URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/845.html


What is it?

Spearmint is an herb. The leaves and oil are used to make medicine.

Spearmint is used for digestive disorders including gas, indigestion, nausea, diarrhea, upper gastrointestinal tract spasms, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), bile duct and gallbladder swelling (inflammation), and gallstones.

It is also used for sore throat, colds, headaches, toothaches, cramps, cancer and inflammation of respiratory tract. Some people use it as a stimulant, germ-killer, local pain-killer, and anti-spasm medication.

Spearmint is applied directly to the skin for swelling inside the mouth, arthritis, local muscle and nerve pain, and skin conditions including pruritus and urticaria.

In foods and beverages, spearmint is used as a flavoring agent.

In manufacturing, spearmint is used in health food products, cosmetics, and oral hygiene products such as mouthwash and toothpaste.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for SPEARMINT are as follows:

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Memory. Chewing spearmint-flavored gum does not appear to improve memory in healthy adults.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Male-pattern hair growth in women (hirsutism). Early research suggests that drinking spearmint tea twice daily for up to one month can decrease levels of male sex hormone (testosterone) and increase levels of female sex hormone (estradiol) and other hormones in women with male-pattern hair growth. Also, early research suggests that drinking spearmint tea might reduce the severity of male-pattern hair growth based on patient evaluation in women with male-pattern hair growth due to polycystic ovarian syndrome. However, it does not seem to reduce the amount or location of male-pattern hair growth based on clinical evaluation.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early research suggests that using 30 drops of a product containing lemon balm, spearmint, and coriander (Carmint) after meals for 8 weeks reduces stomach pain in people with IBS when taken along with the drug loperamide or psyllium.
  • Gas (flatulence).
  • Indigestion.
  • Nausea.
  • Sore throat.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Colds.
  • Headaches.
  • Toothaches.
  • Cramps.
  • Cancer.
  • Arthritis.
  • Muscle pain.
  • Skin conditions.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of spearmint for these uses.

How does it work?

The oil in spearmint is thought to calm the stomach.

Are there safety concerns?

Spearmint and spearmint oil are LIKELY SAFE when eaten in amount commonly found in food. Spearmint is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts or when applied to the skin.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Spearmint is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used in excessive amounts during pregnancy. Excessive use of spearmint tea might cause damage to the uterus. Avoid using in large amounts of spearmint during pregnancy.

There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking spearmint if you are breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid using in amounts greater than those found in food.

Kidney disorders: Spearmint tea might increase kidney damage. Higher amounts of spearmint tea seem to have greater effects. In theory, using large amounts of spearmint tea might make kidney disorders worse.

Liver disease: Spearmint tea might increase liver damage. Higher amounts of spearmint tea seem to have greater effects. In theory, using large amounts of spearmint tea might make worsen liver disease.

Are there interactions with medications?

Be cautious with this combination.
Medications that can harm the liver (Hepatotoxic drugs)
Spearmint might harm the liver when used in large amounts. Some medications can harm the liver as well. Using large amounts of spearmint along with these medications might increase the risk of liver damage. Don't use large amounts of spearmint if you are taking a medication that can harm the liver.

Some medications that can harm the liver include acetaminophen (Tylenol and others), amiodarone (Cordarone), carbamazepine (Tegretol), isoniazid (INH), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), methyldopa (Aldomet), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), erythromycin (Erythrocin, Ilosone, others), phenytoin (Dilantin) , lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), simvastatin (Zocor), and many others.
Sedative medications (CNS depressants)
Spearmint contains a chemical that might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedative medications. Taking spearmint and sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Herbs and supplements that cause sleepiness and drowsiness
Spearmint contains a chemical that might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Taking spearmint and using natural products that also cause sleepiness might cause too much sleepiness and drowsiness. Some of these include 5-HTP, calamus, California poppy, catnip, hops, Jamaican dogwood, kava, St. John's wort, skullcap, valerian, yerba mansa, and others.
Herbs and supplements that might damage the liver
Spearment might harm the liver. Using it along with other natural products that may also harm the liver may increase the chance of liver damage. Some of these products include androstenedione, chaparral, comfrey, DHEA, germander, niacin, pennyroyal oil, red yeast, and others.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

The appropriate dose of spearmint depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for spearmint. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Other names

Curled Mint, Fish Mint, Garden Mint, Green Mint, Hierbabuena, Huile Essentielle de Menthe Verte, Lamb Mint, Mackerel Mint, Menta Verde, Mentha cordifolia, Mentha crispa, Mentha spicata, Mentha viridis, Menthe Verte, Menthe Crépue, Menthe Douce, Menthe à Épis, Menthe Frisée, Menthe des Jardins, Menthe Romaine, Our Lady's Mint, Pahari Pudina, Putiha, Sage of Bethlehem, Spearmint Essential Oil, Spire Mint, Yerba Buena, Yerbabuena.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


