What is it?
Bifidobacteria are commonly used for diarrhea, constipation, an intestinal disorder called irritable bowel syndrome, for preventing the common cold or flu, and lots of other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support many of these uses.
How effective is it?
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.
The effectiveness ratings for BIFIDOBACTERIA are as follows:
Possibly effective for...
- Constipation. Early research shows that taking the bifidobacteria species Bifidobacterium breve can reduce constipation in children. Other research shows that taking Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 reduces constipation in adults with mild constipation. Some research shows that taking Bifidobacterium longum BB536 reduces constipation in some adults. But conflicting results exist.
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Taking probiotics containing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli bacteria can reduce side effects such as diarrhea and taste disturbances caused by medication used to treat Helicobacter pylori infections.
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Taking probiotics appears to help with symptoms of IBS. However, the specific type of probiotic might be important. Taking the bifidobacteria species Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (Align or Bifantis, Proctor & Gamble) for 8 weeks can reduce symptoms of IBS. Also, taking a specific product containing species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus (VSL#3) seems to decrease bloating in people with IBS. However, taking a combination of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 does not improve IBS symptoms.
- A complication after surgery for ulcerative colitis called pouchitis. Taking a specific product containing a combination of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus (VSL#3) by mouth seems to help prevent pouchitis after surgery for ulcerative colitis.
- Airway infections. Research shows that using probiotics containing bifidobacteria might help prevent airway infections such as the common cold in otherwise healthy people. But the specific type of probiotic seems be important. Some research shows that taking Bifidobacterium bifidum reduces the number of college students who experience a cold or the flu. But taking Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis doesn't seem to work in these people. Other research shows that taking a combination product containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium (HOWARU Protect) with milk helps prevent cold and flu symptoms in young children who attend day-care centers. Another study shows that taking a product containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum (Infloran, Berna) reduces the risk of colds in school-aged children. But taking the bifidobacteria species Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis does not reduce the risk of airway infections in hospitalized children and teens.
- Diarrhea in infants (rotaviral diarrhea).Taking Bifidobacterium bifidum seems to help prevent rotaviral diarrhea when used with other bacteria such as Streptococcus thermophiles or Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12.
- Traveler's diarrhea. Taking Bifidobacterium seems to help prevent traveler's diarrhea when used with other bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, or Streptococcus thermophilus.
- Ulcerative colitis. Research shows that taking specific products containing combinations of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus (VSL#3) or Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Lactobacillus acidophilus (Yakult Co., Japan) helps control symptoms and prevent their recurrence in people with ulcerative colitis.
Possibly ineffective for...
- Diarrhea caused by antibiotics. A large study shows that taking a combination of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus does not prevent diarrhea in people taking various antibiotics such as penicillin. Also, taking Bifidobacterium longum does not seem to prevent diarrhea in people taking the antibiotic clindamycin. But one early study shows that taking Bifidobacterium longum reduces stool frequency and stomach discomfort in people taking the antibiotic erythromycin.
- Diarrhea due to an infection with the bacteria Clostridium difficile. A large study shows that taking a combination of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus does not reduce diarrhea in elderly people with Clostridium difficile infection.
- Mortality of premature babies. Adding Bifidobacterium breve to infant formula does not reduce the risk of death in premature babies.
- Infant development. Giving formula containing Bifidobacterium longum BL999 plus prebiotics, or giving Bifidobacterium longum BB536 plus Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Lactobacillus paracasei, does not seem to improve growth in infants.
- Blood infection (sepsis). Adding Bifidobacterium breve to infant formula does not reduce the risk of sepsis in premature babies.
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...
- Scaly, itchy skin (eczema). Some research shows that giving Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 by mouth reduces eczema severity in infants. However, giving Bifidobacterium longum BL999 along with Lactobacillus rhamnosus does not seem to prevent eczema in infants with a family history of the condition.
- Celiac disease. In children with newly diagnosed celiac disease, taking Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 as part of a gluten-free diet does not improve stomach and intestinal symptoms compared to diet alone.
- Infections related to chemotherapy treatment. Early research shows that taking specific products containing Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus (Morinaga Bifidus) or Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Enterococcus faecalis (Levenin) does not prevent yeast infections in people with leukemia who are undergoing chemotherapy.
