gakkaishi (J Jpn Soc Nutr Food Sci) 1987;40:463-467.
- Becker EW, Jakober B, Luft D, and et al. Clinical and biochemical evaluations of the alga spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity. A double-blind cross-over study. Nutr Report Internat 1986;33:565-574.
- Mani UV, Desai S, and Iyer U. Studies on the long-term effect of spirulina supplementation on serum lipid profile and glycated proteins in NIDDM patients. J Nutraceut 2000;2:25-32.
- Johnson PE and Shubert LE. Accumulation of mercury and other elements by Spirulina (Cyanophyceae). Nutr Rep Int 1986;34:1063-1070.
- Nakaya N, Homma Y, and Goto Y. Cholesterol lowering effect of spirulina. Nutrit Repor Internat 1988;37:1329-1337.
- Schwartz J, Shklar G, Reid S, and et al. Prevention of experimental oral cancer by extracts of Spirulina-Dunaliella algae. Nutr Cancer 1988;11:127-134.
- Ayehunie, S., Belay, A., Baba, T. W., and Ruprecht, R. M. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis). J Acquir.Immune.Defic.Syndr.Hum Retrovirol. 5-1-1998;18:7-12. View abstract.
- Yang, H. N., Lee, E. H., and Kim, H. M. Spirulina platensis inhibits anaphylactic reaction. Life Sci 1997;61:1237-1244. View abstract.
- Hayashi, K., Hayashi, T., and Kojima, I. A natural sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan, isolated from Spirulina platensis: in vitro and ex vivo evaluation of anti-herpes simplex virus and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities. AIDS res Hum Retroviruses 10-10-1996;12:1463-1471. View abstract.
- Sautier, C. and Tremolieres, J. [Food value of the spiruline algae to man]. Ann.Nutr.Aliment. 1975;29:517-534. View abstract.
- Narasimha, D. L., Venkataraman, G. S., Duggal, S. K., and Eggum, B. O. Nutritional quality of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis Geitler. J Sci Food Agric 1982;33:456-460. View abstract.
- Shklar, G. and Schwartz, J. Tumor necrosis factor in experimental cancer regression with alphatocopherol, beta-carotene, canthaxanthin and algae extract. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1988;24:839-850. View abstract.
- Torres-Duran, P. V., Ferreira-Hermosillo, A., Ramos-Jimenez, A., Hernandez-Torres, R. P., and Juarez-Oropeza, M. A. Effect of Spirulina maxima on postprandial lipemia in young runners: a preliminary report. J.Med.Food 2012;15:753-757. View abstract.
- Marcel, A. K., Ekali, L. G., Eugene, S., Arnold, O. E., Sandrine, E. D., von der, Weid D., Gbaguidi, E., Ngogang, J., and Mbanya, J. C. The effect of Spirulina platensis versus soybean on insulin resistance in HIV-infected patients: a randomized pilot study. Nutrients. 2011;3:712-724. View abstract.
- Konno, T., Umeda, Y., Umeda, M., Kawachi, I., Oyake, M., and Fujita, N. [A case of inflammatory myopathy with widely skin rash following use of supplements containing Spirulina]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2011;51:330-333. View abstract.
- Iwata, K., Inayama, T., and Kato, T. Effects of Spirulina platensis on plasma lipoprotein lipase activity in fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 1990;36:165-171. View abstract.
- Baroni, L., Scoglio, S., Benedetti, S., Bonetto, C., Pagliarani, S., Benedetti, Y., Rocchi, M., and Canestrari, F. Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study. Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2009;79:117-123. View abstract.
- Yamani, E., Kaba-Mebri, J., Mouala, C., Gresenguet, G., and Rey, J. L. [Use of spirulina supplement for nutritional management of HIV-infected patients: study in Bangui, Central African Republic]. Med.Trop.(Mars.) 2009;69:66-70. View abstract.