  1. Zandi, P Ahmadi L. Antioxidant effect of plant extracts of Labiatae family. Journal of Food Science and Technology 2000;37:436-439.
  2. Srivastava, V. K. Goel U. Naik S. N. Assessing the allelopathic potential in Ocimum and Mentha species. International Journal of Ecology & Environmental Sciences 1998;24:431.
  3. Cates, L. A. and Brandino, T. F. Quantitation of salicylate or other complexing agents in flavors. Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy (Canada) 1979;32:169-170.
  4. Mouhajir, F. Pedersen J. A. Rejdali M. Towers G. H. N. Phenolics in Moroccan Medicinal Plant Species as Studied by ElectronSpin Resonance Spectroscopy. Pharmaceutical Biology 2001;39:391.
  5. Hendriks, H. Pharmaceutical aspects of some Mentha herbs and their essential oils. Perfumer and Flavorist 1998;23:15-23.
  6. Arumugam, P. Priya N. Subathra M. Ramesh A. Environmental Toxicology & Pharmacology 2008;26:92-95.
  7. Pratap, S, Mithravinda, Mohan, YS, Rajoshi, C, and Reddy, PM. Antimicrobial activity and bioautography of essential oils from selected Indian medicinal plants (MAPS-P-410). International Pharmaceutical Federation World Congress 2002;62:133.
  8. Inouye S, Uchida K, and Abe S. Volatile composition and vapour activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes of 36 aromatic herbs cultivated in Chichibu district in Japan. International Journal of Aromatherapy 2006;16(3-4):159-168.
  9. Williams, D. C., McGarvey, D. J., Katahira, E. J., and Croteau, R. Truncation of limonene synthase preprotein provides a fully active 'pseudomature' form of this monoterpene cyclase and reveals the function of the amino-terminal arginine pair. Biochemistry 9-1-1998;37:12213-12220. View abstract.
  10. Skrebova, N., Brocks, K., and Karlsmark, T. Allergic contact cheilitis from spearmint oil. Contact Dermatitis 1998;39:35. View abstract.
  11. Gilbert, E. S. and Crowley, D. E. Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B. Appl.Environ Microbiol 1997;63:1933-1938. View abstract.
  12. Lupien, S., Karp, F., Ponnamperuma, K., Wildung, M., and Croteau, R. Cytochrome P450 limonene hydroxylases of Mentha species. Drug Metabol.Drug Interact. 1995;12(3-4):245-260. View abstract.
  13. Yuba, A., Yazaki, K., Tabata, M., Honda, G., and Croteau, R. cDNA cloning, characterization, and functional expression of 4S-(-)-limonene synthase from Perilla frutescens. Arch Biochem.Biophys. 8-15-1996;332:280-287. View abstract.
  14. Ponnamperuma, K. and Croteau, R. Purification and characterization of an NADPH-cytochrome P450 (cytochrome c) reductase from spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes. Arch Biochem.Biophys. 5-1-1996;329:9-16. View abstract.
  15. Alonso, W. R., Crock, J. E., and Croteau, R. Production and characterization of polyclonal antibodies in rabbits to 4S-limonene synthase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Arch Biochem.Biophys. 2-15-1993;301:58-63. View abstract.
  16. Savage, T. J., Hatch, M. W., and Croteau, R. Monoterpene synthases of Pinus contorta and related conifers. A new class of terpenoid cyclase. J Biol Chem 2-11-1994;269:4012-4020. View abstract.
  17. Croteau, R., Alonso, W. R., Koepp, A. E., Shim, J. H., and Cane, D. E. Irreversible inactivation of monoterpene cyclases by a mechanism-based inhibitor. Arch Biochem.Biophys. 1993;307:397-404. View abstract.
  18. Colby, S. M., Alonso, W. R., Katahira, E. J., McGarvey, D. J., and Croteau, R. 4S-limonene synthase from the oil glands of spearmint (Mentha spicata). cDNA isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of the catalytically active monoterpene cyclase. J Biol Chem 11-5-1993;268:23016-23024. View abstract.
  19. Mau, C. J. and West, C. A. Cloning of casbene synthase cDNA: evidence for conserved structural features among terpenoid cyclases in plants. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci U.S.A 8-30-1994;91:8497-8501. View abstract.
  20. Dong, C., Puckett, A. D., Jr., and Dawes, C. The effects of chewing frequency and duration of gum chewing on salivary flow rate and sucrose concentration. Arch Oral Biol 1995;40:585-588. View abstract.
  21. Dawes, C. and Dong, C. The flow rate and electrolyte composition of whole saliva elicited by the use of sucrose-containing and sugar-free chewing-gums. Arch Oral Biol 1995;40:699-705. View abstract.
  22. Kjonaas, R. and Croteau, R. Demonstration that limonene is the first cyclic intermediate in the biosynthesis of oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes in Mentha piperita and other Mentha species. Arch Biochem.Biophys. 1983;220:79-89. View abstract.
