Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. The copied material, which has the same genetic makeup as the original, is referred to as a clone. The most famous clone was a Scottish sheep named Dolly.
There are three different types of cloning:
- Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or segments of DNA
- Reproductive cloning, which creates copies of whole animals
- Therapeutic cloning, which creates embryonic stem cells. Researchers hope to use these cells to grow healthy tissue to replace injured or diseased tissues in the human body.
NIH: National Human Genome Research Institute
- Animal Cloning and Food Safety (Food and Drug Administration)
- Cloning (National Human Genome Research Institute) Also in Spanish
- Myths about Cloning (Food and Drug Administration)
- Statement on Human Cloning (American Association for the Advancement of Science)
- What is Cloning? (Genetic Science Learning Center)
- Why Clone? (Genetic Science Learning Center)
Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Genetic and substrate-level modulation of Bacillus subtilis physiology for enhanced...
- Article: Molecular cloning and anti-invasive activity of cathepsin L propeptide-like protein...
- Article: Optimizing secretory expression of recombinant human interferon gamma from Kluyveromyces...
- Cloning -- see more articles