- Halidou, Doudou M., Degbey, H., Daouda, H., Leveque, A., Donnen, P., Hennart, P., and Dramaix-Wilmet, M. [The effect of spiruline during nutritional rehabilitation: systematic review]. Rev.Epidemiol.Sante Publique 2008;56:425-431. View abstract.
- Mazokopakis, E. E., Karefilakis, C. M., Tsartsalis, A. N., Milkas, A. N., and Ganotakis, E. S. Acute rhabdomyolysis caused by Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis). Phytomedicine. 2008;15(6-7):525-527. View abstract.
- Kraigher, O., Wohl, Y., Gat, A., and Brenner, S. A mixed immunoblistering disorder exhibiting features of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus foliaceus associated with Spirulina algae intake. Int.J.Dermatol. 2008;47:61-63. View abstract.
- Pandi, M., Shashirekha, V., and Swamy, M. Bioabsorption of chromium from retan chrome liquor by cyanobacteria. Microbiol.Res 5-11-2007; View abstract.
- Rawn, D. F., Niedzwiadek, B., Lau, B. P., and Saker, M. Anatoxin-a and its metabolites in blue-green algae food supplements from Canada and Portugal. J Food Prot. 2007;70:776-779. View abstract.
- Doshi, H., Ray, A., and Kothari, I. L. Biosorption of cadmium by live and dead Spirulina: IR spectroscopic, kinetics, and SEM studies. Curr Microbiol. 2007;54:213-218. View abstract.
- Roy, K. R., Arunasree, K. M., Reddy, N. P., Dheeraj, B., Reddy, G. V., and Reddanna, P. Alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential by Spirulina platensis C-phycocyanin induces apoptosis in the doxorubicinresistant human hepatocellular-carcinoma cell line HepG2. Biotechnol.Appl Biochem 2007;47(Pt 3):159-167. View abstract.
- Karkos, P. D., Leong, S. C., Arya, A. K., Papouliakos, S. M., Apostolidou, M. T., and Issing, W. J. 'Complementary ENT': a systematic review of commonly used supplements. J Laryngol.Otol. 2007;121:779-782. View abstract.
- Doshi, H., Ray, A., and Kothari, I. L. Bioremediation potential of live and dead Spirulina: spectroscopic, kinetics and SEM studies. Biotechnol.Bioeng. 4-15-2007;96:1051-1063. View abstract.
- Patel, A., Mishra, S., and Ghosh, P. K. Antioxidant potential of C-phycocyanin isolated from cyanobacterial species Lyngbya, Phormidium and Spirulina spp. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2006;43:25-31. View abstract.
- Madhyastha, H. K., Radha, K. S., Sugiki, M., Omura, S., and Maruyama, M. Purification of c-phycocyanin from Spirulina fusiformis and its effect on the induction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator from calf pulmonary endothelial cells. Phytomedicine 2006;13:564-569. View abstract.
- Han, L. K., Li, D. X., Xiang, L., Gong, X. J., Kondo, Y., Suzuki, I., and Okuda, H. [Isolation of pancreatic lipase activity-inhibitory component of spirulina platensis and it reduce postprandial triacylglycerolemia]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2006;126:43-49. View abstract.
- Murthy, K. N., Rajesha, J., Swamy, M. M., and Ravishankar, G. A. Comparative evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of carotenoids of microalgae. J Med Food 2005;8:523-528. View abstract.
- Premkumar, K., Abraham, S. K., Santhiya, S. T., and Ramesh, A. Protective effect of Spirulina fusiformis on chemical-induced genotoxicity in mice. Fitoterapia 2004;75:24-31. View abstract.
- Samuels, R., Mani, U. V., Iyer, U. M., and Nayak, U. S. Hypocholesterolemic effect of spirulina in patients with hyperlipidemic nephrotic syndrome. J Med Food 2002;5:91-96. View abstract.