  23. Ormerod, A. D. and Main, R. A. Sensitisation to "sensitive teeth" toothpaste. Contact Dermatitis 1985;13:192-193. View abstract.
  24. Ke, S. Y., Liu, D. L., Ma, Z. D., and Liu, Y. J. [Study on the extraction of total flavonoids from Mentha spicata by ultrasonic method]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2009;32:1288-1290. View abstract.
  25. Mkaddem, M., Bouajila, J., Ennajar, M., Lebrihi, A., Mathieu, F., and Romdhane, M. Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Mentha (longifolia L. and viridis) essential oils. J Food Sci 2009;74:M358-M363. View abstract.
  26. Yoney, A., Prieto, J. M., Lardos, A., and Heinrich, M. Ethnopharmacy of Turkish-speaking Cypriots in Greater London. Phytother.Res 2010;24:731-740. View abstract.
  27. Arumugam, P. and Ramesh, A. Antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential of aqueous fraction of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata (L.) against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced chromosome damage in mice. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2009;32:411-416. View abstract.
  28. Rasooli, I., Shayegh, S., and Astaneh, S. The effect of Mentha spicata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils on dental biofilm. Int J Dent.Hyg. 2009;7:196-203. View abstract.
  29. Torney, L. K., Johnson, A. J., and Miles, C. Chewing gum and impasse-induced self-reported stress. Appetite 2009;53:414-417. View abstract.
  30. Tisserat, B., Berhow, M., and Vaughn, S. F. Spearmint plantlet culture system as a means to study secondary metabolism. Methods Mol.Biol 2009;547:313-324. View abstract.
  31. Akacha, N. B., Karboune, S., Gargouri, M., and Kermasha, S. Activation and Stabilization of The Hydroperoxide Lyase Enzymatic Extract from Mint Leaves (Mentha spicata) Using Selected Chemical Additives. Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol 5-11-2009; View abstract.
  32. Da Porto, C. and Decorti, D. Ultrasound-assisted extraction coupled with under vacuum distillation of flavour compounds from spearmint (carvone-rich) plants: Comparison with conventional hydrodistillation. Ultrason.Sonochem. 2009;16:795-799. View abstract.
  33. Walker, J. T. and Melin, J. B. Mentha x piperita, Mentha spicata and Effects of Their Essential Oils on Meloidogyne in Soil. J Nematol. 1996;28(4S):629-635. View abstract.
  34. Albuquerque, F. S., Peso-Aguiar, M. C., and Assuncao-Albuquerque, M. J. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil. Braz.J Biol 2008;68:837-842. View abstract.
  35. Kawasaki, H., Morinushi, T., Yakushiji, M., and Takigawa, M. Nonlinear dynamical analysis of the effect by six stimuli on electroencephalogram. J Clin.Neurophysiol. 2009;26:24-38. View abstract.
  36. Kivilompolo, M. and Hyotylainen, T. On-line coupled dynamic sonication-assisted extraction-liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic acids in Lamiaceae herbs. J Chromatogr.A 2-6-2009;1216:892-896. View abstract.
  37. Hosseinimehr, S. J., Pourmorad, F., Shahabimajd, N., Shahrbandy, K., and Hosseinzadeh, R. In vitro antioxidant activity of Polygonium hyrcanicum, Centaurea depressa, Sambucus ebulus, Mentha spicata and Phytolacca americana. Pak.J Biol Sci 2-15-2007;10:637-640. View abstract.
  38. PEPPERMINT and spearmint. Drug Cosmet.Ind 1948;62:44. View abstract.
  39. Haksar, A., Sharma, A., Chawla, R., Kumar, R., Lahiri, S. S., Islam, F., Arora, M. P., Sharma, R. K., Tripathi, R. P., and Arora, R. Mint oil (Mentha spicata Linn.) offers behavioral radioprotection: a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion study. Phytother.Res 2009;23:293-296. View abstract.
  40. Zhao, C. Z., Wang, Y., Tang, F. D., Zhao, X. J., Xu, Q. P., Xia, J. F., and Zhu, Y. F. [Effect of Spearmint oil on inflammation, oxidative alteration and Nrf2 expression in lung tissue of COPD rats]. Zhejiang.Da.Xue.Xue.Bao.Yi.Xue.Ban. 2008;37:357-363. View abstract.
  41. Munoz-Bertomeu, J., Ros, R., Arrillaga, I., and Segura, J. Expression of spearmint limonene synthase in transgenic spike lavender results in an altered monoterpene composition in developing leaves. Metab Eng 2008;10(3-4):166-177. View abstract.
  42. Goncalves, J. C., Oliveira, Fde S., Benedito, R. B., de Sousa, D. P., de Almeida, R. N., and de Araujo, D. A. Antinociceptive activity of (-)-carvone: evidence of association with decreased peripheral nerve excitability. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:1017-1020. View abstract.
