What is it?
Some people take stevia by mouth for conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, heartburn, and many others, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
Extracts from the stevia leaves are available as sweeteners in many countries. In the US, stevia leaves and extracts are not approved for use as sweeteners, but they can be used as a "dietary supplement" or in skin care products. In December 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status to rebaudioside A, one of the chemicals in stevia, to be used as a food additive sweetener.
How effective is it?
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.
The effectiveness ratings for STEVIA are as follows:
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...
- Diabetes. Some early research suggests that taking 1000 mg daily of stevia leaf extract might reduce blood sugar levels after eating by a small amount in people with type 2 diabetes. But other research shows that taking 250 mg of stevioside, a chemical found in stevia, three times daily does not decrease blood sugar after three months of treatment.
- High blood pressure. How stevia might affect blood pressure is unclear. Some research suggests that taking 750-1500 mg of stevioside, a chemical compound in stevia, daily reduces systolic blood pressure (the upper number in a blood pressure reading) by 10-14 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (the lower number) by 6-14 mmHg. However, other research suggests that taking stevioside does not reduce blood pressure.
- Heart problems.
- Weight loss.
- Water retention.
- Other conditions.
How does it work?
Are there safety concerns?
Some people who take stevia or stevioside can experience bloating or nausea. Other people have reported feelings of dizziness, muscle pain, and numbness.
Special precautions & warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if it is safe to take stevia when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Allergy to ragweed and related plants: Stevia is in the Asteraceae/Compositae plant family. This family includes ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, daisies, and many other plants. In theory, people who are sensitive to ragweed and related plants may also be sensitive to stevia.
Diabetes: Some developing research suggests that some of the chemicals contained in stevia might lower blood sugar levels and could interfere with blood sugar control. However, other research disagrees. If you have diabetes and take stevia or any of the sweeteners it contains, monitor your blood sugar closely and report your findings to your healthcare provider.
Low blood pressure: There is some evidence, though not conclusive, that some of the chemicals in stevia can lower blood pressure. There is a concern that these chemicals might cause blood pressure to drop too low in people who have low blood pressure. Get your healthcare provider's advice before taking stevia or the sweeteners it contains, if you have low blood pressure.
Are there interactions with medications?
- Stevia might have an effect like a water pill or "diuretic." Taking stevia might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. In theory, this could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.
- Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
- Some research shows that stevia might decrease blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. In theory, stevia might cause an interaction with diabetes medications resulting in blood sugar levels going too low; however, not all research has found that stevia lowers blood sugar. Therefore, it is not clear if this potential interaction is a big concern. Until more is known, monitor your blood sugar closely if you take stevia. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
- Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
- Some research shows that stevia might decrease blood pressure. In theory, taking stevia along with medications used for lowering high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low. However, some research shows that stevia does not affect blood pressure. Therefore, it's not known if this potential interaction is a big concern.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?
- Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressure
- Stevia might lower blood pressure. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that have this same effect might increase the risk of blood pressure dropping too low in some people. Some of these products include andrographis, casein peptides, cat's claw, coenzyme Q-10, fish oil, L-arginine, lycium, stinging nettle, theanine, and others.
- Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar
- Stevia might lower blood sugar. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that have the same effect might cause blood sugar to drop too low in some people. Some of these products include alpha-lipoic acid, bitter melon, chromium, devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut seed, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.
Are there interactions with foods?
- There are no known interactions with foods.
What dose is used?
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.
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