- Gorban', E. M., Orynchak, M. A., Virstiuk, N. G., Kuprash, L. P., Panteleimonova, T. M., and Sharabura, L. B. [Clinical and experimental study of spirulina efficacy in chronic diffuse liver diseases]. Lik.Sprava. 2000;:89-93. View abstract.
- Gonzalez, R., Rodriguez, S., Romay, C., Gonzalez, A., Armesto, J., Remirez, D., and Merino, N. Anti-inflammatory activity of phycocyanin extract in acetic acid- induced colitis in rats. Pharmacol Res 1999;39:1055-1059. View abstract.
- Bogatov, N. V. [Selenium deficiency and its dietary correction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and chronic catarrhal colitis]. Vopr.Pitan. 2007;76:35-39. View abstract.
- Yakoot, M. and Salem, A. Spirulina platensis versus silymarin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. A pilot randomized, comparative clinical trial. BMC.Gastroenterol. 2012;12:32. View abstract.
- Katz M, Levine AA, Kol-Degani H, Kav-Venaki L. A compound herbal preparation (CHP) in the treatment of children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. J Atten Disord 2010;14:281-91. View abstract.
- Hsiao G, Chou PH, Shen MY, et al. C-phycocyanin, a very potent and novel platelet aggregation inhibitor from Spirulina platensis. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:7734-40. View abstract.
- Chiu HF, Yang SP, Kuo YL, et al. Mechanisms involved in the antiplatelet effect of C-phycocyanin. Br J Nutr 2006;95:435-40. View abstract.
- Genazzani AD, Chierchia E, Lanzoni C, et al. [Effects of Klamath Algae extract on psychological disorders and depression in menopausal women: a pilot study]. Minerva Ginecol 2010;62:381-8. View abstract.
- Branger B, Cadudal JL, Delobel M, et al. [Spiruline as a food supplement in case of infant malnutrition in Burkina-Faso]. Arch Pediatr 2003;10:424-31. View abstract.
- Simpore J, Kabore F, Zongo F, et al. Nutrition rehabilitation of undernourished children utilizing Spiruline and Misola. Nutr J 2006;5:3. View abstract.
- Baicus C, Baicus A. Spirulina did not ameliorate idiopathic chronic fatigue in four N-of-1 randomized controlled trials.Phytother Res 2007;21:570-3. View abstract.
- Kalafati M, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, et al. Ergogenic and antioxidant effects of spirulina supplementation in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42:142-51. View abstract.
- Baicus C, Tanasescu C. Chronic viral hepatitis, the treatment with spiruline for one month has no effect on the aminotransferases. Rom J Intern Med 2002;40:89-94. View abstract.
- Misbahuddin M, Islam A Z, Khandker S, et al. Efficacy of spirulina extract plus zinc in patients of chronic arsenic poisoning: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2006;44:135-41. View abstract.
- Cingi C, Conk-Dalay M, Cakli H, Bal C. The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2008;265:1219-23. View abstract.
- Mani UV, Desai S, Iyer U. Studies on the long-term effect of spirulina supplementation on serum lipid profile and glycated proteins in NIDDM patients. J Nutraceut 2000;2:25-32.
- Nakaya N, Homma Y, Goto Y. Cholesterol lowering effect of spirulina. Nutr Rep Internat 1988;37:1329-37.
- Juarez-Oropeza MA, Mascher D, Torres-Duran PV, Farias JM, Paredes-Carbajal MC. Effects of dietary Spirulina on vascular reactivity.J.Med.Food 2009;12:15-20. View abstract.
- Park HJ, Lee YJ, Ryu HK, et al. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study to establish the effects of spirulina in elderly Koreans. Ann.Nutr.Metab 2008;52:322-8. View abstract.
- Becker EW, Jakober B, Luft D, et al. Clinical and biochemical evaluations of the alga spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity. A double-blind cross-over study. Nutr Report Internat 1986;33:565-74.