  43. Vian, M. A., Fernandez, X., Visinoni, F., and Chemat, F. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity, a new technique for extraction of essential oils. J Chromatogr.A 5-9-2008;1190(1-2):14-17. View abstract.
  44. HOCKING, G. M. Scotch mint and spearmint; a comparative study of cultural, morphological, and histological characteristics of species of Mentha growing in Florida. J Am.Pharm Assoc.Am.Pharm Assoc. 1949;38:394-402. View abstract.
  45. Zheng, J., Chen, G. T., Gao, H. Y., Wu, B., and Wu, L. J. Two new lignans from Mentha spicata L. J Asian Nat.Prod.Res 2007;9(3-5):431-435. View abstract.
  46. Johnson, A. J. and Miles, C. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory: the independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour. Br.J Psychol. 2008;99(Pt 2):293-306. View abstract.
  47. Arzani, A., Zeinali, H., and Razmjo, K. Iron and magnesium concentrations of mint accessions (Mentha spp.). Plant Physiol Biochem. 2007;45:323-329. View abstract.
  48. Hyatt, D. C., Youn, B., Zhao, Y., Santhamma, B., Coates, R. M., Croteau, R. B., and Kang, C. Structure of limonene synthase, a simple model for terpenoid cyclase catalysis. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci U.S.A 3-27-2007;104:5360-5365. View abstract.
  49. Maffei, M., Gallino, M., and Sacco, T. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oils of Developing Leaves in Mentha viridis lavanduliodora. Planta Med 1986;52:187-193. View abstract.
  50. Misra, L. N., Tyagi, B. R., and Thakur, R. S. Chemotypic variation in Indian spearmint*. Planta Med 1989;55:575-576. View abstract.
  51. Svendsen, A. B. and Merkx, I. J. A simple method for screening of fresh plant material for glycosidic bound volatile compounds. Planta Med 1989;55:38-40. View abstract.
  52. Murray, M. J. The Genetic Basis for a Third Ketone Group in Mentha Spicata L. Genetics 1960;45:931-937. View abstract.
  53. Johnson, A. J. and Miles, C. Evidence against memorial facilitation and context-dependent memory effects through the chewing of gum. Appetite 2007;48:394-396. View abstract.
  54. Miles, C. and Johnson, A. J. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory effects: a re-examination. Appetite 2007;48:154-158. View abstract.
  55. Kiselova, Y., Ivanova, D., Chervenkov, T., Gerova, D., Galunska, B., and Yankova, T. Correlation between the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of aqueous extracts from Bulgarian herbs. Phytother.Res 2006;20:961-965. View abstract.
  56. Marin, C. and Schippa, C. Identification of monomenthyl succinate in natural mint extracts by LC-ESI-MS-MS and GC-MS. J Agric Food Chem 6-28-2006;54:4814-4819. View abstract.
  57. Chen, G. T., Gao, H. Y., Zheng, J., Wu, B., Yang, X. K., and Wu, L. J. [Study of chemical constituents in active parts of Mentha spicata III]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:560-562. View abstract.
  58. Gershenzon, J., Maffei, M., and Croteau, R. Biochemical and Histochemical Localization of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in the Glandular Trichomes of Spearmint (Mentha spicata). Plant Physiol 1989;89:1351-1357. View abstract.
  59. Choudhury, R. P., Kumar, A., and Garg, A. N. Analysis of Indian mint (Mentha spicata) for essential, trace and toxic elements and its antioxidant behaviour. J Pharm Biomed.Anal. 6-7-2006;41:825-832. View abstract.
  60. Arumugam, P., Ramamurthy, P., Santhiya, S. T., and Ramesh, A. Antioxidant activity measured in different solvent fractions obtained from Mentha spicata Linn.: an analysis by ABTS*+ decolorization assay. Asia Pac.J Clin.Nutr. 2006;15:119-124. View abstract.
  61. Dal Sacco, D., Gibelli, D., and Gallo, R. Contact allergy in the burning mouth syndrome: a retrospective study on 38 patients. Acta Derm.Venereol. 2005;85:63-64. View abstract.
  62. Ringer, K. L., Davis, E. M., and Croteau, R. Monoterpene metabolism. Cloning, expression, and characterization of (-)-isopiperitenol/(-)-carveol dehydrogenase of peppermint and spearmint. Plant Physiol 2005;137:863-872. View abstract.
  63. Clayton, R. and Orton, D. Contact allergy to spearmint oil in a patient with oral lichen planus. Contact Dermatitis 2004;51(5-6):314-315. View abstract.
  64. Alonso, W. R., Rajaonarivony, J. I., Gershenzon, J., and Croteau, R. Purification of 4S-limonene synthase, a monoterpene cyclase from the glandular trichomes of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). J Biol Chem 4-15-1992;267:7582-7587. View abstract.