- High cholesterol. Early research shows that drinking milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus 145 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 reduces "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in people with high cholesterol. But it also seems to reduce "good" high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
- Japanese cedar pollen allergy. Some research shows that taking Bifidobacterium longum BB536 during pollen season might reduce nose and eye symptoms of Japanese cedar pollen allergy. But conflicting results exists. Also, this strain of bifidobacteria does not seem to reduce sneezing or throat symptoms associated with Japanese cedar pollen allergy.
- A type of infection in the lining of the intestine caused by bacteria (necrotizing enterocolitis; NEC). One study shows that taking Bifidobacterium infantis along with Lactobacillus acidophilus helps prevent NEC in critically ill infants. But giving formula containing Bifidobacterium breve BBG-001 to premature infants does not help prevent NEC.
- Preventing infections after exposure to radiation. Early research shows that antibiotic-resistant Bifidobacterium longum can help improve short-term survival in the treatment of radiation sickness. In combination with antibiotics, bifidobacteria appear to help prevent dangerous bacteria from growing and causing a serious infection.
- Breast pain, possibly due to infection (mastitis).
- Lactose intolerance.
- Liver problems.
- Lyme disease.
- Replacing beneficial bacteria removed by diarrhea.
- Stomach problems.
- Other conditions.
How does it work?
Are there safety concerns?
Special precautions & warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking bifidobacteria if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Weakened immune system: There is some concern that "probiotics" might grow too well in people with a weak immune system and cause infections. Although this has not occurred specifically with bifidobacteria, there have been rare cases involving other probiotic species such as Lactobacillus. If you have a weakened immune system (e.g., you have HIV/AIDS or are undergoing cancer treatment), check with your healthcare provider before using bifidobacteria.
Are there interactions with medications?
- Antibiotic drugs
- Antibiotics are used to reduce harmful bacteria in the body. Antibiotics can also reduce friendly bacteria in the body. Bifidobacteria are a type of friendly bacteria. Taking antibiotics along with bifidobacteria might reduce the effectiveness of bifidobacteria. To avoid this interaction, take bifidobacteria products at least two hours before or after antibiotics.
Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?
- There are no known interactions with herbs and supplements.
Are there interactions with foods?
- There are no known interactions with foods.
What dose is used?
- For constipation: 1-10 billion cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 daily for 4 weeks have been used. 2-20 billion cells of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 daily for 1 week have also been used.
- For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): 1 billion cells of Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (Align or Bifantis) daily in a malted milk drink has been used for 8 weeks. A specific probiotic product containing 450 billion cells of a combination of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus (VSL#3) has been used for 8 week.
- For airway infections: 3 billion cells of Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 have been used daily for 6 weeks.
- For a complication after surgery for ulcerative colitis called pouchitis: a dose of up to 3 trillion cells consisting of species of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus (VSL#3) has been given once daily for up to 12 months.
- For Helicobacter pylori treatment: 5 billion cells of Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus daily for 1 week has been used.
- For ulcerative colitis:
- 100 mL per day of a specific fermented milk product (Yakult, Yakult Honsha Co., Ltd.) containing at least 10 billion cells of Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Lactobacillus acidophilus strains per dose has been used daily for up to 12 weeks.
- 3 grams of a specific combination probiotic containing living freeze-dried bacteria species including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus (VSL#3) has been used twice daily.
- For constipation: 1-100 billion cells of a specific Bifidobacterium breve powder (Yakult, Yakult Honsha Co., Ltd.) once daily for 4 weeks has been used in children aged 3-16 years.
- For airway infections: 120 mL of milk containing 5 billion cells each of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium (HOWARU Protect, Danisco) has been used twice daily in children aged 3-5 years.
- Diarrhea in infants (rotaviral diarrhea): Bifidobacterium bifidum combined with Streptococcus thermophilus has been used in infants and children up to 3 years-old.
- Ulcerative colitis: Up to 1.8 trillion cells consisting of species of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus (VSL#3) has been used daily for up to 1 year in children 1-16 years-old.
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.
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