- Mathew B, Sankaranarayanan R, Nair PP, et al. Evaluation of chemoprevention of oral cancer with Spirulina fusiforms. Nutr Cancer 1995;24:197-02. View abstract.
- Mao TK, Van de Water J, Gershwin ME. Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients. J Med Food 2005;8:27-30. View abstract.
- Lu HK, Hsieh CC, Hsu JJ, et al. Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis on skeletal muscle damage under exercise-induced oxidative stress. Eur J Appl Physiol 2006;98:220-6. View abstract.
- Hirahashi T, Matsumoto M, Hazeki K, et al. Activation of the human innate immune system by Spirulina: augmentation of interferon production and NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of hot water extract of Spirulina platensis. Int Immunopharmacol 2002;2:423-34. View abstract.
- Vitale S, Miller NR, Mejico LJ, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of super blue-green algae in patients with essential blepharospasm or Meige syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;138:18-32. View abstract.
- Lee AN, Werth VP. Activation of autoimmunity following use of immunostimulatory herbal supplements. Arch Dermatol 2004;140:723-7. View abstract.
- Hayashi O, Katoh T, Okuwaki Y. Enhancement of antibody production in mice by dietary Spirulina platensis. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1994;40:431-41.. View abstract.
- Dagnelie PC. Some algae are potentially adequate sources of vitamin B-12 for vegans. J Nutr 1997;2:379.
- Shastri D, Kumar M, Kumar A. Modulation of lead toxicity by Spirulina fusiformis. Phytother Res 1999;13:258-60.. View abstract.
- Romay C, Armesto J, Remirez D, et al. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue-green algae. Inflamm Res 1998;47:36-41.. View abstract.
- Romay C, Ledon N, Gonzalez R. Further studies on anti-inflammatory activity of phycocyanin in some animal models of inflammation. Inflamm Res 1998;47:334-8.. View abstract.
- Dagnelie PC, van Staveren WA, van den Berg H. Vitamin B-12 from algae appears not to be bioavailable. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:695-7.. View abstract.
- Hayashi O, Hirahashi T, Katoh T, et al. Class specific influence of dietary Spirulina platensis on antibody production in mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1998;44:841-51.. View abstract.
- Kushak RI, Drapeau C, Winter HS. The effect of blue-green algae Aphanizomenon flos-Aquae on nutrient assimilation in rats. JANA 2001;3:35-39.
- Kim HM, Lee EH, Cho HH, Moon YH. Inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in rats by spirulina. Biochem Pharmacol 1998;55:1071-6. View abstract.
- Iwasa M, Yamamoto M, Tanaka Y, et al. Spirulina-associated hepatotoxicity. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:3212-13. View abstract.
- Gilroy DJ, Kauffman KW, Hall RA, et al. Assessing potential health risks from microcystin toxins in blue-green algae dietary supplements. Environ Health Perspect 2000;108:435-9. View abstract.
- Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.
- Anon. Health Canada announces results of blue-green algal products testing – only Spirulina found Microcystin-free. Health Canada, September 27, 1999; URL: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/archives/releases/99_114e.htm (Accessed 27 October 1999).
- Anon. Toxic algae in lake Sammamish. King County, WA. October 28, 1998; URL: splash.metrokc.gov/wlr/waterres/lakes/bloom.htm (Accessed 5 December 1999).
- Kushak RI, Drapeau C, Van Cott EM, Winter HH. Favorable effects of blue-green algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on rat plasma lipids. JANA 2000;2:59-65.
- Jensen GS, Ginsberg DJ, Huerta P, et al. Consumption of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae has rapid effects on the circulation and function of immune cells in humans. A novel approach to nutritional mobilization of the immune system. JANA 2000;2:50-6.
- Blue-Green Algae Protein Is a Promising Anti-HIV Microbicide Candidate. www.medscape.com/reuters/prof/2000/03/03.16/dd03160g.html (Accessed 16 March 2000).
- The Review of Natural Products by Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Co., 1999.