  65. Gessner, R., Rosch, P., Petry, R., Schmitt, M., Strehle, M. A., Kiefer, W., and Popp, J. The application of a SERS fiber probe for the investigation of sensitive biological samples. Analyst 2004;129:1193-1199. View abstract.
  66. Turner, G. W. and Croteau, R. Organization of monoterpene biosynthesis in Mentha. Immunocytochemical localizations of geranyl diphosphate synthase, limonene-6-hydroxylase, isopiperitenol dehydrogenase, and pulegone reductase. Plant Physiol 2004;136:4215-4227. View abstract.
  67. Yu, T. W., Xu, M., and Dashwood, R. H. Antimutagenic activity of spearmint. Environ Mol.Mutagen. 2004;44:387-393. View abstract.
  68. Baker, J. R., Bezance, J. B., Zellaby, E., and Aggleton, J. P. Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory. Appetite 2004;43:207-210. View abstract.
  69. Tomson, N., Murdoch, S., and Finch, T. M. The dangers of making mint sauce. Contact Dermatitis 2004;51:92-93. View abstract.
  70. Lucchesi, M. E., Chemat, F., and Smadja, J. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation. J Chromatogr.A 7-23-2004;1043:323-327. View abstract.
  71. Tripathi, A. K., Prajapati, V., Ahmad, A., Aggarwal, K. K., and Khanuja, S. P. Piperitenone oxide as toxic, repellent, and reproduction retardant toward malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Anophelinae). J Med Entomol. 2004;41:691-698. View abstract.
  72. Fiamegos, Y. C., Nanos, C. G., Vervoort, J., and Stalikas, C. D. Analytical procedure for the in-vial derivatization--extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids in methanolic and aqueous plant extracts followed by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection. J Chromatogr.A 7-2-2004;1041(1-2):11-18. View abstract.
  73. Lucker, J., Schwab, W., Franssen, M. C., Van Der Plas, L. H., Bouwmeester, H. J., and Verhoeven, H. A. Metabolic engineering of monoterpene biosynthesis: two-step production of (+)-trans-isopiperitenol by tobacco. Plant J 2004;39:135-145. View abstract.
  74. Gargouri, M., Drouet, P., and Legoy, M. D. Hydroperoxide-lyase activity in mint leaves. Volatile C6-aldehyde production from hydroperoxy-fatty acids. J Biotechnol. 7-1-2004;111:59-65. View abstract.
  75. Tucha, O., Mecklinger, L., Maier, K., Hammerl, M., and Lange, K. W. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects. Appetite 2004;42:327-329. View abstract.
  76. SMALL, L. D., DUSENBERRY, J. E., and GLOOR, W. T., Jr. The determination of carvone in oil of spearmint. J Am.Pharm Assoc.Am.Pharm Assoc. 1952;41:280-282. View abstract.
  77. Burke, C., Klettke, K., and Croteau, R. Heteromeric geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint: construction of a functional fusion protein and inhibition by bisphosphonate substrate analogs. Arch Biochem.Biophys. 2-1-2004;422:52-60. View abstract.
  78. Dorman, H. J., Kosar, M., Kahlos, K., Holm, Y., and Hiltunen, R. Antioxidant properties and composition of aqueous extracts from Mentha species, hybrids, varieties, and cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 7-30-2003;51:4563-4569. View abstract.
  79. Bertea, C., Schalk, M., Mau, C. J., Karp, F., Wildung, M. R., and Croteau, R. Molecular evaluation of a spearmint mutant altered in the expression of limonene hydroxylases that direct essential oil monoterpene biosynthesis. Phytochemistry 2003;64:1203-1211. View abstract.
  80. ROOTH, A. G. and HEGNAUER, R. [Study on mint. 8. The anatomy of Mentha arvensis, Mentha spicata, and the hybrid forms, Mentha gentilis and Mentha dalmatica.]. Pharm Weekbl 6-4-1955;90:413-427. View abstract.
  81. BURKS, T. F. and GJERSTAD, G. PRESENCE OF THREE NEW INGREDIENTS IN SPEARMINT OIL. J Pharm Sci 1964;53:964-965. View abstract.
  82. FIKENSCHER, L. H. and HEGNAUER, R. [Study on spearmint. IV. The anatomy of Mentha rotundifolia, Mentha longifolia and two hybrids.]. Pharm Weekbl 4-10-1954;89(15-16):233-241. View abstract.
  83. FIKENSCHER, L. H. and HEGNAUER, R. [Study on spearmint. IV. The anatomy of Mentha rotundifolia, Mentha longifolia and two hybrids.]. Pharm Weekbl 3-27-1954;89(13-14):193-212. View abstract.
  84. Carter, O. A., Peters, R. J., and Croteau, R. Monoterpene biosynthesis pathway construction in Escherichia coli. Phytochemistry 2003;64:425-433. View abstract.
  85. Zheng, J., Zhao, D. S., Wu, B., and Wu, L. J. [A study on chemical constituents in the herb of Mentha spicata]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2002;27:749-751. View abstract.
  86. Zheng, J., Wu, L. J., Zheng, L., Wu, B., and Song, A. H. Two new monoterpenoid glycosides from Mentha spicata L. J Asian Nat.Prod.Res 2003;5:69-73. View abstract.
  87. Diaz-Maroto, M. C., Perez-Coello, M. S., Gonzalez Vinas, M. A., and Cabezudo, M. D. Influence of drying on the flavor quality of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). J Agric Food Chem 2-26-2003;51:1265-1269. View abstract.
  88. Wilkinson, L., Scholey, A., and Wesnes, K. Chewing gum selectively improves aspects of memory in healthy volunteers. Appetite 2002;38:235-236. View abstract.
  89. Bonamonte, D., Mundo, L., Daddabbo, M., and Foti, C. Allergic contact dermatitis from Mentha spicata (spearmint). Contact Dermatitis 2001;45:298. View abstract.
  90. Schwab, W., Williams, D. C., Davis, E. M., and Croteau, R. Mechanism of monoterpene cyclization: stereochemical aspects of the transformation of noncyclizable substrate analogs by recombinant (-)-limonene synthase, (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, and (-)-pinene synthase. Arch Biochem.Biophys. 8-1-2001;392:123-136. View abstract.
  91. Fuchs, S., Beck, T., and Mosandl, A. Different stereoselectivity in the reduction of pulegone by Mentha species. Planta Med 2001;67:260-262. View abstract.
  92. Schalk, M. and Croteau, R. A single amino acid substitution (F363I) converts the regiochemistry of the spearmint (-)-limonene hydroxylase from a C6- to a C3-hydroxylase. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci U.S.A 10-24-2000;97:11948-11953. View abstract.
  93. Saleem, M., Alam, A., and Sultana, S. Attenuation of benzoyl peroxide-mediated cutaneous oxidative stress and hyperproliferative response by the prophylactic treatment of mice with spearmint (Mentha spicata). Food Chem Toxicol. 2000;38:939-948. View abstract.
  94. Francalanci, S., Sertoli, A., Giorgini, S., Pigatto, P., Santucci, B., and Valsecchi, R. Multicentre study of allergic contact cheilitis from toothpastes. Contact Dermatitis 2000;43:216-222. View abstract.
  95. Haudenschild, C., Schalk, M., Karp, F., and Croteau, R. Functional expression of regiospecific cytochrome P450 limonene hydroxylases from mint (Mentha spp.) in Escherichia coli and saccharomyces cerevisiae. Arch Biochem.Biophys. 7-1-2000;379:127-136. View abstract.
  96. Coleman, W. M., III and Lawrence, B. M. Examination of the enantiomeric distribution of certain monoterpene hydrocarbons in selected essential oils by automated solid-phase microextraction-chiral gas chromatography-mass selective detection. J Chromatogr.Sci 2000;38:95-99. View abstract.
  97. Jia, J. W., Crock, J., Lu, S., Croteau, R., and Chen, X. Y. (3R)-Linalool synthase from Artemisia annua L.: cDNA isolation, characterization, and wound induction. Arch Biochem.Biophys. 12-1-1999;372:143-149. View abstract.
  98. Burke, C. C., Wildung, M. R., and Croteau, R. Geranyl diphosphate synthase: cloning, expression, and characterization of this prenyltransferase as a heterodimer. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci U.S.A 11-9-1999;96:13062-13067. View abstract.
  99. Lupien, S., Karp, F., Wildung, M., and Croteau, R. Regiospecific cytochrome P450 limonene hydroxylases from mint (Mentha) species: cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of (-)-4S-limonene-3-hydroxylase and (-)-4S-limonene-6-hydroxylase. Arch Biochem.Biophys. 8-1-1999;368:181-192. View abstract.
  100. Bulat, R., Fachnie, E., Chauhan, U., Chen, Y., and Tougas, G. Lack of effect of spearmint on lower oesophageal sphincter function and acid reflux in healthy volunteers. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther. 1999;13:805-812. View abstract.
  101. Masumoto, Y., Morinushi, T., Kawasaki, H., Ogura, T., and Takigawa, M. Effects of three principal constituents in chewing gum on electroencephalographic activity. Psychiatry Clin.Neurosci. 1999;53:17-23. View abstract.
  102. McGeady, P. and Croteau, R. Isolation and characterization of an active-site peptide from a monoterpene cyclase labeled with a mechanism-based inhibitor. Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 2-20-1995;317:149-155. View abstract.
  103. Funk, C. and Croteau, R. Induction and Characterization of a Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Camphor Hydroxylase in Tissue Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis). Plant Physiol 1993;101:1231-1237. View abstract.
  104. Ariana, A., Ebadi, R., and Tahmasebi, G. Laboratory evaluation of some plant essences to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 2002;27:319-327. View abstract.
  105. Karp, F., Mihaliak, C. A., Harris, J. L., and Croteau, R. Monoterpene biosynthesis: specificity of the hydroxylations of (-)-limonene by enzyme preparations from peppermint (Mentha piperita), spearmint (Mentha spicata), and perilla (Perilla frutescens) leaves. Arch Biochem Biophys 1990;276:219-226. View abstract.
  106. Grant, P. Spearmint herbal tea has significant anti-androgen effects in polycystic ovarian syndrome. A randomized controlled trial. Phytother.Res 2010;24:186-188. View abstract.
  107. Sokovic, M. D., Vukojevic, J., Marin, P. D., Brkic, D. D., Vajs, V., and van Griensven, L. J. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities. Molecules. 2009;14:238-249. View abstract.
  108. Kumar, V., Kural, M. R., Pereira, B. M., and Roy, P. Spearmint induced hypothalamic oxidative stress and testicular anti-androgenicity in male rats - altered levels of gene expression, enzymes and hormones. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3563-3570. View abstract.
  109. Akdogan, M., Tamer, M. N., Cure, E., Cure, M. C., Koroglu, B. K., and Delibas, N. Effect of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) teas on androgen levels in women with hirsutism. Phytother.Res 2007;21:444-447. View abstract.
  110. Guney, M., Oral, B., Karahanli, N., Mungan, T., and Akdogan, M. The effect of Mentha spicata Labiatae on uterine tissue in rats. Toxicol.Ind.Health 2006;22:343-348. View abstract.
  111. Akdogan, M., Kilinc, I., Oncu, M., Karaoz, E., and Delibas, N. Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. and Mentha spicata L. on kidney tissue in rats. Hum.Exp Toxicol. 2003;22:213-219. View abstract.
  112. Imai, H., Osawa, K., Yasuda, H., Hamashima, H., Arai, T., and Sasatsu, M. Inhibition by the essential oils of peppermint and spearmint of the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Microbios 2001;106 Suppl 1:31-39. View abstract.
  113. Kivilompolo, M. and Hyotylainen, T. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography in analysis of Lamiaceae herbs: characterisation and quantification of antioxidant phenolic acids. J Chromatogr.A 3-23-2007;1145(1-2):155-164. View abstract.
  114. Abe, S., Maruyama, N., Hayama, K., Inouye, S., Oshima, H., and Yamaguchi, H. Suppression of neutrophil recruitment in mice by geranium essential oil. Mediators.Inflamm. 2004;13:21-24. View abstract.
  115. Abe, S., Maruyama, N., Hayama, K., Ishibashi, H., Inoue, S., Oshima, H., and Yamaguchi, H. Suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced neutrophil adherence responses by essential oils. Mediators.Inflamm. 2003;12:323-328. View abstract.
  116. Raja, N., Albert, S., Ignacimuthu, S., and Dorn, S. Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation. J Stored.Prod.Res 2001;37:127-132. View abstract.
  117. Larsen, W., Nakayama, H., Fischer, T., Elsner, P., Frosch, P., Burrows, D., Jordan, W., Shaw, S., Wilkinson, J., Marks, J., Jr., Sugawara, M., Nethercott, M., and Nethercott, J. Fragrance contact dermatitis: a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part II). Contact Dermatitis 2001;44:344-346. View abstract.
  118. Tognolini, M., Barocelli, E., Ballabeni, V., Bruni, R., Bianchi, A., Chiavarini, M., and Impicciatore, M. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity. Life Sci. 2-23-2006;78:1419-1432. View abstract.
  119. Rafii, F. and Shahverdi, A. R. Comparison of essential oils from three plants for enhancement of antimicrobial activity of nitrofurantoin against enterobacteria. Chemotherapy 2007;53:21-25. View abstract.
  120. Adam, M., Dobias, P., Eisner, A., and Ventura, K. Extraction of antioxidants from plants using ultrasonic methods and their antioxidant capacity. J Sep.Sci. 2009;32:288-294. View abstract.
  121. Belanger, J. T. Perillyl alcohol: applications in oncology. Altern Med Rev 1998;3:448-457. View abstract.
  122. Held, D. W., Gonsiska, P., and Potter, D. A. Evaluating companion planting and non-host masking odors for protecting roses from the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J.Econ.Entomol. 2003;96:81-87. View abstract.
  123. Friedman, L. and Miller, J. G. Odor incongruity and chirality. Science 6-4-1971;172:1044-1046. View abstract.
  124. George, D. R., Sparagano, O. A., Port, G., Okello, E., Shiel, R. S., and Guy, J. H. Repellence of plant essential oils to Dermanyssus gallinae and toxicity to the non-target invertebrate Tenebrio molitor. Vet.Parasitol. 5-26-2009;162(1-2):129-134. View abstract.
  125. Park, I. K., Kim, J. N., Lee, Y. S., Lee, S. G., Ahn, Y. J., and Shin, S. C. Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae). J Econ.Entomol. 2008;101:139-144. View abstract.
  126. de Sousa, D. P., Farias Nobrega, F. F., and de Almeida, R. N. Influence of the chirality of (R)-(-)- and (S)-(+)-carvone in the central nervous system: a comparative study. Chirality 5-5-2007;19:264-268. View abstract.
  127. Choi, W. I., Lee, S. G., Park, H. M., and Ahn, Y. J. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). J Econ Entomol. 2004;97:553-558. View abstract.
  128. Choi, W. I., Lee, E. H., Choi, B. R., Park, H. M., and Ahn, Y. J. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J Econ.Entomol. 2003;96:1479-1484. View abstract.
  129. Papageorgiou, V., Mallouchos, A., and Komaitis, M. Investigation of the antioxidant behavior of air- and freeze-dried aromatic plant materials in relation to their phenolic content and vegetative cycle. J Agric.Food Chem. 7-23-2008;56:5743-5752. View abstract.
  130. Gomez-Coronado, D. J., Ibanez, E., Ruperez, F. J., and Barbas, C. Tocopherol measurement in edible products of vegetable origin. J Chromatogr.A 10-29-2004;1054(1-2):227-233. View abstract.
  131. Andersen, K. E. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors. Contact Dermatitis 1978;4:195-198. View abstract.
  132. Oka, Y., Nacar, S., Putievsky, E., Ravid, U., Yaniv, Z., and Spiegel, Y. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and their components against the root-knot nematode. Phytopathology 2000;90:710-715. View abstract.
  133. Orhan, I., Kartal, M., Kan, Y., and Sener, B. Activity of essential oils and individual components against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase. Z.Naturforsch.C. 2008;63(7-8):547-553. View abstract.
  134. Poon, T. S. and Freeman, S. Cheilitis caused by contact allergy to anethole in spearmint flavoured toothpaste. Australas.J Dermatol. 2006;47:300-301. View abstract.
  135. Soliman, K. M. and Badeaa, R. I. Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food Chem.Toxicol 2002;40:1669-1675. View abstract.
  136. Niture, S. K., Rao, U. S., and Srivenugopal, K. S. Chemopreventative strategies targeting the MGMT repair protein: augmented expression in human lymphocytes and tumor cells by ethanolic and aqueous extracts of several Indian medicinal plants. Int J Oncol. 2006;29:1269-1278. View abstract.
  137. Kim, S. I., Yi, J. H., Tak, J. H., and Ahn, Y. J. Acaricidal activity of plant essential oils against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Vet.Parasitol. 4-15-2004;120:297-304. View abstract.
  138. Vejdani R, Shalmani HR, Mir-Fattahi M, et al. The efficacy of an herbal medicine, Carmint, on the relief of abdominal pain and bloating in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Aug;51:1501-7. View abstract.
  139. Liston BW, Nines R, Carlton PS, et al. Perillyl alcohol as a chemopreventive agent in N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced rat esophageal tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 2003;63:2399-403. View abstract.
  140. Akdogan M, Ozguner M, Kocak A, et al. Effects of peppermint teas on plasma testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels and testicular tissue in rats. Urology 2004;64:394-8. View abstract.
  141. Akdogan M, Ozguner M, Aydin G, Gokalp O. Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita Labiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 2004;23:21-8. View abstract.
  142. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid= 786bafc6f6343634fbf79fcdca7061e1&rgn=div5&view= text&node=21:
  143. McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, eds. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, LLC 1997.
  144. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
  145. Newall CA, Anderson LA, Philpson JD. Herbal Medicine: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals. London, UK: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996.
  146. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994.
  147. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
  148. Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK: European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.
Last reviewed - 12/30/2015